List of Canadian Victoria Cross recipients

The Victoria Cross (VC) is the highest award of the United Kingdom honours system. It is awarded for gallantry "in the face of the enemy" to members of the British armed forces. It may be awarded posthumously. It was previously awarded to Commonwealth countries, most of which have established their own honours systems and no longer recommend British honours. It may be awarded to a person of any military rank in any service and to civilians under military command although no civilian has received the award since 1879. Since the first awards were presented by Queen Victoria in 1857, two thirds of all awards have been personally presented by the British monarch. These investitures are usually held at Buckingham Palace.

William Hall VC
Canadian William Hall was the first black recipient of the Victoria Cross.

Background

Established in 1856, the Victoria Cross has been awarded to service personnel for extraordinary valour and devotion to duty while facing a hostile force. Between 1858 and 1881 the Victoria Cross could also be awarded for actions taken "under circumstances of extreme danger" not in the face of the enemy.[1] Six people were awarded Victoria Crosses under this clause – one Irish man in 1866 for actions taken during the Fenian raids; five (a Canadian, three Irish and an English man) for a single incident in 1867 during the Andaman Islands Expedition. In 1881, VC regulations were amended to only allow acts "in the presence of the enemy".[1][2]

Since 1993, Canadians have no longer been eligible for the Victoria Cross: that medal has been superseded by the Canadian Victoria Cross – of equal honour, but yet to be awarded.[3] The scroll of the Canadian medal differs in that the inscription is in Latin rather than English; by using a language that is an ancestor of French and has greatly contributed to the development of English, the medal avoids linguistic discrimination between Canada's two official languages. The fleur-de-lis, in heraldry long associated with the French crown has been added at the end each scroll. The actual metal of the medal is a distinct Canadian composition.[4]

Summary

The Victoria Cross has been presented to 96 Canadians, or people closely associated with Canada, between its creation for acts performed during the Crimean War and 1993 when the Canadian Victoria Cross was instituted. No Canadian has received either honour since 1945.[5]

The first Canadian to be awarded the Victoria Cross was Alexander Roberts Dunn for his actions at the Battle of Balaclava during the Crimean War in 1854. William Hall, a Nova Scotian, was the first black recipient of the Victoria Cross.[6] The last living Canadian recipient of the British Victoria Cross, "Smokey" Smith, died in August 2005.[7]

Seventy-three Victoria Crosses were awarded to Canadians for their actions in the First World War, and Canadians won sixteen VCs during the Second World War. The remaining recipients were awarded the medal for actions performed in the Crimean War (Battle of Balaclava), the Indian Mutiny (the Indian Rebellion of 1857), a native uprising at a remote Indian Ocean island during the Andaman Islands Expedition, the Battle of Omdurman during the Sudan Campaign of 1896-99, and the Second Boer War.

Timothy O'Hea, a 23-year-old Irishman in the British army, fought a fire in a railway car containing 900 kilograms of ammunition stationed at Danville, Quebec during the Fenian raids.[8] O'Hea is the only VC recipient awarded for actions on Canadian soil.[9]

Seven Canadians were awarded VCs individually on one single day, 2 September 1918, for actions they performed along the 30 km long Drocourt-Quéant Line near Arras, France: Bellenden Hutcheson, Arthur George Knight, William Henry Metcalf, Claude Nunney, Cyrus Wesley Peck, Walter Leigh Rayfield and John Francis Young. Their acts of exceptional valour were performed during Canada's Hundred Days of successful offensive campaigning that helped end the war.

Recipients

(This list is arranged alphabetically when first opened but the order can be changed to other criteria such as date of valourous action, by clicking in box at top of each column.)

  This along with the *, indicates that the Victoria Cross was awarded posthumously

Name Date of action Conflict Unit Perpetuating Unit Place of action Province of origin Notes
Wallace Algie 1918* First World War 20th Battalion, CEF The Queen's York Rangers (1st American Regiment) (RCAC) Cambrai, France Ontario[10]
William Barker 1918 First World War No. 201 Squadron RAF None Forêt de Mormal, France Manitoba[11]
Colin Barron 1917 First World War 3rd Battalion, CEF Royal Regiment of Canada Passchendaele, Belgium Ontario[12]
Ian Bazalgette 1944* Second World War No. 115 Squadron RAF No. 115 Squadron RAF Trossy St. Maximin, France Alberta[13]
Edward Bellew 1915 First World War 7th Battalion, CEF British Columbia Regiment (Duke of Connaught's Own) Kerselaere, Belgium British Columbia[14]
Philip Bent 1917* First World War Leicestershire Regiment B Company, Second Battalion, Royal Anglian Regiment Polygon Wood, Belgium Nova Scotia[15]
William Bishop 1917 First World War No. 60 Squadron RAF No. 60 Squadron RAF Cambrai, France Ontario[16]
Rowland Bourke 1918 First World War Royal Naval Volunteer Reserve Royal Naval Volunteer Reserve Ostend, Belgium British Columbia[17]
Alexander Brereton 1918 First World War 8th Battalion, CEF Royal Winnipeg Rifles Amiens, France Manitoba[18]
Jean Brillant 1918* First World War 22nd Battalion, CEF Royal 22nd Regiment Meharicourt, France Quebec[19]
Harry Brown 1917* First World War 10th Battalion, CEF Royal Winnipeg Rifles and Calgary Highlanders Loos, France Ontario[20]
Hugh Cairns 1918* First World War[note 1] 46th Battalion, CEF Saskatchewan Dragoons Valenciennes, France Saskatchewan[21]
Frederick Campbell 1915* First World War 1st Battalion, CEF Royal Canadian Regiment Givenchy, France Ontario[22]
William Clark-Kennedy 1918 First World War 24th Battalion, CEF Victoria Rifles of Canada Fresnes, France Quebec[23]
Leo Clarke 1916* First World War 2nd Battalion, CEF Governor General's Foot Guards Pozières, France Manitoba[24] [note 2]
Hampden Cockburn 1900 Second Boer War Royal Canadian Dragoons Royal Canadian Dragoons Komati River, South Africa Ontario[25]
Robert Combe 1917* First World War 27th Battalion, CEF Royal Winnipeg Rifles Acheville, France Saskatchewan[26]
Frederick Coppins 1918 First World War 8th Battalion, CEF Royal Winnipeg Rifles Hackett Woods, France Manitoba[27]
Aubrey Cosens 1945* Second World War Queen's Own Rifles of Canada Queen's Own Rifles of Canada Mooshof, Germany Ontario[28]
John Croak 1918* First World War 13th Battalion (Royal Highlanders of Canada), CEF Black Watch (Royal Highland Regiment) of Canada Amiens, France Nova Scotia[29] .[note 3][30]
Robert Cruickshank 1918 First World War London Regiment London Regiment Jordan, Palestine Manitoba[31] [note 4]
David Currie 1944 Second World War 29th Armoured Reconnaissance Regiment (South Alberta Regiment) South Alberta Light Horse Battle of Falaise, France Saskatchewan[32]
Raymond de Montmorency 1898 Battle of Omdurman, Sudan Campaign 21st Lancers 17th/21st Lancers Omdurman, Sudan Quebec[33] [note 5]
Edmund De Wind 1918* First World War Royal Irish Rifles Royal Irish Regiment (1992) Groagie, France Alberta[34] [note 6]
Thomas Dinesen 1918 First World War 42nd Battalion, CEF Black Watch (Royal Highland Regiment) of Canada Parvillers, France n/a[35] [note 7]
Campbell Douglas 1867 Bravery at Sea, Andaman Islands Expedition 24th Regiment of Foot South Wales Borderers Little Andaman, India Ontario[36] [note 8]
Alexander Dunn 1854 Battle of Balaclava, Crimean War 33rd Regiment of Foot Yorkshire Regiment Balaclava, Crimea Ontario[37] [note 4]
[note 9]
Frederick Fisher 1915* First World War 13th Battalion (Royal Highlanders of Canada), CEF Black Watch (Royal Highland Regiment) of Canada St. Julien, Belgium Ontario[38]
Gordon Flowerdew 1918* First World War Lord Strathcona's Horse (Royal Canadians) Lord Strathcona's Horse (Royal Canadians) Bois de Moreuil, France British Columbia[39]
John Foote 1942 Second World War 1st Battalion, The Royal Hamilton Light Infantry Royal Hamilton Light Infantry (Wentworth Regiment) Dieppe, France Ontario[40]
Herman Good 1918 First World War 13th Battalion (Royal Highlanders of Canada), CEF Black Watch (Royal Highland Regiment) of Canada Hangard Wood, France New Brunswick[41]
Robert Gray 1945* Second World War Fleet Air Arm Fleet Air Arm Honshū, Japan British Columbia[42] [note 10]
Milton Gregg 1918 First World War Royal Canadian Regiment Royal Canadian Regiment Cambrai, France New Brunswick[43]
Frederick Hall 1915* First World War 8th Battalion (90th Winnipeg Rifles), CEF Royal Winnipeg Rifles Ypres, Belgium Manitoba[44] [note 2]
William Hall 1857 Indian rebellion of 1857 HMS Shannon none Lucknow, India Nova Scotia[45]
Robert Hanna 1917 First World War 29th Battalion, CEF British Columbia Regiment (Duke of Connaught's Own) Lens, France British Columbia[46]
Frederick Harvey 1917 First World War Lord Strathcona's Horse (Royal Canadians) Lord Strathcona's Horse (Royal Canadians) Guyencourt, France Alberta[47]
Frederick Hobson 1917* First World War 20th Battalion, CEF Queen's York Rangers (1st American Regiment) (RCAC) Lens, France Ontario[48]
Charles Hoey 1944 Second World War Royal Lincolnshire Regiment Royal Anglian Regiment Ngakyedauk Pass, Burma (now Myanmar) British Columbia[49]
Edward Holland 1900 Second Boer War Royal Canadian Dragoons Royal Canadian Dragoons Komati River, South Africa Ontario[50]
Thomas Holmes 1917 First World War 4th Canadian Mounted Rifles Battalion, CEF Governor General's Horse Guards Passchendaele, Belgium Ontario[51]
Samuel Honey 1918* First World War 78th Battalion, CEF Winnipeg Grenadiers Bourlon Wood, France Ontario[52]
David Hornell 1944* Second World War No. 162 Squadron RCAF Faroes, Atlantic Ontario[53]
Bellenden Hutcheson 1918 First World War 75th Battalion, CEF Toronto Scottish Regiment (Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother's Own) Arras, France Ontario[54] [note 11]
Joseph Kaeble 1918* First World War 22nd Battalion, CEF Royal 22e Régiment Neuville-Vitasse, France Quebec[55]
George Kerr 1918 First World War 3rd Battalion, CEF Queen's Own Rifles of Canada and Royal Regiment of Canada Bourlon Wood, France Ontario[56]
John Kerr 1916 First World War 49th Battalion, CEF Loyal Edmonton Regiment (4th Battalion, Princess Patricia's Canadian Light Infantry) Courcelette, France Nova Scotia[57] Alberta[note 12]
Cecil Kinross 1917 First World War 49th Battalion, CEF Loyal Edmonton Regiment (4th Battalion, Princess Patricia's Canadian Light Infantry) Passchendaele, Belgium Alberta[58]
Arthur Knight 1918* First World War 10th Battalion, CEF Royal Winnipeg Rifles and Calgary Highlanders Villers-les-Cagnicourt, France Saskatchewan[59]
Filip Konowal 1917 First World War 47th Battalion, CEF Royal Westminster Regiment Lens, France n/a [note 13]
Okill Learmonth 1917* First World War 2nd Battalion, CEF Governor General's Foot Guards Loos, France Quebec[59]
Graham Lyall 1918 First World War 102nd Battalion, CEF British Columbia Regiment (Duke of Connaught's Own) Cambrai, France Ontario[60]
Thain MacDowell 1917 First World War 38th Battalion, CEF Cameron Highlanders of Ottawa (Duke of Edinburgh's Own) Vimy Ridge, France Ontario[61]
John MacGregor 1918 First World War 2nd Canadian Mounted Rifles Battalion, CEF British Columbia Dragoons Cambrai, France British Columbia[62]
John Mahony 1944 Second World War Westminster Regiment (Motor) Royal Westminster Regiment River Melfa, Italy British Columbia[63]
George McKean 1918 First World War 14th Battalion, CEF Royal Montreal Regiment Gavrelle Sector, France Alberta[64]
Hugh McKenzie 1917* First World War Canadian Machine Gun Corps Royal Canadian Armoured Corps Meetscheele Spur, Belgium Ontario Alberta[65] [note 14]
Alan McLeod 1918* First World War No. 2 Squadron RFC No. 2 Squadron RAF Albert, France Manitoba[66]
William Merrifield 1918 First World War 4th Battalion, CEF 56th Field Artillery Regiment, RCA, Royal Hamilton Light Infantry (Wentworth Regiment) Abancourt, France Ontario[67]
Charles Merritt 1942 Second World War South Saskatchewan Regiment South Saskatchewan Regiment Dieppe, France British Columbia[68]
William Metcalf 1918 First World War 16th Battalion (Canadian Scottish), CEF Canadian Scottish Regiment Arras, France n/a [note 11]
William Milne 1917* First World War 16th Battalion (Canadian Scottish), CEF Canadian Scottish Regiment Thelus, France Saskatchewan[69]
Harry Miner 1918* First World War 58th Battalion, CEF Royal Regiment of Canada Demuin, France Ontario[70]
Coulson Norman Mitchell 1918 First World War 4th Battalion Canadian Engineers Canal de L'Escaut, France Manitoba[71]
George Mullin 1917 First World War Princess Patricia's Canadian Light Infantry Princess Patricia's Canadian Light Infantry Passchendaele, Belgium Saskatchewan[72] [note 11]
Andrew Mynarski 1944* Second World War No. 419 Squadron RCAF 419 Tactical Fighter Training Squadron Cambrai, France Manitoba[73]
William Nickerson 1900 Second Boer War Royal Army Medical Corps Wakkerstroom, South Africa New Brunswick[74] [note 4]
Claude Nunney 1918* First World War 38th Battalion, CEF Cameron Highlanders of Ottawa (Duke of Edinburgh's Own) Drocourt-Queant Line, France Ontario[75]
Christopher O'Kelly 1917 First World War 52nd Battalion, CEF Lake Superior Scottish Regiment Passchendaele, Belgium Manitoba[76]
Michael O'Leary 1915 First World War Irish Guards Irish Guards Cuinchy, France Saskatchewan[77] [note 15]
Michael O'Rourke 1917 First World War 7th Battalion, CEF British Columbia Regiment (Duke of Connaught's Own) Hill 70, France British Columbia[78]
John Osborn 1941* Second World War Winnipeg Grenadiers Winnipeg Grenadiers Mount Butler, Hong Kong Manitoba[79]
John Pattison 1917* First World War 50th Battalion, CEF King's Own Calgary Regiment (RCAC) Vimy Ridge, France Alberta[80]
George Pearkes 1917 First World War 5th Canadian Mounted Rifles Battalion, CEF Sherbrooke Hussars Passchendaele, Belgium Yukon[81]
Cyrus Peck 1918 First World War 16th Battalion (Canadian Scottish), CEF Canadian Scottish Regiment Cagnicourt, France New Brunswick[82]
Frederick Peters 1942 Second World War HMS Walney Oran, Algeria P.E.I[83]
Walter Rayfield 1918 First World War 7th Battalion, CEF British Columbia Regiment (Duke of Connaught's Own) Arras, France Ontario[84]
Herbert Reade 1857 Indian rebellion of 1857 61st Regiment of Foot The Rifles Delhi, India Ontario[85]
Arthur Richardson 1900 Second Boer War Strathcona's Horse Lord Strathcona's Horse (Royal Canadians) Wolwespruit, South Africa Saskatchewan[86] [note 16] [note 17]
James Richardson 1916* First World War 16th Battalion (Canadian Scottish), CEF Canadian Scottish Regiment Somme, France British Columbia[87]
James Peter Robertson 1917* First World War 27th Battalion, CEF Royal Winnipeg Rifles Passchendaele, Belgium Nova Scotia Alberta[88] [note 18]
Charles Rutherford 1918 First World War 5th Canadian Mounted Rifles Battalion, CEF Sherbrooke Hussars Monchy, France Ontario[89]
Francis Scrimger 1915 First World War Canadian Army Medical Corps St. Julien, Belgium Quebec[90]
Robert Shankland 1917 First World War 43rd Battalion, CEF Queen's Own Cameron Highlanders of Canada Passchendaele, Belgium Manitoba[91] [note 2]
Ellis Sifton 1917* First World War 18th Battalion, CEF Essex and Kent Scottish Neuville-St.-Vaast, France Ontario[92]
John Sinton 1916 First World War Indian Medical Service Orah Ruins, Mesopotamia British Columbia[93] [note 4]
Ernest Smith 1944 Second World War Seaforth Highlanders of Canada Seaforth Highlanders of Canada River Savio, Italy British Columbia[94]
Robert Spall 1918* First World War Princess Patricia's Canadian Light Infantry Princess Patricia's Canadian Light Infantry Parvillers, France Manitoba[95]
Harcus Strachan 1917 First World War Fort Garry Horse Fort Garry Horse Masnières, France Manitoba Alberta[96] [note 19]
James Tait 1918* First World War 78th Battalion, CEF Winnipeg Grenadiers Amiens, France Manitoba[97]
Frederick Tilston 1945 Second World War Essex Scottish Regiment Essex and Kent Scottish Hochwald Forest, Germany Ontario[98]
Frederick Topham 1945 Second World War 1st Canadian Parachute Battalion Rhine, Germany Ontario[99]
Paul Triquet 1943 Second World War Royal 22e Régiment Royal 22e Régiment Casa Berardi, Italy Quebec[100]
Richard Turner 1900 Second Boer War Royal Canadian Dragoons Royal Canadian Dragoons Komati River, South Africa Quebec[101]
Thomas Wilkinson 1916* First World War Loyal North Lancashire Regiment Loyal Regiment (North Lancashire) La Boiselle, France British Columbia[102] [note 20]
John Young 1918 First World War 87th Battalion, CEF Canadian Grenadier Guards Dury-Arras Sector, France Quebec[103]
Raphael Zengel 1918 First World War 5th Battalion, CEF North Saskatchewan Regiment Warvillers, France Saskatchewan[104] [note 11]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ He was the last Canadian awarded the Victoria Cross for actions taken during WWI, His actions being made on Nov. 2, 1918, just nine days before the Armistice.
  2. ^ a b c One of three WWI Canadian VC recipients who lived on same block on Pine Street (now Valour Road) in Winnipeg: Leo Clarke, Frederick Hall and Robert Shankland
  3. ^ Born in the Dominion of Newfoundland, moved to Canada at age 2. Fellow recipient Thomas Ricketts, not included on this sub-list, was a citizen of the Dominion of Newfoundland in the Royal Newfoundland Regiment
  4. ^ a b c d Recipients were Canadians, but were serving in Other Army Units at the time of their VC act
  5. ^ He was the first Canadian awarded the Victoria Cross for actions subsequent to Canadian Confederation
  6. ^ Although born in Ireland, was enlisted in the Canadian army and is considered Canadian at the time he won the medal, and Albertan because he was working in an Edmonton bank when he enlisted.
  7. ^ Although a Danish citizen who enlisted in the Canadian army, he is considered Canadian at the time he won the medal
  8. ^ Awarded VC for actions taken not in the face of the enemy, one of only six awarded this way
  9. ^ First Canadian to earn VC, during the Charge of the Light Brigade, 1854-Oct-25
  10. ^ Last Canadian to earn VC, in actions sinking Japanese escort ship Amakusa, 1945-Aug-9
  11. ^ a b c d Although an American citizen who enlisted in the Canadian army, is considered Canadian at the time he won the medal
  12. ^ Kerr was born in Nova Scotia and moved to farm in Alberta before enlisting in Edmonton unit.
  13. ^ Although a Ukrainian citizen who enlisted in the Canadian army, is considered Canadian at the time he won the medal
  14. ^ McKenzie was born in Liverpool, moved to Ontario before enlisting in Alberta unit.
  15. ^ Considered Irish, but listed here due to residency in Canada
  16. ^ living at time of enlistment at Battleford
  17. ^ first soldier to be awarded the Victoria Cross for actions committed while serving with a Canadian unit (even though under British command)
  18. ^ lived most of his life in Medicine Hat
  19. ^ Strachan enlisted in a Winnipeg unit but was a farmer in Alberta
  20. ^ Wilkinson lived in Vancouver and enlisted in a Vancouver unit Overseas, he transeferred to the British Army.

References

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  19. ^ "Jean Brillant". National Defence and the Canadian Forces. Retrieved 5 May 2012.
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  21. ^ "Hugh Cairns". National Defence and the Canadian Forces. Retrieved 5 May 2012.
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  33. ^ "Lieutenant Raymond Harvey Lodge Joseph de Montmorency". Veterans Affairs Canada. Retrieved 23 March 2016.
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  41. ^ "Herman James Good". National Defence and the Canadian Forces. Retrieved 5 May 2012.
  42. ^ "Lt. Robert Hampton Gray – Veterans Affairs Canada". Vac-acc.gc.ca. Archived from the original on 7 March 2006. Retrieved 23 January 2011.
  43. ^ "Milton Fowler Gregg". National Defence and the Canadian Forces. Retrieved 5 May 2012.
  44. ^ "Fredrick William Hall". Veterans Canada. Retrieved 7 December 2010.
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  51. ^ "Thomas William Holmes". National Defence and Canadian Forces. Retrieved 8 December 2010.
  52. ^ "Samuel Lewis Honey". National Defence and Canadian Forces. Retrieved 8 December 2010.
  53. ^ "David Ernest Hornell". National Defence and Canadian Forces. Retrieved 8 December 2010.
  54. ^ "Bellenden Hutcheson". National Defence and Canadian Forces. Retrieved 8 December 2010.
  55. ^ "Joseph Kaeble". National Defence and Canadian Forces. Retrieved 8 December 2010.
  56. ^ "George Fraser Kerr". National Defence and Canadian Forces. Retrieved 8 December 2010.
  57. ^ "John Chipman Kerr". National Defence and Canadian Forces. Retrieved 8 December 2010.
  58. ^ "Cecil John Kinross". National Defence and Canadian Forces. Retrieved 8 December 2010.
  59. ^ a b "Arthur George Knight". National Defence and Canadian Forces. Retrieved 8 December 2010.
  60. ^ "Graham Thomson Lyall". National Defence and Canadian Forces. Retrieved 8 December 2010.
  61. ^ "Thain Wendell MacDowell". National Defence and Canadian Forces. Retrieved 8 December 2010.
  62. ^ "Thain Wendell MacDowell". National Defence and Canadian Forces. Retrieved 8 December 2010.
  63. ^ "John Keefer Mahony". National Defence and Canadian Forces. Retrieved 8 December 2010.
  64. ^ "George Burdon McKean". National Defence and Canadian Forces. Retrieved 8 December 2010.
  65. ^ "Hugh McKenzie". National Defence and Canadian Forces. Retrieved 8 December 2010.
  66. ^ "Alan Arnett McLeod". Veteran Affairs Canada. Retrieved 8 December 2010.
  67. ^ "William Merrifield". National Defence and Canadian Forces. Retrieved 8 December 2010.
  68. ^ "Charles Cecil Ingersoll Merritt". National Defence and Canadian Forces. Retrieved 8 December 2010.
  69. ^ "William Johnstone Milne". National Defence and Canadian Forces. Retrieved 8 December 2010.
  70. ^ "Harry Garnet Bedford Miner". National Defence and Canadian Forces. Retrieved 8 December 2010.
  71. ^ "Coulson Norman Mitchell". National Defence and Canadian Forces. Retrieved 8 December 2010.
  72. ^ "George Mullin". National Defence and Canadian Forces. Retrieved 8 December 2010.
  73. ^ "Andrew Charles Mynarski". National Defence and Canadian Forces. Retrieved 8 December 2010.
  74. ^ "The Victoria Cross awarded to William Henry Snyder Nickerson". Memorials.inportsmouth.co.uk. 10 April 1954. Archived from the original on 5 March 2012. Retrieved 23 January 2011.
  75. ^ "Claude Joseph Patrick Nunney". National Defence and Canadian Forces. Retrieved 8 December 2010.
  76. ^ "Christopher O'Kelly". National Defence and Canadian Forces. Retrieved 8 December 2010.
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  78. ^ "Michael James O'Rourke". National Defence and Canadian Forces. Retrieved 8 December 2010.
  79. ^ "John Robert Osbron". National Defence and Canadian Forces. Retrieved 8 December 2010.
  80. ^ "John George Pattison". National Defence and Canadian Forces. Retrieved 8 December 2010.
  81. ^ "George Randolph Pearkes". National Defence and Canadian Forces. Retrieved 8 December 2010.
  82. ^ "Cyrus Wesley Peck". National Defence and Canadian Forces. Retrieved 8 December 2010.
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  86. ^ "Arthur Herbert Lindsay Richardson". National Defence and Canadian Forces. Retrieved 8 December 2010.
  87. ^ "James Cleland Richardson". Veteran Affairs Canada. Retrieved 8 December 2010.
  88. ^ "James Peter Robertson". National Defence and Canadian Forces. Retrieved 8 December 2010.
  89. ^ "Charles Smith Rutherford". National Defence and Canadian Forces. Retrieved 8 December 2010.
  90. ^ "Francis Alexander Caron Scrimger". National Defence and Canadian Forces. Retrieved 8 December 2010.
  91. ^ "Robert Shankland". National Defence and Canadian Forces. Retrieved 8 December 2010.
  92. ^ "Ellis Welwood Sifton". National Defence and Canadian Forces. Retrieved 8 December 2010.
  93. ^ Bob Sinton, Tandragee, Co. Armagh, Northern Ireland. "Sinton Family Trees – Details of Brig. John Alexander Sinton VC, OBE, DL, FRS, MD, DSc, MB, BCh, son of Walter Lyon Sinton and Isabella Mary Pringle, Born 1884, Died 1956". Bob-sinton.com. Archived from the original on 27 September 2007. Retrieved 23 January 2011.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
  94. ^ "Ernest Alvia Smith". National Defence and Canadian Forces. Retrieved 8 December 2010.
  95. ^ "Robert Spall". National Defence and Canadian Forces. Retrieved 8 December 2010.
  96. ^ "Harcus Strachan". National Defence and Canadian Forces. Retrieved 8 December 2010.
  97. ^ "James Edward Tait". National Defence and Canadian Forces. Retrieved 8 December 2010.; Canadian Virtual War Memorial website
  98. ^ "Frederick Albert Tilston". National Defence and Canadian Forces. Retrieved 8 December 2010.
  99. ^ "Frederick George Topham". National Defence and Canadian Forces. Retrieved 8 December 2010.
  100. ^ "Paul Triquet". National Defence and Canadian Forces. Retrieved 8 December 2010.
  101. ^ "Richard Ernest William Turner". National Defence and Canadian Forces. Retrieved 8 December 2010.
  102. ^ "Thomas Orde Lawder Wilkinson". Veteran Affairs Canada. Retrieved 8 December 2010.
  103. ^ "John Francis Young". National Defence and Canadian Forces. Retrieved 8 December 2010.
  104. ^ "Raphael Louis Zengel". National Defence and Canadian Forces. Retrieved 8 December 2010.
Arthur Herbert Lindsay Richardson

Arthur Herbert Lindsay Richardson VC (23 September 1872 – 15 December 1932) was a Canadian recipient of the Victoria Cross, the highest and most prestigious award for gallantry in the face of the enemy that can be awarded to British and Commonwealth forces.

Edmund De Wind

Edmund De Wind, (11 December 1883 – 21 March 1918) was a British Army officer during the First World War, and posthumous recipient of the Victoria Cross, the highest and most prestigious award for gallantry in the face of the enemy that can be awarded to British and Commonwealth forces.

Both his native Northern Ireland and his adopted home of Canada count De Wind amongst the men of their militaries who have earned the VC

Edward Bellew

Edward Donald Bellew, (28 October 1882 – 1 February 1961, Kamloops, British Columbia), Captain of the 7th Bn British Columbia Regiment, CEF was a Canadian recipient of the Victoria Cross, the highest and most prestigious award for gallantry in the face of the enemy that can be awarded to British and Commonwealth forces.

Edward James Gibson Holland

Major Edward James Gibson Holland (2 February 1878, Ottawa – 18 June 1948, Cobalt, Ontario) was a Canadian recipient of the Victoria Cross, the highest and most prestigious award for gallantry in the face of the enemy that can be awarded to British and Commonwealth forces, for actions taken during the Second Boer War in South Africa.

Frederick Coppins

Frederick George Coppins (25 October 1889 – 20 March 1963) was a Canadian recipient of the Victoria Cross, the highest and most prestigious award for gallantry in the face of the enemy that can be awarded to British and Commonwealth forces. He was born in England and served with the Royal West Kent Regiment before the First World War. He then emigrated to Canada, settling in Winnipeg.

George Burdon McKean

George Burdon McKean (4 July 1888 – 28 November 1926) was an English-Canadian soldier who served in World War I. McKean was a recipient of the Victoria Cross, the highest and most prestigious award for gallantry in the face of the enemy that can be awarded to British and Commonwealth forces.

Harcus Strachan

Henry Mareus "Harcus" Strachan (; 7 November 1884 – 1 May 1982) was a Scottish born Canadian recipient of the Victoria Cross, the highest and most prestigious award for valour in the face of the enemy that can be awarded to British and Commonwealth forces.

John Chipman Kerr

John Chipman Kerr VC (January 11, 1887 – February 19, 1963), was a Canadian recipient of the Victoria Cross, the highest and most prestigious award for gallantry in the face of the enemy that can be awarded to British and Commonwealth forces.

In 1912, after working as a lumberjack near Kootenay, British Columbia he bought a homestead in Spirit River, Alberta, where he and his brother farmed until war broke out. Immediately they set out for Edmonton, leaving only a single note tacked to the door of their humble shed. It read: "War is Hell, but what is homesteading?"

He was 29 years old, and a private in the 49th (Edmonton) Battalion, Canadian Expeditionary Force during the First World War when the following deed took place for which he was awarded the VC.

On 16 September 1916 at Courcelette, France, during a bombing attack, Private Kerr was acting as bayonet man and noting that bombs were running short, he ran along the parados under heavy fire until he was in close contact with the enemy when he opened fire at point-blank range, inflicting heavy losses. The enemy, thinking that they were surrounded, surrendered - 62 prisoners were taken and 250 yards of enemy trench captured. Earlier, Private Kerr's fingers had been blown off, but he did not have his wound dressed until he and two other men had escorted the prisoners back under fire and reported for duty.His Victoria Cross is displayed at the Canadian War Museum in Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.

Mount Kerr in the Victoria Cross Ranges, in Jasper National Park, Alberta was named in his honour in 1951, and in 2006 Chip Kerr Park in Port Moody, British Columbia, was dedicated.

After the war he returned to farm in Alberta and also worked in the oil patch and as a forest ranger in Alberta.He is a great Uncle of Greg Kerr, MP for West Nova.

John Francis Young

John Francis Young (14 January 1893 – 7 November 1929) was a Canadian soldier who served in the First World War. Young was a recipient of the Victoria Cross, the highest award for gallantry in the face of the enemy that can be awarded to British and Commonwealth forces. Young was one of the seven Canadians who were awarded the Victoria Cross for their actions on one single day, 2 September 1918, for actions across the 30 km long Drocourt-Quéant Line near Arras, France. The other six were Bellenden Hutcheson, Arthur George Knight, William Metcalf, Claude Joseph Patrick Nunney, Cyrus Wesley Peck and Walter Leigh Rayfield.

John George Pattison

John George Pattison (8 September 1875 – 3 June 1917) was a Canadian soldier. Pattison was a recipient of the Victoria Cross, the highest and most prestigious award for valour in the face of the enemy that can be awarded to British and Commonwealth forces.

Pattison was born in London, England and emigrated to Canada. He and his family (wife and four children) settled in Calgary where he found a job with the Calgary Gas Company. He was killed in fighting the same year he won the VC.

List of Companions of the Order of Canada

Companions of the Order of Canada, the highest level of the Order of Canada, have demonstrated the highest degree of merit to Canada and humanity, on the national or international scene. Up to 15 Companions are appointed each year, with a limit of 165 living Companions at any given time. Companions are entitled to use the post-nominal "C.C.". As of December 1, 2016, there were 142 living Companions (including three honorary). This list shows all of the Companions, in alphabetical order, both living and deceased.

Military history of Canada during World War I

The military history of Canada during World War I

began on August 4, 1914, when the United Kingdom entered the First World War (1914–1918) by declaring war on Germany. The British declaration of war automatically brought Canada into the war, because of Canada's legal status as a British dominion which left foreign policy decisions in the hands of the British parliament. However, the Canadian government had the freedom to determine the country's level of involvement in the war. On August 4, 1914, the Governor General declared a war between Canada and Germany. The Militia was not mobilized and instead an independent Canadian Expeditionary Force was raised.Canada's sacrifices and contributions to the Great War changed its history and enabled it to become more independent, while also opening a deep rift between the French and English speaking populations. For the first time in Canadian military history, Canadian forces fought as a distinct unit, first under a British commander but ultimately under a Canadian-born commander. The highpoints of Canadian military achievement during the Great War came during the Somme, Vimy, and Passchendaele battles and what later became known as "Canada's Hundred Days". Canada's total casualties stood at the end of the war at 67,000 killed and 173,000 wounded, out of an expeditionary force of 620,000 people mobilized (39% of mobilized were casualties).Canadians of British descent—the majority—gave widespread support arguing that Canadians had a duty to fight on behalf of their Motherland. Indeed, Sir Wilfrid Laurier, although French-Canadian, spoke for the majority of English-Canadians when he proclaimed: "It is our duty to let Great Britain know and to let the friends and foes of Great Britain know that there is in Canada but one mind and one heart and that all Canadians are behind the Mother Country." However this did not stop Laurier along with Henri Bourassa from leading the opposition to conscription three years later in 1917. Canadian Prime Minister Robert Borden offered assistance to Great Britain, which was quickly accepted.

Organization of Military Museums of Canada

The Organization of Military Museums of Canada is a national organization for the promotion of military museums in Canada.

The OMMC was established in 1967 by a group of military museums, historians, and military history enthusiasts. It has over 40 individual and 60 institutional members including Canadian Forces museums, Parks Canada sites federal, provincial and municipal museums. The OMMC is a registered, charitable, not for profit organization which was incorporated as the Organization of Military Museums of Canada in 1992. Léon Chamois is the President of OMMC Inc. The OMMC is located in Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.

The OMMC is an umbrella organization for Canadian museums whose major purpose is the preservation and display of military artifacts, as well as for all other interested institutions and individuals. The OMMC is a federally incorporated, not-for-profit institution.

Persons of National Historic Significance

Persons of National Historic Significance (National Historic Persons) are people designated by the Canadian government as being nationally significant in the history of the country. Designations are made by the Minister of the Environment on the recommendation of the Historic Sites and Monuments Board of Canada. Approximately 70 nominations are submitted to the board each year. A person is eligible to be listed 25 years after death, but Prime Ministers may be designated any time after death. Parks Canada administers the program, and installs and maintains the federal plaques commonly erected to commemorate each person, usually placed at a site closely associated with them. The intent is generally to honour the person's contribution to the country but is always to educate the public about that person.

Canada has related programs for the designation of National Historic Sites and National Historic Events. Events, Sites, and Persons are each typically marked by a federal plaque, but the markers do not indicate which designation a subject has been given. The Welland Canal is an Event, while the Rideau Canal is a Site. The cairn and plaque to John McDonell (Aberchalder) does not refer to a National Historic Person, but is erected because his home, Glengarry House, is a National Historic Site. Similarly, the plaque to John Guy officially marks not a Person, but an Event—the Landing of John Guy.

Raphael Zengel

Raphael Louis Zengel (11 November 1894 – 27 February 1977) was an American-born Canadian recipient of the Victoria Cross, the highest and most prestigious award for valour in the face of the enemy that can be awarded to British and Commonwealth forces.

The Greatest Canadian

The Greatest Canadian was a 2004 television program series by the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (CBC) to determine who is considered to be the greatest Canadian of all time, at least according to those who watched and participated in the program. The project was inspired by the BBC series Great Britons.

Radio-Canada, the national publicly funded French-language broadcasting agency, was not involved in The Greatest Canadian project, reducing the input of Canada's French-Canadian minority over the results. The CBC did, by law, make its website available in French, however.

The "Greatest Canadian" was not decided by a simple popular poll, but was instead chosen through a two-step voting process.

On 17 October 2004 the CBC aired the first part of The Greatest Canadian television series. In it, the bottom 40 of the top 50 "greatest" choices were revealed, in order of popularity, determined by polls conducted by E-mail, website, telephone, and letter. To prevent bias during the second round of voting, the top ten nominees were presented alphabetically rather than by order of first round popularity.

This second vote was accompanied by a series of documentaries, where 10 Canadian celebrities acting as advocates each presented their case for The Greatest Canadian. Voting concluded on 28 November at midnight and the following evening, 29 November, the winner was revealed to be Tommy Douglas.

The series has a spiritual sequel, The Greatest Canadian Invention.

Thomas Dinesen

Thomas Fasti Dinesen (9 August 1892 – 10 March 1979 ) was a Danish recipient of the Victoria Cross, the highest and most prestigious award for gallantry in the face of the enemy that can be awarded to British and Commonwealth forces. He was the younger brother of the noted author Karen Blixen (who used the pen name Isak Dinesen).

Victoria Cross (Canada)

The Victoria Cross (VC) is the highest award of the United Kingdom honours system. It was previously awarded to Canada and other Commonwealth countries, most of which including Canada have established their own honours systems and no longer recommend British honours. Today, the Victoria Cross (French: Croix de Victoria), created in 1993 and named in honour of the British Victoria Cross is the highest award within the Canadian honours system, taking precedence over all other orders, decorations, and medals. It is awarded by either the Canadian monarch or his or her viceregal representative, the Governor General of Canada, to any member of the Canadian Forces or allies serving under or with Canadian military command for extraordinary valour and devotion to duty while facing hostile forces. Whereas in many other Commonwealth countries the relevant version of the Victoria Cross can only be awarded for actions against the enemy in a wartime setting, the Canadian government has a broader definition of the term enemy. In Canada, the Victoria Cross can be awarded for action against armed mutineers, pirates, or other such hostile forces without war being officially declared. Recipients are entitled to use the post-nominal letters VC (for both English and French) and also to receive an annuity of C$3,000. The decoration has not been awarded since its inception.

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