Canada has adopted the NTSC and ATSC television transmission standards without any alterations. However, some unique local variations exist for DTH television because of transponder design variation in the Anik series of satellites. Television in Canada has many individual stations and networks and systems.
All of the networks listed below operate a number of terrestrial TV stations. In addition, several of these networks are also aired on cable and satellite services.
|Founded||Type of network||Number of owned
and operated stations
|City||1972**||Commercial||6 OTA + 1 cable only||3|
|CTV 2||2005||Commercial||7 OTA + 2 cable only||3|
|Yes TV||1998||Christian religious||3||None|
|founded||Type of network||Number of owned
and operated stations
|Founded||Type of network||Language||Number of owned
and operated stations
|Founded||Type of system||Language||Number of owned
and operated stations
|APTN||1992||Commercial, multicultural||Aboriginal, English, French||2||0|
|Omni Television||1979***||Commercial, multicultural||Multilingual||5||None|
|A-Channel (merged into Citytv)|
* Although the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation was founded in 1932, it did not begin television transmissions until 1952.
Category A services were a class of Canadian specialty television channel which, as defined by the Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission, must be offered by all digital cable and direct broadcast satellite providers that have the capability to do so.
Category A services were an amalgamation of the former analog pay and specialty services licensed prior to digital television (with the exception of general interest national news and sports specialty services which are designated as Category C services) and the former category 1 digital specialty channels. In a policy decision released on October 30, 2008, the CRTC decided that all Category 1 digital services as well as all analog pay and specialty channels would be renamed Category A services, effective September 1, 2011.Category A services share a number of similar regulations, including that they must be offered by all television providers in Canada, and have higher Canadian content quota levels than Category B services. They were also previously protected by "genre protection" rules forbidding other specialty channels from directly competing with them, but the CRTC is in the process of phasing out these policies in favour of switching all specialty services to standardized licenses as discretionary services.Category B services
A Category B service is the former term for a Canadian discretionary specialty television channel which, as defined by the Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission, may be carried by all subscription television providers. Such services were called Category 2 until September 1, 2011.Unlike Category A services, Category B services are not protected as to format. They are licensed to broadcast within defined formats which are not provided by or overly close to an existing protected channel, but their formats are not protected themselves and need not protect other Category B services. Also unlike Category A services, a Category B service does not have guaranteed cable carriage rights, but must directly negotiate carriage with cable distributors. Category B services encompass both pay television and specialty channels.
In December 2012, the CRTC exempted from formal licensing services with less than 200,000 subscribers that would otherwise meet the definition of a Category B service, and services which air 90% of their programming in a language other than English, French, or languages of aboriginal peoples in Canada.Henceforth, most Canadian specialty channels (except for national news and mainstream sports channels, which are classified as Category C services) will be licensed as Category B services.Category C services
A Category C service is the former term for a Canadian discretionary specialty channel which, as defined by the Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission, provides programming in genres that are subject to different standard conditions of licences from those of other discretionary services. As of 2011, this category applies to all national news and mainstream sports broadcasters.
Under previous policies, these services were intentionally unprotected from competition by other Category B services of the same genre, but are still "protected" from competition by other discretionary services. In other words, if someone wants to launch a competing service, they must do so by committing to the same obligations, including common requirements for the exhibition and funding of Canadian-produced programming, as others. Discretionary services, by contrast, may not devote more than 10% of their monthly programming to live professional sports.Mainstream news channels are subject to a form of must carry rules; they must be offered on a packaged or standalone basis, but not necessarily on the lowest tier of service, by all digital television providers. Category C sports services are not subject to must-carry rules; distributors must negotiate directly with their operators for carriage.Digital television in Canada
Digital terrestrial television in Canada (often shortened to DTT) is transmitted using the ATSC standard. Because Canada and the U.S. use the same standard and frequencies for channels, people near the Canada–United States border can watch digital television programming from television stations in either country where available. The ATSC standards are also used in Mexico, the Dominican Republic, Suriname and South Korea.
Jurisdiction over terrestrial broadcasting in Canada is primarily regulated by Innovation, Science and Economic Development Canada and the Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission (CRTC). Innovation, Science and Economic Development Canada has jurisdiction over the allotment of the terrestrial spectrum and the CRTC has jurisdiction over the allotment of broadcast licences.
The CRTC imposed in 28 mandatory markets a digital transition deadline for full power transmitters of August 31, 2011, with the exception of some CBC transmitters. Two weeks before the deadline, the CBC transmitters were given a temporary one-year extension to remain in analogue. No digital transition deadline has been set for low-power analogue transmitters and analogue transmitters outside the 28 mandatory markets.
In January 2007, Innovation, Science and Economic Development Canada stopped issuing licences within Canada for new television transmitters broadcasting in analogue.All remaining analogue terrestrial television signals across Canada are scheduled to be shut down no later than 2022.Discretionary service
A discretionary service is a Canadian specialty channel which, as defined by the Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission, may be carried optionally by all subscription television providers. It replaces the previous category A, category B, category C, and premium classifications.Discretionary services may air programming from any of the CRTC's defined categories, although no more than 10% of programming per-month may be devoted to live professional sports. Discretionary services may offer multiplex channels with CRTC permission.List of Canadian television channels
Television in Canada has many individual stations and networks and systems.List of Canadian television stations
This page lists the table of every television station in Canada by call sign. For the list of television networks in Canada, see the List of Canadian television networks (table).
Under the current digital television transition, television stations in Mandatory Markets, in Canada are launching digital transmissions by August 31, 2011. On August 18, 2011, the CRTC issued a decision that allows CBC's mandatory market rebroadcasting transmitters in analog remain on-air until August 31, 2012. Where known, a digital channel assignment is noted below. Digital channels listed on a green background have already been launched, while those listed on a red background have not yet commenced operations. In some cases, the digital channels have been allocated but the stations have not applied to use them; as there is no requirement that Canadian stations begin digital broadcasts before the end-August 2011 analogue shutdown, it is currently unknown whether some broadcasters will ask to flash-cut on their existing frequencies or to continue on their assigned digital channel.List of Canadian television stations available in the United States
This page lists all of the stations in Canada that are viewable in parts of the United States.List of United States stations available in Canada
This page lists all of the local over-the-air television stations in the United States that are carried in Canada via cable/digital cable or satellite. This list also includes stations that were formerly carried, but have since been dropped.
The stations are organized by market, starting in the east (Maine) and ending in the west (California). Not all stations are available in all areas. A station that has the word "bumped" next to it means that the station has been replaced by one of the stations from the CANCOM services, most likely either a Buffalo or Detroit local station in the east, or a Spokane or Seattle local station in the west.List of defunct Canadian television stations
This is a list of defunct Canadian television stations.List of foreign television channels available in Canada
This is a list of foreign television channels available in Canada. The Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission (CRTC) regulates which television channels are allowed to air in Canada. Although the vast majority of television channels available in Canada are Canadian-owned and operated, the CRTC allows certain foreign-owned channels to be broadcast in Canada.
In order for a non-Canadian station/channel to broadcast in Canada it must first listed by the CRTC on the listed as authorized on the List of non-Canadian programming services authorized for distribution. Cable and satellite companies are only allowed to carry the foreign services that are contained in the list. Also, not every channel on the list is currently carried by BDU's, it is up to their discretion to decide what channels they are interested in offering to consumers.
On June 30, 2011, the CRTC introduced new policy whereby the 'lists of eligible satellite services' would be consolidated into one list to be known as the 'List of non-Canadian programming services authorized for distribution'List of television networks by country
This is a list of television networks by country.List of television stations in North America by media market
These links go to individual lists of television stations by the markets in which they are located.Multichannel television in Canada
Canada is served by various multichannel television services, including cable television systems, two direct-broadcast satellite providers, and various other wireline IPTV and wireless MMDS video providers.
Canadian multichannel television providers are legally referred to as broadcast distribution undertakings (BDUs). They must be licensed by the Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission (CRTC) and comply with its policies, including those on the packaging of their services. Additionally, the CRTC licenses specialty channels; licensing was previously mandatory for all services, and restrictions were placed on their content in order to discourage direct competition in certain categories. The CRTC began to phase out these policies by the 2010s, and in 2012, it began exempting networks with less than 200,000 subscribers, as well as certain ethnic services not broadcasting in Canada's official or indigenous languages, from formal licensing. As per its New Media exemption order, the CRTC does not regulate internet television or video content delivered over the public internet, such as over-the-top subscription services.
Some of the CRTC's policies in regard to multichannel television are intended to protect and encourage the production of Canadian content, and prevent foreign broadcasters from unduly harming domestic outlets. U.S. and international channels can be authorized for distribution in Canada if they are deemed to not be unduly competitive to Canadian outlets (although their programming may be affected by differing broadcast rights). Affiliates of the U.S. ABC, CBS, Fox, NBC, and PBS networks are also readily available in Canada, but their programming is subject to a CRTC rule known as simultaneous substitution (or simsub), which gives Canadian broadcast stations within a viewer's market the right to require that U.S. feeds of programs be substituted by BDUs with their own if they are broadcasting the same program in simulcast. This rule serves to protect Canadian advertising revenue.
The majority of Canada's multichannel television industry is dominated by vertically integrated companies and their respective services, including Bell Canada's Bell TV satellite and fibreoptic Fibe TV IPTV services, Rogers Communications' cable systems (primarily in Ontario and Atlantic Canada), Shaw Communications' cable systems (primarily in Western Canada; the Shaw family also owns Corus Entertainment, a major operator of Canadian specialty channels), and Vidéotron (which operates mainly in its home province of Quebec, and is owned by local conglomerate Quebecor).