The Victoria Cross (VC) is the highest award of the United Kingdom honours system. It is awarded for gallantry "in the face of the enemy" to members of the British armed forces. It may be awarded posthumously. It was previously awarded to Commonwealth countries, most of which have established their own honours systems and no longer recommend British honours. It may be awarded to a person of any military rank in any service and to civilians under military command although no civilian has received the award since 1879. Since the first awards were presented by Queen Victoria in 1857, two thirds of all awards have been personally presented by the British monarch. These investitures are usually held at Buckingham Palace.
Established in 1856, the Victoria Cross has been awarded to service personnel for extraordinary valour and devotion to duty while facing a hostile force. Between 1858 and 1881 the Victoria Cross could also be awarded for actions taken "under circumstances of extreme danger" not in the face of the enemy. Six people were awarded Victoria Crosses under this clause – one Irish man in 1866 for actions taken during the Fenian raids; five (a Canadian, three Irish and an English man) for a single incident in 1867 during the Andaman Islands Expedition. In 1881, VC regulations were amended to only allow acts "in the presence of the enemy".
Since 1993, Canadians have no longer been eligible for the Victoria Cross: that medal has been superseded by the Canadian Victoria Cross – of equal honour, but yet to be awarded. The scroll of the Canadian medal differs in that the inscription is in Latin rather than English; by using a language that is an ancestor of French and has greatly contributed to the development of English, the medal avoids linguistic discrimination between Canada's two official languages. The fleur-de-lis, in heraldry long associated with the French crown has been added at the end each scroll. The actual metal of the medal is a distinct Canadian composition.
The Victoria Cross has been presented to 96 Canadians, or people closely associated with Canada, between its creation for acts performed during the Crimean War and 1993 when the Canadian Victoria Cross was instituted. No Canadian has received either honour since 1945.
The first Canadian to be awarded the Victoria Cross was Alexander Roberts Dunn for his actions at the Battle of Balaclava during the Crimean War in 1854. William Hall, a Nova Scotian, was the first black recipient of the Victoria Cross. The last living Canadian recipient of the British Victoria Cross, "Smokey" Smith, died in August 2005.
Seventy-three Victoria Crosses were awarded to Canadians for their actions in the First World War, and Canadians won sixteen VCs during the Second World War. The remaining recipients were awarded the medal for actions performed in the Crimean War (Battle of Balaclava), the Indian Mutiny (the Indian Rebellion of 1857), a native uprising at a remote Indian Ocean island during the Andaman Islands Expedition, the Battle of Omdurman during the Sudan Campaign of 1896-99, and the Second Boer War.
Timothy O'Hea, a 23-year-old Irishman in the British army, fought a fire in a railway car containing 900 kilograms of ammunition stationed at Danville, Quebec during the Fenian raids. O'Hea is the only VC recipient awarded for actions on Canadian soil.
Seven Canadians were awarded VCs individually on one single day, 2 September 1918, for actions they performed along the 30 km long Drocourt-Quéant Line near Arras, France: Bellenden Hutcheson, Arthur George Knight, William Henry Metcalf, Claude Nunney, Cyrus Wesley Peck, Walter Leigh Rayfield and John Francis Young. Their acts of exceptional valour were performed during Canada's Hundred Days of successful offensive campaigning that helped end the war.
(This list is arranged alphabetically when first opened but the order can be changed to other criteria such as date of valourous action, by clicking in box at top of each column.)
This along with the *, indicates that the Victoria Cross was awarded posthumously
|Name||Date of action||Conflict||Unit||Perpetuating Unit||Place of action||Province of origin||Notes|
|Wallace Algie||1918*||First World War||20th Battalion, CEF||The Queen's York Rangers (1st American Regiment) (RCAC)||Cambrai, France||Ontario|
|William Barker||1918||First World War||No. 201 Squadron RAF||None||Forêt de Mormal, France||Manitoba|
|Colin Barron||1917||First World War||3rd Battalion, CEF||Royal Regiment of Canada||Passchendaele, Belgium||Ontario|
|Ian Bazalgette||1944*||Second World War||No. 115 Squadron RAF||No. 115 Squadron RAF||Trossy St. Maximin, France||Alberta|
|Edward Bellew||1915||First World War||7th Battalion, CEF||British Columbia Regiment (Duke of Connaught's Own)||Kerselaere, Belgium||British Columbia|
|Philip Bent||1917*||First World War||Leicestershire Regiment||B Company, Second Battalion, Royal Anglian Regiment||Polygon Wood, Belgium||Nova Scotia|
|William Bishop||1917||First World War||No. 60 Squadron RAF||No. 60 Squadron RAF||Cambrai, France||Ontario|
|Rowland Bourke||1918||First World War||Royal Naval Volunteer Reserve||Royal Naval Volunteer Reserve||Ostend, Belgium||British Columbia|
|Alexander Brereton||1918||First World War||8th Battalion, CEF||Royal Winnipeg Rifles||Amiens, France||Manitoba|
|Jean Brillant||1918*||First World War||22nd Battalion, CEF||Royal 22nd Regiment||Meharicourt, France||Quebec|
|Harry Brown||1917*||First World War||10th Battalion, CEF||Royal Winnipeg Rifles and Calgary Highlanders||Loos, France||Ontario|
|Hugh Cairns||1918*||First World War[note 1]||46th Battalion, CEF||Saskatchewan Dragoons||Valenciennes, France||Saskatchewan|
|Frederick Campbell||1915*||First World War||1st Battalion, CEF||Royal Canadian Regiment||Givenchy, France||Ontario|
|William Clark-Kennedy||1918||First World War||24th Battalion, CEF||Victoria Rifles of Canada||Fresnes, France||Quebec|
|Leo Clarke||1916*||First World War||2nd Battalion, CEF||Governor General's Foot Guards||Pozières, France||Manitoba||[note 2]|
|Hampden Cockburn||1900||Second Boer War||Royal Canadian Dragoons||Royal Canadian Dragoons||Komati River, South Africa||Ontario|
|Robert Combe||1917*||First World War||27th Battalion, CEF||Royal Winnipeg Rifles||Acheville, France||Saskatchewan|
|Frederick Coppins||1918||First World War||8th Battalion, CEF||Royal Winnipeg Rifles||Hackett Woods, France||Manitoba|
|Aubrey Cosens||1945*||Second World War||Queen's Own Rifles of Canada||Queen's Own Rifles of Canada||Mooshof, Germany||Ontario|
|John Croak||1918*||First World War||13th Battalion (Royal Highlanders of Canada), CEF||Black Watch (Royal Highland Regiment) of Canada||Amiens, France||Nova Scotia||.[note 3]|
|Robert Cruickshank||1918||First World War||London Regiment||London Regiment||Jordan, Palestine||Manitoba||[note 4]|
|David Currie||1944||Second World War||29th Armoured Reconnaissance Regiment (South Alberta Regiment)||South Alberta Light Horse||Battle of Falaise, France||Saskatchewan|
|Raymond de Montmorency||1898||Battle of Omdurman, Sudan Campaign||21st Lancers||17th/21st Lancers||Omdurman, Sudan||Quebec||[note 5]|
|Edmund De Wind||1918*||First World War||Royal Irish Rifles||Royal Irish Regiment (1992)||Groagie, France||Alberta||[note 6]|
|Thomas Dinesen||1918||First World War||42nd Battalion, CEF||Black Watch (Royal Highland Regiment) of Canada||Parvillers, France||n/a||[note 7]|
|Campbell Douglas||1867||Bravery at Sea, Andaman Islands Expedition||24th Regiment of Foot||South Wales Borderers||Little Andaman, India||Ontario||[note 8]|
|Alexander Dunn||1854||Battle of Balaclava, Crimean War||33rd Regiment of Foot||Yorkshire Regiment||Balaclava, Crimea||Ontario||[note 4]|
|Frederick Fisher||1915*||First World War||13th Battalion (Royal Highlanders of Canada), CEF||Black Watch (Royal Highland Regiment) of Canada||St. Julien, Belgium||Ontario|
|Gordon Flowerdew||1918*||First World War||Lord Strathcona's Horse (Royal Canadians)||Lord Strathcona's Horse (Royal Canadians)||Bois de Moreuil, France||British Columbia|
|John Foote||1942||Second World War||1st Battalion, The Royal Hamilton Light Infantry||Royal Hamilton Light Infantry (Wentworth Regiment)||Dieppe, France||Ontario|
|Herman Good||1918||First World War||13th Battalion (Royal Highlanders of Canada), CEF||Black Watch (Royal Highland Regiment) of Canada||Hangard Wood, France||New Brunswick|
|Robert Gray||1945*||Second World War||Fleet Air Arm||Fleet Air Arm||Honshū, Japan||British Columbia||[note 10]|
|Milton Gregg||1918||First World War||Royal Canadian Regiment||Royal Canadian Regiment||Cambrai, France||New Brunswick|
|Frederick Hall||1915*||First World War||8th Battalion (90th Winnipeg Rifles), CEF||Royal Winnipeg Rifles||Ypres, Belgium||Manitoba||[note 2]|
|William Hall||1857||Indian rebellion of 1857||HMS Shannon||none||Lucknow, India||Nova Scotia|
|Robert Hanna||1917||First World War||29th Battalion, CEF||British Columbia Regiment (Duke of Connaught's Own)||Lens, France||British Columbia|
|Frederick Harvey||1917||First World War||Lord Strathcona's Horse (Royal Canadians)||Lord Strathcona's Horse (Royal Canadians)||Guyencourt, France||Alberta|
|Frederick Hobson||1917*||First World War||20th Battalion, CEF||Queen's York Rangers (1st American Regiment) (RCAC)||Lens, France||Ontario|
|Charles Hoey||1944||Second World War||Royal Lincolnshire Regiment||Royal Anglian Regiment||Ngakyedauk Pass, Burma (now Myanmar)||British Columbia|
|Edward Holland||1900||Second Boer War||Royal Canadian Dragoons||Royal Canadian Dragoons||Komati River, South Africa||Ontario|
|Thomas Holmes||1917||First World War||4th Canadian Mounted Rifles Battalion, CEF||Governor General's Horse Guards||Passchendaele, Belgium||Ontario|
|Samuel Honey||1918*||First World War||78th Battalion, CEF||Winnipeg Grenadiers||Bourlon Wood, France||Ontario|
|David Hornell||1944*||Second World War||No. 162 Squadron RCAF||Faroes, Atlantic||Ontario|
|Bellenden Hutcheson||1918||First World War||75th Battalion, CEF||Toronto Scottish Regiment (Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother's Own)||Arras, France||Ontario||[note 11]|
|Joseph Kaeble||1918*||First World War||22nd Battalion, CEF||Royal 22e Régiment||Neuville-Vitasse, France||Quebec|
|George Kerr||1918||First World War||3rd Battalion, CEF||Queen's Own Rifles of Canada and Royal Regiment of Canada||Bourlon Wood, France||Ontario|
|John Kerr||1916||First World War||49th Battalion, CEF||Loyal Edmonton Regiment (4th Battalion, Princess Patricia's Canadian Light Infantry)||Courcelette, France||Nova Scotia Alberta[note 12]|
|Cecil Kinross||1917||First World War||49th Battalion, CEF||Loyal Edmonton Regiment (4th Battalion, Princess Patricia's Canadian Light Infantry)||Passchendaele, Belgium||Alberta|
|Arthur Knight||1918*||First World War||10th Battalion, CEF||Royal Winnipeg Rifles and Calgary Highlanders||Villers-les-Cagnicourt, France||Saskatchewan|
|Filip Konowal||1917||First World War||47th Battalion, CEF||Royal Westminster Regiment||Lens, France||n/a||[note 13]|
|Okill Learmonth||1917*||First World War||2nd Battalion, CEF||Governor General's Foot Guards||Loos, France||Quebec|
|Graham Lyall||1918||First World War||102nd Battalion, CEF||British Columbia Regiment (Duke of Connaught's Own)||Cambrai, France||Ontario|
|Thain MacDowell||1917||First World War||38th Battalion, CEF||Cameron Highlanders of Ottawa (Duke of Edinburgh's Own)||Vimy Ridge, France||Ontario|
|John MacGregor||1918||First World War||2nd Canadian Mounted Rifles Battalion, CEF||British Columbia Dragoons||Cambrai, France||British Columbia|
|John Mahony||1944||Second World War||Westminster Regiment (Motor)||Royal Westminster Regiment||River Melfa, Italy||British Columbia|
|George McKean||1918||First World War||14th Battalion, CEF||Royal Montreal Regiment||Gavrelle Sector, France||Alberta|
|Hugh McKenzie||1917*||First World War||Canadian Machine Gun Corps||Royal Canadian Armoured Corps||Meetscheele Spur, Belgium||Ontario Alberta||[note 14]|
|Alan McLeod||1918*||First World War||No. 2 Squadron RFC||No. 2 Squadron RAF||Albert, France||Manitoba|
|William Merrifield||1918||First World War||4th Battalion, CEF||56th Field Artillery Regiment, RCA, Royal Hamilton Light Infantry (Wentworth Regiment)||Abancourt, France||Ontario|
|Charles Merritt||1942||Second World War||South Saskatchewan Regiment||South Saskatchewan Regiment||Dieppe, France||British Columbia|
|William Metcalf||1918||First World War||16th Battalion (Canadian Scottish), CEF||Canadian Scottish Regiment||Arras, France||n/a||[note 11]|
|William Milne||1917*||First World War||16th Battalion (Canadian Scottish), CEF||Canadian Scottish Regiment||Thelus, France||Saskatchewan|
|Harry Miner||1918*||First World War||58th Battalion, CEF||Royal Regiment of Canada||Demuin, France||Ontario|
|Coulson Norman Mitchell||1918||First World War||4th Battalion Canadian Engineers||Canal de L'Escaut, France||Manitoba|
|George Mullin||1917||First World War||Princess Patricia's Canadian Light Infantry||Princess Patricia's Canadian Light Infantry||Passchendaele, Belgium||Saskatchewan||[note 11]|
|Andrew Mynarski||1944*||Second World War||No. 419 Squadron RCAF||419 Tactical Fighter Training Squadron||Cambrai, France||Manitoba|
|William Nickerson||1900||Second Boer War||Royal Army Medical Corps||Wakkerstroom, South Africa||New Brunswick||[note 4]|
|Claude Nunney||1918*||First World War||38th Battalion, CEF||Cameron Highlanders of Ottawa (Duke of Edinburgh's Own)||Drocourt-Queant Line, France||Ontario|
|Christopher O'Kelly||1917||First World War||52nd Battalion, CEF||Lake Superior Scottish Regiment||Passchendaele, Belgium||Manitoba|
|Michael O'Leary||1915||First World War||Irish Guards||Irish Guards||Cuinchy, France||Saskatchewan||[note 15]|
|Michael O'Rourke||1917||First World War||7th Battalion, CEF||British Columbia Regiment (Duke of Connaught's Own)||Hill 70, France||British Columbia|
|John Osborn||1941*||Second World War||Winnipeg Grenadiers||Winnipeg Grenadiers||Mount Butler, Hong Kong||Manitoba|
|John Pattison||1917*||First World War||50th Battalion, CEF||King's Own Calgary Regiment (RCAC)||Vimy Ridge, France||Alberta|
|George Pearkes||1917||First World War||5th Canadian Mounted Rifles Battalion, CEF||Sherbrooke Hussars||Passchendaele, Belgium||Yukon|
|Cyrus Peck||1918||First World War||16th Battalion (Canadian Scottish), CEF||Canadian Scottish Regiment||Cagnicourt, France||New Brunswick|
|Frederick Peters||1942||Second World War||HMS Walney||Oran, Algeria||P.E.I|
|Walter Rayfield||1918||First World War||7th Battalion, CEF||British Columbia Regiment (Duke of Connaught's Own)||Arras, France||Ontario|
|Herbert Reade||1857||Indian rebellion of 1857||61st Regiment of Foot||The Rifles||Delhi, India||Ontario|
|Arthur Richardson||1900||Second Boer War||Strathcona's Horse||Lord Strathcona's Horse (Royal Canadians)||Wolwespruit, South Africa||Saskatchewan [note 16]||[note 17]|
|James Richardson||1916*||First World War||16th Battalion (Canadian Scottish), CEF||Canadian Scottish Regiment||Somme, France||British Columbia|
|James Peter Robertson||1917*||First World War||27th Battalion, CEF||Royal Winnipeg Rifles||Passchendaele, Belgium||Nova Scotia Alberta||[note 18]|
|Charles Rutherford||1918||First World War||5th Canadian Mounted Rifles Battalion, CEF||Sherbrooke Hussars||Monchy, France||Ontario|
|Francis Scrimger||1915||First World War||Canadian Army Medical Corps||St. Julien, Belgium||Quebec|
|Robert Shankland||1917||First World War||43rd Battalion, CEF||Queen's Own Cameron Highlanders of Canada||Passchendaele, Belgium||Manitoba||[note 2]|
|Ellis Sifton||1917*||First World War||18th Battalion, CEF||Essex and Kent Scottish||Neuville-St.-Vaast, France||Ontario|
|John Sinton||1916||First World War||Indian Medical Service||Orah Ruins, Mesopotamia||British Columbia||[note 4]|
|Ernest Smith||1944||Second World War||Seaforth Highlanders of Canada||Seaforth Highlanders of Canada||River Savio, Italy||British Columbia|
|Robert Spall||1918*||First World War||Princess Patricia's Canadian Light Infantry||Princess Patricia's Canadian Light Infantry||Parvillers, France||Manitoba|
|Harcus Strachan||1917||First World War||Fort Garry Horse||Fort Garry Horse||Masnières, France||Manitoba Alberta||[note 19]|
|James Tait||1918*||First World War||78th Battalion, CEF||Winnipeg Grenadiers||Amiens, France||Manitoba|
|Frederick Tilston||1945||Second World War||Essex Scottish Regiment||Essex and Kent Scottish||Hochwald Forest, Germany||Ontario|
|Frederick Topham||1945||Second World War||1st Canadian Parachute Battalion||Rhine, Germany||Ontario|
|Paul Triquet||1943||Second World War||Royal 22e Régiment||Royal 22e Régiment||Casa Berardi, Italy||Quebec|
|Richard Turner||1900||Second Boer War||Royal Canadian Dragoons||Royal Canadian Dragoons||Komati River, South Africa||Quebec|
|Thomas Wilkinson||1916*||First World War||Loyal North Lancashire Regiment||Loyal Regiment (North Lancashire)||La Boiselle, France||British Columbia||[note 20]|
|John Young||1918||First World War||87th Battalion, CEF||Canadian Grenadier Guards||Dury-Arras Sector, France||Quebec|
|Raphael Zengel||1918||First World War||5th Battalion, CEF||North Saskatchewan Regiment||Warvillers, France||Saskatchewan||[note 11]|
Arthur Herbert Lindsay Richardson VC (23 September 1872 – 15 December 1932) was a Canadian recipient of the Victoria Cross, the highest and most prestigious award for gallantry in the face of the enemy that can be awarded to British and Commonwealth forces.Edmund De Wind
Edmund De Wind, (11 December 1883 – 21 March 1918) was a British Army officer during the First World War, and posthumous recipient of the Victoria Cross, the highest and most prestigious award for gallantry in the face of the enemy that can be awarded to British and Commonwealth forces.
Both his native Northern Ireland and his adopted home of Canada count De Wind amongst the men of their militaries who have earned the VCEdward Bellew
Edward Donald Bellew, (28 October 1882 – 1 February 1961, Kamloops, British Columbia), Captain of the 7th Bn British Columbia Regiment, CEF was a Canadian recipient of the Victoria Cross, the highest and most prestigious award for gallantry in the face of the enemy that can be awarded to British and Commonwealth forces.Edward James Gibson Holland
Major Edward James Gibson Holland (2 February 1878, Ottawa – 18 June 1948, Cobalt, Ontario) was a Canadian recipient of the Victoria Cross, the highest and most prestigious award for gallantry in the face of the enemy that can be awarded to British and Commonwealth forces, for actions taken during the Second Boer War in South Africa.Frederick Coppins
Frederick George Coppins (25 October 1889 – 20 March 1963) was a Canadian recipient of the Victoria Cross, the highest and most prestigious award for gallantry in the face of the enemy that can be awarded to British and Commonwealth forces. He was born in England and served with the Royal West Kent Regiment before the First World War. He then emigrated to Canada, settling in Winnipeg.George Burdon McKean
George Burdon McKean (4 July 1888 – 28 November 1926) was an English-Canadian soldier who served in World War I. McKean was a recipient of the Victoria Cross, the highest and most prestigious award for gallantry in the face of the enemy that can be awarded to British and Commonwealth forces.Harcus Strachan
Henry Mareus "Harcus" Strachan (; 7 November 1884 – 1 May 1982) was a Scottish born Canadian recipient of the Victoria Cross, the highest and most prestigious award for valour in the face of the enemy that can be awarded to British and Commonwealth forces.John Chipman Kerr
John Chipman Kerr VC (January 11, 1887 – February 19, 1963), was a Canadian recipient of the Victoria Cross, the highest and most prestigious award for gallantry in the face of the enemy that can be awarded to British and Commonwealth forces.
In 1912, after working as a lumberjack near Kootenay, British Columbia he bought a homestead in Spirit River, Alberta, where he and his brother farmed until war broke out. Immediately they set out for Edmonton, leaving only a single note tacked to the door of their humble shed. It read: "War is Hell, but what is homesteading?"
He was 29 years old, and a private in the 49th (Edmonton) Battalion, Canadian Expeditionary Force during the First World War when the following deed took place for which he was awarded the VC.
On 16 September 1916 at Courcelette, France, during a bombing attack, Private Kerr was acting as bayonet man and noting that bombs were running short, he ran along the parados under heavy fire until he was in close contact with the enemy when he opened fire at point-blank range, inflicting heavy losses. The enemy, thinking that they were surrounded, surrendered - 62 prisoners were taken and 250 yards of enemy trench captured. Earlier, Private Kerr's fingers had been blown off, but he did not have his wound dressed until he and two other men had escorted the prisoners back under fire and reported for duty.His Victoria Cross is displayed at the Canadian War Museum in Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.
Mount Kerr in the Victoria Cross Ranges, in Jasper National Park, Alberta was named in his honour in 1951, and in 2006 Chip Kerr Park in Port Moody, British Columbia, was dedicated.
After the war he returned to farm in Alberta and also worked in the oil patch and as a forest ranger in Alberta.He is a great Uncle of Greg Kerr, MP for West Nova.John Francis Young
John Francis Young (14 January 1893 – 7 November 1929) was a Canadian soldier who served in the First World War. Young was a recipient of the Victoria Cross, the highest award for gallantry in the face of the enemy that can be awarded to British and Commonwealth forces. Young was one of the seven Canadians who were awarded the Victoria Cross for their actions on one single day, 2 September 1918, for actions across the 30 km long Drocourt-Quéant Line near Arras, France. The other six were Bellenden Hutcheson, Arthur George Knight, William Metcalf, Claude Joseph Patrick Nunney, Cyrus Wesley Peck and Walter Leigh Rayfield.John George Pattison
John George Pattison (8 September 1875 – 3 June 1917) was a Canadian soldier. Pattison was a recipient of the Victoria Cross, the highest and most prestigious award for valour in the face of the enemy that can be awarded to British and Commonwealth forces.
Pattison was born in London, England and emigrated to Canada. He and his family (wife and four children) settled in Calgary where he found a job with the Calgary Gas Company. He was killed in fighting the same year he won the VC.List of Companions of the Order of Canada
Companions of the Order of Canada, the highest level of the Order of Canada, have demonstrated the highest degree of merit to Canada and humanity, on the national or international scene. Up to 15 Companions are appointed each year, with a limit of 165 living Companions at any given time. Companions are entitled to use the post-nominal "C.C.". As of December 1, 2016, there were 142 living Companions (including three honorary). This list shows all of the Companions, in alphabetical order, both living and deceased.Military history of Canada during World War I
The military history of Canada during World War I
began on August 4, 1914, when the United Kingdom entered the First World War (1914–1918) by declaring war on Germany. The British declaration of war automatically brought Canada into the war, because of Canada's legal status as a British dominion which left foreign policy decisions in the hands of the British parliament. However, the Canadian government had the freedom to determine the country's level of involvement in the war. On August 4, 1914, the Governor General declared a war between Canada and Germany. The Militia was not mobilized and instead an independent Canadian Expeditionary Force was raised.Canada's sacrifices and contributions to the Great War changed its history and enabled it to become more independent, while also opening a deep rift between the French and English speaking populations. For the first time in Canadian military history, Canadian forces fought as a distinct unit, first under a British commander but ultimately under a Canadian-born commander. The highpoints of Canadian military achievement during the Great War came during the Somme, Vimy, and Passchendaele battles and what later became known as "Canada's Hundred Days". Canada's total casualties stood at the end of the war at 67,000 killed and 173,000 wounded, out of an expeditionary force of 620,000 people mobilized (39% of mobilized were casualties).Canadians of British descent—the majority—gave widespread support arguing that Canadians had a duty to fight on behalf of their Motherland. Indeed, Sir Wilfrid Laurier, although French-Canadian, spoke for the majority of English-Canadians when he proclaimed: "It is our duty to let Great Britain know and to let the friends and foes of Great Britain know that there is in Canada but one mind and one heart and that all Canadians are behind the Mother Country." However this did not stop Laurier along with Henri Bourassa from leading the opposition to conscription three years later in 1917. Canadian Prime Minister Robert Borden offered assistance to Great Britain, which was quickly accepted.Organization of Military Museums of Canada
The Organization of Military Museums of Canada is a national organization for the promotion of military museums in Canada.
The OMMC was established in 1967 by a group of military museums, historians, and military history enthusiasts. It has over 40 individual and 60 institutional members including Canadian Forces museums, Parks Canada sites federal, provincial and municipal museums. The OMMC is a registered, charitable, not for profit organization which was incorporated as the Organization of Military Museums of Canada in 1992. Léon Chamois is the President of OMMC Inc. The OMMC is located in Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.
The OMMC is an umbrella organization for Canadian museums whose major purpose is the preservation and display of military artifacts, as well as for all other interested institutions and individuals. The OMMC is a federally incorporated, not-for-profit institution.Persons of National Historic Significance
Persons of National Historic Significance (National Historic Persons) are people designated by the Canadian government as being nationally significant in the history of the country. Designations are made by the Minister of the Environment on the recommendation of the Historic Sites and Monuments Board of Canada. Approximately 70 nominations are submitted to the board each year. A person is eligible to be listed 25 years after death, but Prime Ministers may be designated any time after death. Parks Canada administers the program, and installs and maintains the federal plaques commonly erected to commemorate each person, usually placed at a site closely associated with them. The intent is generally to honour the person's contribution to the country but is always to educate the public about that person.
Canada has related programs for the designation of National Historic Sites and National Historic Events. Events, Sites, and Persons are each typically marked by a federal plaque, but the markers do not indicate which designation a subject has been given. The Welland Canal is an Event, while the Rideau Canal is a Site. The cairn and plaque to John McDonell (Aberchalder) does not refer to a National Historic Person, but is erected because his home, Glengarry House, is a National Historic Site. Similarly, the plaque to John Guy officially marks not a Person, but an Event—the Landing of John Guy.Raphael Zengel
Raphael Louis Zengel (11 November 1894 – 27 February 1977) was an American-born Canadian recipient of the Victoria Cross, the highest and most prestigious award for valour in the face of the enemy that can be awarded to British and Commonwealth forces.The Greatest Canadian
The Greatest Canadian was a 2004 television program series by the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (CBC) to determine who is considered to be the greatest Canadian of all time, at least according to those who watched and participated in the program. The project was inspired by the BBC series Great Britons.
Radio-Canada, the national publicly funded French-language broadcasting agency, was not involved in The Greatest Canadian project, reducing the input of Canada's French-Canadian minority over the results. The CBC did, by law, make its website available in French, however.
The "Greatest Canadian" was not decided by a simple popular poll, but was instead chosen through a two-step voting process.
On 17 October 2004 the CBC aired the first part of The Greatest Canadian television series. In it, the bottom 40 of the top 50 "greatest" choices were revealed, in order of popularity, determined by polls conducted by E-mail, website, telephone, and letter. To prevent bias during the second round of voting, the top ten nominees were presented alphabetically rather than by order of first round popularity.
This second vote was accompanied by a series of documentaries, where 10 Canadian celebrities acting as advocates each presented their case for The Greatest Canadian. Voting concluded on 28 November at midnight and the following evening, 29 November, the winner was revealed to be Tommy Douglas.
The series has a spiritual sequel, The Greatest Canadian Invention.Thomas Dinesen
Thomas Fasti Dinesen (9 August 1892 – 10 March 1979 ) was a Danish recipient of the Victoria Cross, the highest and most prestigious award for gallantry in the face of the enemy that can be awarded to British and Commonwealth forces. He was the younger brother of the noted author Karen Blixen (who used the pen name Isak Dinesen).Victoria Cross (Canada)
The Victoria Cross (VC) is the highest award of the United Kingdom honours system. It was previously awarded to Canada and other Commonwealth countries, most of which including Canada have established their own honours systems and no longer recommend British honours. Today, the Victoria Cross (French: Croix de Victoria), created in 1993 and named in honour of the British Victoria Cross is the highest award within the Canadian honours system, taking precedence over all other orders, decorations, and medals. It is awarded by either the Canadian monarch or his or her viceregal representative, the Governor General of Canada, to any member of the Canadian Forces or allies serving under or with Canadian military command for extraordinary valour and devotion to duty while facing hostile forces. Whereas in many other Commonwealth countries the relevant version of the Victoria Cross can only be awarded for actions against the enemy in a wartime setting, the Canadian government has a broader definition of the term enemy. In Canada, the Victoria Cross can be awarded for action against armed mutineers, pirates, or other such hostile forces without war being officially declared. Recipients are entitled to use the post-nominal letters VC (for both English and French) and also to receive an annuity of C$3,000. The decoration has not been awarded since its inception.