List of Augustae

Augusta (Classical Latin: [awˈɡʊsta]; plural Augustae; Greek: αὐγούστα)[1] was a Roman imperial honorific title given to empresses and honoured women of the imperial families. It was the feminine form of Augustus. In the third century, Augustae could also receive the titles of Mater Castrorum ("Mother of the Camp") and Mater Patriae ("Mother of the Fatherland").

The title implied the greatest prestige. Augustae could issue their own coinage, wear imperial regalia, and rule their own courts.[1]

Principate period

Julio-Claudian dynasty

Portrait Name Birth Date of naming Description Death
Livia Drusilla Louvre Ma1233 Livia
Livia Drvsilla
Ivlia Avgvsta
30 January 58 BC AD 14 Wife of Emperor Augustus. 28 September AD 29
Antonia minor pushkin Antonia Minor
Antonia Minor
31 January 36 BC
Athens
AD 41
(posthumous)
Mother of Emperor Claudius. AD 37
Rome
Agripina Minor (M.A.N. Madrid) 01 Agrippina the Younger
Ivlia Avgvsta Agrippina
7 November AD 15
Oppidum Ubiorum
AD 50 Wife of Emperor Claudius 23 March AD 59
Misenum
Female portrait Louvre Ma1269 Poppaea Sabina
Poppaea Avgvsta Sabina
AD 30
Pompeii
AD 63 Wife of Emperor Nero. AD 65
Rome
Claudia Augusta
Clavdia Avgvsta
21 January AD 63
Antium
AD 63 Daughter of Emperor Nero. April AD 63

Flavian dynasty

Portrait Name Birth Date of naming Description Death
Domitilla the Younger
Flavia Domitilla Avgvsta
45 Before 80 Daughter of Emperor Vespasian. 66

Nerva–Antonine dynasty

Portrait Name Birth Date of naming Description Death
MNRPalMassimo-Plotina1 Pompeia Plotina
Pompeia Plotina Clavdia Phoebe Piso
54–68 105 Wife of Emperor Trajan. 123
Ulpia Marciana Met 20.200 n02 Ulpia Marciana
Vlpia Marciana Avgvsta
48 105 Sister of Emperor Trajan. 112–114
Matidie 01 Salonia Matidia
Salonia Matidia Avgvsta
4 July 68 112 Niece of Emperor Trajan. 23 December 119
Busto de Vibia Sabina (M. Prado) 01 Vibia Sabina
Vibia Sabina Avgvsta
83 128 Wife of Emperor Hadrian. 136–137
Faustina02 pushkin Faustina the Elder
Annia Galeria Favstina Avgvsta Maior
21 September 100 138 Wife of Emperor Antoninus Pius. 140
Faustina Minor Louvre Ma1144 Faustina the Younger
Annia Galeria Favstina Avgvsta Minor
125–130 1 December 147[2] Daughter of Emperor Antoninus Pius; wife of Emperor Marcus Aurelius; mother of Emperor Commodus. 175
Portrait of Lucilla, daughter of Marcus Aurelius and Faustia, portrayed after her marriage with Lucius Verus and the birth of her first son, 165-166 AD, Centrale Montemartini, Rome (22127998092) Lucilla
Annia Avrelia Galeria Lvcilla Avgvsta
148–150 164 Daughter of Emperor Marcus Aurelius and wife of Emperor Lucius Verus. 182
Tête de Crispine Bruttia Crispina
Brvttia Crispina Avgvsta
164
Rome
177 Wife of Emperor Commodus. 191
Capri

Year of the Five Emperors

Portrait Name Birth Date of naming Description Death
Manlia scantilla Manlia Scantilla
Manlia Scantilla
193 Wife of Emperor Didius Julianus. 193
Didia Clara
Didia Clara
153
Rome
193 Daughter of Emperor Didius Julianus. Unknown

Severan dynasty

Portrait Name Birth Date of naming Description Death
Plautilla Fulvia Plautilla
Pvblia Fvlvia Plavtilla Avgvsta
185—189 210s Wife of Emperor Caracalla. 212
Julia Paula, marble (3rd century A.D.) - Ephesus Museum Julia Cornelia Paula
Jvlia Cornelia Pavla
219 First wife of Emperor Elagabalus.
Sestertius-Aquilia Severa-RIC 0390 Aquilia Severa
Ivlia Aqvilia Severa Avgvsta
220 Second and fourth wife of Emperor Elagabalus.
Julia mammea01 pushkin Julia Avita Mamaea
Ivlia Avita Mamaea Avgvsta
180 222 Mother of Emperor Alexander Severus and co-regent, in his name, during his adolescence. 235
Sallustia Orbiana Louvre Ma1054 Sallustia Orbiana
Seia Herennia Sallvstia Barbia Orbiana Avgvsta
225 Wife of Emperor Alexander Severus.

Crisis of the Third Century

Portrait Name Birth Date of naming Description Death
Tranquillina - chiaramonti Tranquillina
Fvria Sabinia Tranqvillina Avgvsta
c. 225 241 Wife of Emperor Gordian III. After 244
Otacilia Severa Musei Capitolini MC2765 Marcia Otacilia Severa
Marcia Otacilia Severa Avgvsta
240s Wife of the Emperor Philip the Arab.
Herennia Etruscilla coin Herennia Etruscilla
Annia Cvpressenia Herennia Etrvscilla Avgvsta
September 249 240s Wife of Emperor Trajan Decius; mother of Emperor Herennius Etruscus and Emperor Hostilian. June 251
RteMariniana Antoninianus Mariniana
Egnatia Mariniana Avgvsta
250s Wife of Emperor Valerian.
Antoninianus-Cornelia Supra-RIC 0030 Cornelia Supra
Caia Cornelia Svpera Avgvsta
253 Wife of Aemilianus.
Портрет Корнелии Салонины Cornelia Salonina
Ivlia Cornelia Salonina Avgvsta
Unknown 253 Wife of Emperor Gallienus. 268
Sulpicia Dryantilla Sulpicia Dryantilla
Svlpicia Dryantilla
c. 260 Wife of usurper Emperor Regalianus, who named her avgvsta as part of legitimizing his claim. 260
Zenobia Zenobia
Ivlia Avrelia Zenobia
240 267 Queen of the Palmyrene Empire, a short lived splinter empire that revolted during the Crisis. She proclaimed herself avgvsta and annexed the Eastern Mediterranean from Rome. c. 275
Severina Ant Ulpia Severina
Vlpia Severina Avgvsta
274 Wife of Emperor Aurelian; possibly reigned in her own right after the death of her husband in 275.
Magnia Urbica
Magnia Vrbica Avgvsta
283 Wife of Emperor Carinus.

Dominate period

Tetrarchy

Portrait Name Birth Date of naming Description Death
Galeria Valeria
Galeria Valeria Avgvsta
308 Daughter of Emperor Diocletian and wife of Emperor Galerius. 315
Follis-Helena-trier RIC 465 Helena of Constantinople
Flavia Ivlia Helena Avgvsta
246—250 After 312 Wife of Emperor Constantius Chlorus and mother of Constantine I. 18 August 330

Constantinian dynasty

Portrait Name Birth Date of naming Description Death
Excideuil église vitrail choeur (7) Constantina
Avgvsta
307—317 After 312 Daughter of Emperor Constantine I. 354
Domitia Longina Albia Dominica
Albia Dominica Avgvsta
c. 337 364—378 Wife of Emperor Valens. After 378

Theodosian dynasty

Portrait Name Birth Date of naming Description Death
As-Aelia Flaccilla-antioch RIC 62 Aelia Flaccilla
Aelia Flavia Flaccilla Avgvsta
Before 385 Wife of Emperor Theodosius I. 386
Aelia Eudoxia coin Aelia Eudoxia
Aelia Evdoxia Avgvsta
9 January 400 Wife of Emperor Arcadius. 6 October 404
Pulcheria Coin Pulcheria
Aelia Pvlcheria Avgvsta
19 January 398–399 414 Daughter of Arcadius, sister of Theodosius II, sole ruler for a month following the death of Theodosius, then co-ruler with her husband Marcian. July 453
As Galla Placidia RIC 2113 Galla Placidia
Aelia Galla Placidia Avgvsta
392 c. 416 Daughter of Theodosius I, wife of Constantius III, regent for her son Valentinian III. 27 November 450
Alexander Nevsky Cathedral E1 Aelia Eudocia
Aelia Evdocia Avgvsta
401 2 January 423 Wife of Theodosius II 20 October 460
Solidus-Honoria-RIC 2022 Justa Grata Honoria
Ivsta Grata Honoria Avgvsta
After 426 Sister of Valentinian III.
Licinia Eudoxia Licinia Eudoxia
Licinia Evdoxia Avgvsta
422 439 Daughter of Theodosius II, Wife of Valentinian III. 462

Leonid dynasty

Portrait Name Birth Date of naming Description Death
Zenonis
Aelia Zenonis
475 Wife of Basiliscus. 476–477

Byzantine period

Justinian dynasty

Portrait Name Birth Date of naming Description Death
Meister von San Vitale in Ravenna 008 Theodora
Θεοδώρα,
Theodora Augusta
c. 500 9 August 527 Wife of Justinian I. 28 June 548
Sophia
Σοφία,
Aelia Sophia Augusta
568 Wife of Justin II, intermittent regent. c. 601
Ino Anastasia
Ἰνὼ,
Aelia Anastasia Augusta
578 Wife of Emperor Tiberius II. 593
Maurice follis with Constantina and Theodosius, Cherson mint Constantina
Κωνσταντῖνα
c. 560 582 Wife of Emperor Maurice. c. 605
Leontia
Λεοντία
602 Wife of Emperor Phocas.

Heraclian dynasty

Portrait Name Birth Date of naming Description Death
Augustina,
Αὐγουστίνα
639 Daughter of Heraclius.
Martina
Μαρτίνα
639 Second wife of Heraclius.
Fausta
Φαύστα
c. 630 642 Wife of Constans II. After 668

Isaurian dynasty

Portrait Name Birth Date of naming Description Death
Maria
Μαρία
25 August 718 Wife of Emperor Leo III the Isaurian.
Anna
Ἄννα
741–742 Wife of Artabasdos.
Eudokia
Ευδοκια
1 April 769 Third wife of Emperor Constantine V.
Solidus-Irene-sb1599 Irene of Athens
Eἰρήνη η Ἀθηναία
c. 752 17 December 769 Wife of Emperor Leo IV the Khazar, empress dowager and regent from 780 to 797. 9 August 803

Nikephorian dynasty

Portrait Name Birth Date of naming Description Death
Prokopia
Προκοπία
c. 770 12 October 811 Daughter of Emperor Nikephoros I and wife of Michael I Rhangabe. After 813

Amorian dynasty

Portrait Name Birth Date of naming Description Death
Solidus-Michael III-sb1686 Theodora
Θεοδώρα
c. 815 830 Wife of Emperor Theophilos and regent. After 867
MadridSkylitzesDaughtersOfTheodoraFol44v Thekla
Θέκλα
830s Daughter of Theophilos.
MadridSkylitzesDaughtersOfTheodoraFol44v Anna
Ἄννα
830s Daughter of Emperor Theophilos.
MadridSkylitzesDaughtersOfTheodoraFol44v Anastasia
Ἀναστασία
830s Daughter of Emperor Theophilos.

Macedonian dynasty

Portrait Name Birth Date of naming Description Death
Zoe Zaoutzaina
Ζωή Ζαούτζαινα
898 Third wife of Leo VI the Wise May 899
Theodora
Θεοδώρα
921 Wife of Romanos I. 20 February 922
Helena Lekapene
Ἑλένη Λεκαπηνή
c. 910 February 922 Wife of Constantine VII. 19 September 961
Sophia
Σοφία
February 922 Wife of Christopher Lekapenos.
Anna
Ἄννα
933 Daughter of Gabalas and wife of Stephen Lekapenos.

Komnenid dynasty

Portrait Name Birth Date of naming Description Death
Catherine of Bulgaria
Αἰκατερίνη
before 1018 1057 Empress-consort of Emperor Isaac I Komnenos. after 1059

Doukid dynasty

Portrait Name Birth Date of naming Description Death
Romanus IV histamenon with co-rulers Eudokia Makrembolitissa
Ευδοκία Μακρεμβολίτισσα
c. 1021 1059–1067 Second wife of Emperor Constantine X Doukas and later became the wife of Emperor Romanos IV Diogenes. 1096

Komnenid dynasty

Portrait Name Birth Date of naming Description Death
Anna Dalassena
Ἄννα Δαλασσηνή
1025 1081 Mother of Emperor Alexios I Komnenos. 1102

See also

References

Citations

  1. ^ a b Kazhdan 1991, pp. 694–695.
  2. ^ Barbara Levick (2014). Faustina I and II: Imperial Women of the Golden Age. Oxford University Press. p. 170. ISBN 978-0-19-537941-9.

Sources

Augustus (title)

Augustus (plural augusti; ; Classical Latin: [awˈɡʊstʊs], Latin for "majestic", "the increaser" or "venerable") was an ancient Roman title given as both name and title to Gaius Octavius (often referred to simply as Augustus), Rome's first Emperor. On his death, it became an official title of his successor, and was so used by Roman emperors thereafter. The feminine form Augusta was used for Roman empresses and other females of the Imperial family. The masculine and feminine forms originated in the time of the Roman Republic, in connection with things considered divine or sacred in traditional Roman religion. Their use as titles for major and minor Roman deities of the Empire associated the Imperial system and Imperial family with traditional Roman virtues and the divine will, and may be considered a feature of the Roman Imperial cult.

In Rome's Greek-speaking provinces, "Augustus" was translated as sebastos (σεβαστός, "venerable"), or Hellenised as Augoustos (αὔγουστος). After the fall of the Roman Empire, Augustus was sometimes used as a name for men of aristocratic birth, especially in the lands of the Holy Roman Empire. It remains a given name for males.

List of Roman and Byzantine Empresses

This is a list of women who were Roman Empress, i.e. the wife of the Roman emperor, the ruler of the Roman Empire.

The Romans had no single term for the position: Latin and Greek titles such as Augusta (Greek Augousta, the female form of the honorific Augustus, a title derived from the name of the first emperor, Augustus), Caesarissa (Greek Kaisarissa, the female form of the honorific Caesar, a title derived from the name of Julius Caesar), basilissa (Ancient Greek: βασίλισσα, the female form of basileus), and Autokratorissa, the female form of autocrat, were all used.

In the third century, Augustae could also receive the titles of Mater castrorum "mother of the castra" and Mater patriae "mother of the fatherland". Another title of the Byzantine empresses was Eusebestatē Augousta "Most Pious Augusta"; they were also called kyría κυρία "Lady" or déspoina δέσποινα, the female form of δεσπότης "despot". Due to the practice of dividing the Roman empire under different emperors, there were periods when there were more than one Roman empress. All the Roman empresses are listed with some co-empresses. Not all empresses were titled Augusta, and not all Augustae were empresses since the emperor's sister or mistress could bear that title. Some Caesarissas and Despoinas that never were empresses are included, since the titles were quite similar to Empress; however, in the Eastern Roman Empire these titles are often more equivalent to the modern term "crown princess".

The Western Roman Empire produced no known empresses regnant, though the obscure Ulpia Severina probably ruled in her own right for some time after the death of her husband, Aurelian.

The Eastern Roman Empire had three official empresses regnant: Irene of Athens, Zoë Porphyrogenita and Theodora. There never was a male emperor consort (i.e. a husband of an empress-regnant); however, some husband and wife couples, notably Justinian I and Theodora, were simultaneously coregnant.

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