List of Choctaw chiefs

List of Choctaw chiefs is a record of the political leaders who served the Choctaws in Alabama, Louisiana, Mississippi, and Oklahoma.

Phillip martin
Phillip Martin (1926–2010), Principal Chief of the Mississippi Band of Choctaw Indians

Original three divisions

The eastern Choctaw Nation, in what is now Mississippi and Alabama, was divided into three regions: Okla Hannali, Okla Falaya, and Okla Tannip.

Okla Hannali (Six Towns)

  • Pushmataha
  • Oklahoma or Tapenahomma (Nephew of Pushmataha)
  • General Hummingbird
  • Nitakechi
  • Sam Garland

Okla Falaya

Okla Tannip

District Chiefs in the New Indian Territory

After removal, the Choctaws set up their government also divided up in three regions: Apukshunnubbee, Mushulatubbee, and Pushmataha. The regions were named after the three influential Choctaw leaders of the "old country."

Moshulatubbee District

Mosholatubbee
Moshulatubbee (1770–ca. 1836)
  • Mushulatubbee, 1834–1836
  • Joseph Kincaid, 1836–1838
  • John McKinney, 1838–1842
  • Nathaniel Folsom, 1842–1846
  • Peter Folsom, 1846–1850
  • Cornelius McCurtain, 1850–1854
  • David McCoy, 1854–1857
  • Leon Blythe Cantrell, 1907-1963

Apukshunnubbee District

  • Thomas LeFlore, 1834-1838
  • James Fletcher, 1838-1842
  • Thomas LeFlore, 1842-1850
  • George W. Harkins, 1850–1857

Pushmataha District

  • Nitakechi, 1834-1838
  • Pierre Juzan, 1838-1841
  • Isaac Folsom, 1841-1846
  • Nitakechi, Died
  • Salas Fisher, 1846-1854
  • George Folsom, 1850-1854
  • Nicholas Cochnauer, 1854-1857

Unified leadership as governor

  • Alfred Wade, 1857-1858
  • Tandy Walker, 1858-1859
  • Brazil LeFlore, 1859-present

Principal Chiefs

Greenwood mccurtain
Green McCurtain (1848–1910)
  • George Hudson, 1860-1862
  • Samuel Garland, 1862-1864
  • Peter Pitchlynn, 1864-1866
  • Allen Wright, 1866-1870
  • William Bryant, 1870-1874
  • Coleman Cole, 1874-1878
  • Isaac Garvin, 1878-1880
  • Jack McCurtain, 1880-1884
  • Edmund McCurtain, 1884-1886
  • Thompson McKinney, 1886-1888
  • Benjamin Franklin Smallwood, 1888-1890
  • Wilson Jones, 1890-1894
  • Jefferson Gardner, 1894-1896
  • Green McCurtain, 1896-1900
  • Gilbert Dukes, 1900-1902

The Choctaw Nation was temporarily discontinued in 1906 with the advent of Oklahoma statehood.

Choctaw Nation "token" government

Chiefs were appointed by the U.S. President after dissolution of the Choctaw nation.

  • Green McCurtain, 1902-1910, appointed by President
  • Victor Locke, Jr., 1910-1918, appointed by President Howard Taft
  • William F. Semple, 1918-1922, appointed by President Woodrow Wilson [1]
  • William H. Harrison, 1922-1929, appointed by President Warren G. Harding
  • Ben Dwight, 1930-1936, appointed by President Herbert Hoover
  • William Durant, 1937-1948, appointed by President Franklin Delano Roosevelt
  • Harry J. W. Belvin, 1959-1970, appointed by President (Choctaw were allowed to elect their delegate in 1948 and 1954 which the president confirmed.)

Current tribes

Indian termination policy was a policy that the United States Congress legislated in 1953 to assimilate the Native American communities with mainstream America. In 1959, the Choctaw Termination Act was passed.[2] Unless repealed by the federal government, the Choctaw Nation of Oklahoma would effectively be terminated as a sovereign nation as of August 25, 1970.[2]

After a long struggle for recognition, the Mississippi Choctaw received recognition in 1918. The Mississippi Choctaw soon received lands, educational benefits, and a long overdue health care system.

In 1945, lands in Neshoba County, Mississippi and the surrounding counties were set aside as a federal Indian reservation. There are eight communities of reservation land: Bogue Chitto, Bogue Homa, Conehatta, Crystal Ridge, Pearl River, Red Water, Tucker, and Standing Pine. The Indian Reorganization Act of 1934 allowed the Mississippi Choctaws to become re-organized on April 20, 1945 as the Mississippi Band of Choctaw Indians.

Choctaw Nation of Oklahoma

Mississippi Band of Choctaw Indians

Jena Band of Choctaw Indians

  • Christina M. Norris, present[4]

Notes

  1. ^ https://www.choctawnation.com/history-culture/people/chiefs
  2. ^ a b "U.S. House of Representatives Resolution 108, 83rd Congress, 1953. (U.S. Statutes at Large, 67: B132.)". Digital History. Archived from the original on 2007-06-08. Retrieved 2008-05-02.
  3. ^ Meyers, Debbie Burt. "Anderson unseats Denson." The Neshoba Democrat. 7 Sept 2011 (retrieved 24 Sept 2011)
  4. ^ "Tribal Governments by Area: Southeast." Archived 2010-09-26 at the Wayback Machine National Congress of American Indians. (retrieved 7 Sept 2010)

External links

Apuckshunubbee

Apuckshunubbee (c. 1740 – October 18, 1824) was one of three principal chiefs of the Choctaw Native American tribe in the early nineteenth century, from before 1800. He led the western or Okla Falaya ("Long People") District of the Choctaw, of which the eastern edge ran roughly southeast from modern Winston County to Lauderdale County, then roughly southwest to Scott County, then roughly south-southeast to the western edge of Perry County. His contemporaries were Pushmataha and Moshulatubbee, who respectively led the southern district Okla Hannali ("Six Towns People") and the north-eastern district Okla Tannap ("People on the Other Side").

During the early 1800s, Apuckshunubbee and the other two division chiefs signed several treaties with the United States, ceding land to settlers in the hope of ending their encroachment on Choctaw territory. On his way to Washington, DC in 1824 with the other two division chiefs and a Choctaw delegation to meet with US officials, Apuckshunubbee suffered a fall and died. His name was also spelled as Apvkshvnvbbee, Apυkshυnυbbee, Puckshenubbee, Pukshunnubbu, and Pukshunnubbee.

Mushulatubbee

Mushulatubbee (Choctaw AmoshuliTabi, "Determined to Kill") (born c. 1750–1770, died c. 1838) was the chief of the Choctaw Okla Tannap ("Lower Towns"), one of the three major Choctaw divisions during the early 19th century. When the Principal Chief Greenwood LeFlore stayed in Mississippi at the time of removal, Mushulatubbee was elected as principal chief, leading the tribe to Indian Territory.

In 1812 he had led his warriors to assist General Andrew Jackson in the war against the Creek Red Sticks, known as the Creek Wars.

In December 1824 Mushulatubbee was one of three principal chiefs leading a Choctaw delegation to Washington to seek help against encroaching European-American settlers. Pushmataha and Apuckshunubbee were the other chiefs; Apuckshunubbee, age 80, died before they reached Washington, and Pushmataha died of illness in the capital soon after their meeting with the government.

On 26 September 1830, together with the Principal Chief Greenwood LeFlore and others, Mushulatubbee signed the Treaty of Dancing Rabbit Creek, which ceded to the US government most of the remaining Choctaw territory in Mississippi and Alabama in exchange for territory in Indian Territory. Other spellings for his name include: Mosholetvbbi, AmoshuliTvbi, Musholatubbee, Moshaleh Tubbee, and Mushulatubba.

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