List of Arabic star names

This is a list of Arabic star names. In Western astronomy, most of the accepted star names are Arabic, a few are Greek and some are of unknown origin. Typically only bright stars have names.[1]

History of Arabic star names

Very old star names originated among people who lived in the Arabian Peninsula more than a thousand years ago, before the rise of Islam. However, many Arabic language star names sprang up later in history, as translations of ancient Greek language descriptions.

The astronomer Claudius Ptolemy in his Almagest (2nd century) tabulated the celestial position and brightness (visual magnitude) of 1,025 stars. Ptolemy's book was translated into Arabic in the 8th and 9th centuries and became famous in Europe as a 12th-century Latin translation. Many of the Arabic-language star descriptions in the Almagest came to be widely used as names for stars.

Ptolemy used a strategy of "figure reference" to identify stars according to their position within a familiar constellation or asterism (e.g., "in the right shoulder of The Hunter"). Muslim astronomers adopted some of these as proper names for stars, and added names from traditional Arabic star lore, which they recorded in various Zij treatises. The most notable of these is the Book of Fixed Stars written by the Muslim astronomer Abd al-Rahman al-Sufi (known as Azophi in the West), who thoroughly illustrated all the stars known to him along with their observations, descriptions, positions, magnitudes, brightness, and color.

In Europe, during the Middle Ages and Renaissance, many ancient star names were copied or translated incorrectly by various writers, some of whom did not know the Arabic language very well. As a result, the history of a star's name can be complicated.[2]

A

Main group

(quantity: single)

Group and Sub-divisions

(quantity: plural)

Arab-Latinized star name ِِArabic star name

(vowelled)

Arabic star name Arabic transliterated name

[closest romanization]

Meaning ِِArabic star group/ division name

(vowelled)

ِِArabic star sub-division name

(vowelled)

[quantity: 2 and above]

Scientific star names
Group/ Division Name Transliterated Name

[closest romanization]

Meaning Sub-division Name(s) Transliterated Name

[closest romanization]

Meaning
Acamar آخِرُ ٱلْنََهْر آخر النهر Ākhiru-n-Nahr the River's or Stream's End/ Tail/ Edge/ Border Theta Eridani
Achernar آخِرُ ٱلْنََهْر آخر النهر Ākhiru-n-Nahr the River's or Stream's End/ Tail/ Edge/ Border Alpha Eridani
Acrab عَقْرَب عقرب ʽAqrab the Scorpion Beta Scorpii
Açubens الْزُّبَانَى الزّبانى ʼaz-Zubānā the Claw/ Dart/ Sting Alpha Cancri
Adhafera الْضَّفِيرَة الضفيرة aḍ-Ḍafiyrah/ the Braid/ Curl/ Strand (of the lion's mane) Zeta Leonis
Adhara الْعَذَارَى العذارى al-ʽAdhārā the Virgin/ Nymph الْعَذَارِي al-ʽAdhāriy the Virgins/ Nymphs أَوَّلُ ٱلْعَذَارِي ʼAwwalu-l-ʽAdhāriy First of the Virgins/ Nymphs Epsilon Canis Majoris
ثَانِيُ ٱلْعَذَارِي Thāniyu-l-ʽAdhāriy Second of the Virgins/ Nymphs Omicron² Canis Majoris
Adhil الْذَيْل الذيل adh-Dhayl the Tail/ Annex Xi Andromedae
Adib الْذِّئْب الذئب adh-Dhiʼb the Wolf Alpha Draconis

also known as Thuban

Ain عَيْن عين ʽAyn the Eye (of the bull) Epsilon Tauri
Aladfar أُظْفُور‎ الأظفر al-ʼUẓfūr the Talons (of the Swooping Eagle) Eta Lyrae
Alawaid

also nicknamed Alrubaʽ "the Four"

الْعَوَائِذ (الْرُّبَع) العوائذ (الربع) al-ʽAwāʼidh (ar-Rubaʽ) the Protecting Mother Camels; the Old Camels; nicknamed "the Four" الْعَوَائِذ al-ʽAwāʼidh the Protecting Mother Camels; the Old Camels; nicknamed "the Four" Gamma Draconis, Xi Draconis, Nu Draconis, Beta Draconis

[1st & main body of Draco* as observed in the past by the Arabs, also nicknamed الْرُّبَع ar-Rubaʽ]

*Draco was divided to 3 parts

الْعَوَّاد العوّاد al-ʽAwwād the Lutanist/ Lute Player Mu Draconis
Albali البَالِع‎ البالع al-Bāliʽ the Swallower Epsilon Aquarii
Alchibah الخِبَاء‎ الخباء al-Khibāʼ the Tent Alpha Corvi
Alcor الخَوَّار الخوار al-Khawwār the Faint One
Aldebaran اَلدَّبَرَان‎ الدبران ad-Dabarān the Follower (of the Pleiades) Alpha Tauri
fixed to here
Alderamin الذراع اليمين adh-Dhirāʽu l-Yamīn the Right Arm (of Cepheus) Alpha Cephei
Aldhibah الْضِّبَاع الضّباع ʼaḍ-Ḍibaāʽ/

ʼaḍ-Ḍibāʽ [Adh-Dhibaaʽ/ Adh-Dhibaaʽe]

the Hyenas Zeta Draconis
Aldhibain الْذِّئْبَيْن الذّئبين ʼadh-Dhiʼbayn

[Adzh-Dzhi'bayn/ Adzh-Dzhi'ebayn]

the Two Hyenas/ Wolves الْذِّئْبَيْن ʼadh-Dhiʼbayn

[Adzh-Dzhi'bayn/ Adzh-Dzhi'ebayn]

the Two Hyenas/ Wolves Zeta Draconis (Aldhibah), Eta Draconis

[formed and combination of 2 stars]

Aldulfin Al Dhanab al Dulfīm the Dolphin's Tail Epsilon Delphini
Alfirk الفرقة al-Firqah the Flock of sheep Beta Cephei
Algebar رجل الجبار (Rijl) ul-Jabbār (Foot of) the Giant Rigel

or

Beta Orionis

Algedi الجدي al-Jady the Goat Alpha2 Capricorni
Algenib الجنب al-Janb the Flank (of Pegasus) Gamma Pegasi
Algieba الجبهة al-Jab'hah the Forehead (of the Lion) Gamma Leonis
Algol رأس الغول (Ra'as) al-Ghūl (Head of) the Ghoul Beta Persei

also known as the Demon Star

Algorab الغراب al-Ghurāb the Crow Delta Corvi
Alhena الهنعة al-Hanʽah the Brand (on the neck of the camel) Gamma Geminorum
Alioth الجون Al-Jawn The black horse "John" Epsilon Ursae Majoris
Alkaid القائد بنات نعش al-Qā'id (banāt naʽash) the Leader (of the mourning maidens) Eta Ursae Majoris
Alkes الكأس al-Ka's the Cup Alpha Crateris
Almak/ Almach عَنَاقِ ٱلْأَرْض عناق الأرض ʼal-ʽAnāqi ʼl-Arḍ

[Al-ʽAnaaqi 'l-Ardh]

the Caracal/ Desert Lynx; other meaning: "She-kid/ She-Goat of the land" Gamma Andromedae
Almeisan الميسان al-Maysān the Shining one Gamma Geminorum

see also Alhena

Alnair النّيّر an-Nayyir the Bright one Alpha Gruis
Alnasl النصل an-Naşl the Blade Gamma² Sagittarii
Alnilam النّظم an-Niżm the String of Pearls Epsilon Orionis
Alnitak النطاق an-Niṭāq the Girdle (Orion's Belt) Zeta Orionis
Alphard الفرد al-Fard the Solitary one Alpha Hydrae
Alphecca نير الفكّة (Nayyir) al-Fakkah (the Bright one of) the Broken (Ring) Alpha Coronae Borealis
Alpheratz سُرَّة الفرس (Surrat) al-Faras (Navel of) the Mare Alpha Andromedae
Alruba' HD 161693 also designated HR 6618
Alrescha الرشاء ar-Rishā' the Well-Rope Alpha Piscium
Alsafi الْصَّافِيّ الصافيّ aṣ-Ṣaāfiyy/

aṣ-Ṣāfiyy [Asw-Swaafiyy/

As-Ssaafiyy]

the Tripods Sigma Draconis
Alsuhail سهيل Suhayl Glorious can refer to different stars: Canopus Gamma

Velorum

Lambda Velorum

Altair النّسر الطّائر (an-Nisr) uṭ-Ṭāʼir the Flying (Eagle) Alpha Aquilae
Altais التيس at-Tays the Goat Delta Draconis
Alterf الطرف aṭ-Ṭarf the View (of the Lion) Lambda Leonis
Aludra العذرة al-ʽUdhrah Virginity Eta Canis Majoris
Alula Australis, Alula Borealis القفزة الأولى (al-Qafzat) ul-Ūla' the First (Leap) Xi Ursae Majoris

and

Nu Ursae Majoris

Alya الألية al-Alyah the fatty Tail of a sheep Theta Serpentis
Alsephina السفينة Al-Safinah the ship Delta Velorum
Angetenar عرجة النهر ʽArjat un-Nahr Curve of the River Tau² Eridani
Ankaa العنقاء al-ʽAnqā' Phoenix Alpha Phoenicis
Arkab العرقوب al-ʽArqūb the Hamstring Beta Sagittarii
Arneb الأرنب al-Arnab the Hare Alpha Leporis
Arrakis الْرَّاقِص الراقص ʼar-Rāqiṣ

[Ar-Raaqis/ Ar-Raaqiss]

the Dancer; Trotting Camel Arrakis الْرَّاقِص ʼar-Rāqiṣ

[Ar-Raaqis/ Ar-Raaqiss]

the group Alwaid combined with the "Mother Dragon" - Mu Draconis becomes the group Arrakis Mu Draconis

[2nd sector of Draco* as observed in the past by the Arabs]

*Draco was divided to 3 parts

Asuja (improperly spelt Asuia) الْشُّجَاع الشجاع ʼash-Shujaāʽ/

ʼash-Shujāʽ

[Ash-Shujaaʽ/

Ash-Shujaaʽe]

the Hydra/ Sea-Serpent Beta Draconis
Atik عاتق الثّريّا al-ʽĀtiq ath-Thurayyā the Shoulder (of Perseus) Omicron Persei
Auva العوّاء al-ʽAwwā' the Barking (Dog) Delta Virginis

also known as Minelauva

Azfar Adib أَظْفَارُ ٱلْذِّئْب أظفار الذئب ʼAẓfaāru ʼdh-Dhiʼb/

ʼAẓfaāru ʼdh-Dhiʼb

[Azw·faru ʼdh-Dhiʼb/

Azz·faru ʼdh-Dhiʼb]

the Wolf's Nails/ Fingerprints Azfar Adib أَظْفَارُ ٱلْذِّئْب أظفار الذئب ʼAẓfaāru ʼdh-Dhiʼb/

ʼAẓfaāru ʼdh-Dhiʼb

[Azw·faru ʼdh-Dhiʼb/

Azz·faru ʼdh-Dhiʼb]

the Wolf's Nails/ Fingerprints [3rd sector of Draco* as observed in the past by the Arabs]

*Draco was divided to 3 parts

Azha اشیانه (Persian: Ôshyôneh) Āshiyānah (Ostrich) Nest Eta Eridani

B

Common name Arabic name (transliteration) Meaning Arabic name Scientific star name
Baham Sa'ad ul-Biham Luck of the Young Beasts سعد البهام Theta Pegasi
Baten Kaitos Baṭni Qayṭus Belly of Cetus بطن قيطوس Zeta Ceti
Beid Bayḍ Eggs بيض Omicron¹ Eridani
Benetnash Banāt un-Naʿash Daughters of the bier بنات النعش Eta Ursae Majoris

see also Alkaid

Betelgeuse Ibṭ ul-Jawzā' Armpit of the Central One إبط الجوزاء Alpha Orionis
Botein al-Buṭayn the Belly (of the ram) بطين Delta Arietis

C

Common name Arabic name (transliteration) Meaning Arabic name Scientific star name
Caph al-Kaff ul-Khaḍib the Palm (reaching from the Pleiades) الكـــف الخضيب Beta Cassiopeiae
Celbalrai Kalb ur-Rāʿī the Shepherd's Dog كلب الراعي Beta Ophiuchi
Chort al-Kharat the Rib الخرت Theta Leonis
Cursa Kursiyy al-Jauzah the Chair or Footstool (of Orion) الكرسيّ Beta Eridani

D

Common name Arabic name (transliteration) Meaning Arabic name Scientific star name
Dabih Saʿad udh-Dhābiḥ the lucky star of the Slaughterer سّعد الذّابح Beta Capricorni
Deneb Dhanab ud-Dajājah Tail of the hen ذنب الدجاجة alpha Cygni
Deneb Algedi Dhanab ul-Jady Tail of the goat ذنب الجدي Delta Capricorni
Deneb Dulfim Dhanab ud-Dulfīn Tail of the Dolphin ذنب الدّلفين Epsilon Delphini
Deneb Kaitos Dhanab ul-Qayṭus (ul-Janūbīyy) (Southern) Tail of Cetus ذنب قيطوس الجنوبي Beta Ceti

see also Diphda

Denebola Dhanab ul-Asad Tail of the lion ذنب الاسد Beta Leonis
Diphda aḍ-Ḍifdaʿ ath-Thānī the (second) Frog الضّفدع الثاني Beta Ceti
Dschubba al-Jab'hah the Forehead (of the scorpion) الجبهة Delta Scorpii
Dubhe Kāhil ud-Dubb (the back of) the Bear كاهل الدّب Alpha Ursae Majoris
Dziban adh-Dhi'ban the Two Wolves or Jackals الذئبان Psi Draconis

E

Common name Arabic name (transliteration) Meaning Arabic name Scientific star name
Edasich adh-Dhikh the Hyena الذّيخ Iota Draconis
El Nath an-Naṭḥ the butting (of the bull's horns) النطح Beta Tauri
Eltanin/ Etamin/ Etanin (properly: Raseltinnin) at-Tinnin the Great Serpent التنين Gamma Draconis
Enif al-Anf the Nose (of Pegasus) الأنف Epsilon Pegasi
Errai ar-Rāʿī the Shepherd الراعي Gamma Cephei

F

Common name Arabic name (transliteration) Meaning Arabic name Scientific star name
Fomalhaut Fum al-Ḥūt Mouth of the Whale فم الحوت Alpha Piscis Austrini
Furud al-Furud the bright Single ones (but see that article) الفرد Zeta Canis Majoris

G

Common name Arabic name (transliteration) Meaning Arabic name Scientific star name
Gienah al-Janāḥ the Wing الجناح refers to two stars:
Gomeisa al-Ghumaişā' the Bleary-eyed one الغميصاء Beta Canis Minoris

H

Common name Arabic name (transliteration) Meaning Arabic name Scientific star name
Hadar Ḥaḍār Settlement حضار Beta Centauri
Hamal Rā's al-Ḥamal (head of) the Ram رأس الحمل Alpha Arietis
Heka al-Haqʿah the White Spot الهقعة Lambda Orionis

see also Meissa

Homam Saʿad al-Humām the Lucky star of the High-minded سعد الهمام Zeta Pegasi

I

Common name Arabic name (transliteration) Meaning Arabic name Scientific star name
Iklil Iklīl al Jabhah The Crown of the Forehead Rho Scorpii
Izar Al-Izar The girdle, or, The loin-cloth الإزار Epsilon Boötis

J

Common name Arabic name Meaning Arabic name Scientific star name
Jabbah al-Jab'hah the Forehead (of the scorpion) الجبهة Nu Scorpii

K

Common name Arabic name (transliteration) Meaning Arabic name Scientific star name
Kabdhilinan Kaʿab Dhiy l-ʿInān the Shoulder of the Rein-holder كعب ذي العنان Iota Aurigae

also named Hassaleh

Kaffaljidhma al-Kaff al-Jadhmā' the Cut-short Hand الكف الجذماء Gamma Ceti
Kaus Australis, Kaus Media, Kaus Borealis al-Qaws the Bow القوس Epsilon Sagittarii

Delta Sagittarii

Lambda Sagittarii

Keid al-Qaiḍ the (broken egg) Shells القيض Omicron² Eridani
Kitalpha Qiṭʿat al-Faras Part of the Horse قطعة الفرس Alpha Equulei
Kochab al-Kawkab the Star كوكب Beta Ursae Minoris
Kurhah al-Qurḥah the Blaze on a horse's brow القرحة Xi Cephei

L

Common name Arabic name (transliteration) Meaning Arabic name Scientific star name
Lesath al-Lasʿah The sting اللسعة Upsilon Scorpii
Luh-Denebola / Denebola Dhanab al-Asad/al-Layth the lion's tail ذنب الاسد/الليث Beta Leonis

M

Arab-Latinized star name Arabic star name

(vowelled)

Arabic star name Arabic name (transliteration) Meaning Scientific star name
Maasym معصم الثّريّا al-Miʿasam uth-Thurayyā the Wrist (of Hercules) Lambda Herculis
Maaz المعز al-Māʿaz the he-Goat Epsilon Aurigae
Mankib منكب الفرس Mankib (ul-Faras) the Shoulder (of the Horse) Alpha Pegasi
Marfik المرفق al-Mirfaq the Elbow Lambda Ophiuchi
Markab مركب الفرس Markab (ul-Faras) the Saddle (of the Horse) Alpha Pegasi
Markeb مركب Markab Something to Ride Kappa Velorum
Matar سعد مطر al-Saʿad ul-Maṭar the lucky star of Rain Eta Pegasi
Mebsuta الذّراع المبسوطه adh-Dhirāʿu l-Mabsūṭah the Outstretched (Paw) Epsilon Geminorum
Megrez مغرز al-Maghriz the Base of the bear's tail Delta Ursae Majoris
Meissa الميسان al-Maysān the Shining one Lambda Orionis
Mekbuda الذّراع المقبوضة adh-Dhirāʿu l-Maqbūḍah the Folded (Arm) Zeta Geminorum
Meleph Al Ma᾽laf the Stall Epsilon Cancri
Menkalinan منكب ذي العنان Mankib Dhiyi l-ʿInān Shoulder of the Rein-holder Beta Aurigae
Menkar المنخر al-Minkhar the Nostril Alpha Ceti
Menkent منكب قنطورس Mankib ul-Qanṭūris the Shoulder of the Centaur Theta Centauri
Menkib منكب الثّريّا Al-Mankib uth-Thurayyā "The shoulder" of the Pleiades
Merak الْمِرَاقّ المراقّ ʼal-Marāqq

[Al-Maraaqq]

the Loins (of the bear) Beta Ursae Majoris
Mintaka المنطقة al-Minṭaqah the Belt (of Orion) Delta Orionis
Mirach الْمِرَاقّ المراقّ ʼal-Marāqq the Loins/ Loinclotht Beta Andromedae
Mirak الْمِرَاقّ المراقّ ʼal-Marāqq the Loin-cloth Epsilon Boötis
Mirfak مرفق الثّريّا al-Mirfaq uth-Thurayyā the Elbow Alpha Persei
Mizar المئزر al-Mi'zar the Apron Zeta Ursae Majoris
Mothallah الرعس المثلث Ra'as ul-Muthallath (Head of) the Triangle Alpha Trianguli
Muhlifain مُحْلِفَيْن محلفين ʼal-Muḥlifayn

[Al-MuḤlifayn]

Gamma Centauri
Muliphein مُحْلِفَيْن محلفين ʼal-Muḥlifayn

[Al-MuḤlifayn]

Gamma Canis Majoris
Muphrid المفرد الرامح Mufrid ur-Rāmiḥ the Solitary one of the Lancer Eta Boötis
Murzim/ Mirzam الْمُرْزِم \الْمِرْزَم المرزم ʼal-Murzim/ ʼal-Mirzam the Herald Beta Canis Majoris

N

Common name Arabic name (transliteration) Meaning Arabic name Scientific star name
Nashira Saʿad Nāshirah Lucky star of Nashirah سعد ناشرة Gamma Capricorni
Nekkar al-Baqqār the Cattleman البقار Beta Boötis
Nihal an-Nihāl (camels) Quenching their thirst النهال Beta Leporis
Nusakan an-Nasaqān The two arrays النسقان Beta Coronae Borealis
Nushaba / Alnasl Zujji n-Nashshāba [Zujji n-Nashāba?] / an-Naşl the Arrowhead زُجِّ النشابة / النصل Gamma Sagittarii

O

Common name Arabic name (transliteration) Meaning Arabic name Scientific star name
Okda al-ʿUqdah the Knot العقدة Alpha Piscium

P

Common name Arabic name (transliteration) Meaning Arabic name Scientific star name
Phact (al-)Fākhitah the Dove فاخثة Alpha Columbae
Phad (al-)Fakhidh the Thigh فخذ Gamma Ursae Majoris
Pherkad (al-)Farqad the Calf فرقد Gamma Ursae Minoris

R

Common name Arabic name (transliteration) Meaning Arabic name Scientific star name
Rasalased Ra'as ul-Assad Head of the lion رأس الأسد Epsilon Leonis
Rasalgethi Ra'as ul-Jathī Head of the Kneeler رأس الجاثي Alpha Herculis
Rasalhague Ra'as ul-Ḥawwā' Head of the Snake-man رأس الحوّاء Alpha Ophiuchi
Rastaban Ra'as uth-Thuʿabān Head of the Snake رأس الثعبان Beta Draconis
Rigel Rijl ul-Jabbār Foot of the Giant رجل الجبّار Beta Orionis

see also Algebar

Rigilkent Rijl ul-Qanṭūris Foot of the Centaur رجل القنطورس Alpha Centauri
Risha ar-Rishā' the Well-Rope الرشاء Alpha Piscium
Rukbah ar-Rukbah the Knee الركبة Delta Cassiopeiae
Rukbat Rukbat ur-Rāmī Knee of the archer ركبة الرامي Alpha Sagittarii

S

Common namesaba ! Arabic name (transliteration) Meaning Arabic name Scientific star name
Sabik as-Sābiq the Preceding السابق Eta Ophiuchi
Sadachbia Saʿad ul-Akhbiyyah Lucky star of the Tents سعد الاخبية Gamma Aquarii
Sadalbari Saʿad ul-Bāriʿ Lucky star of the Splendid one سعد البارع Mu Pegasi
Sadalmelik Saʿad ul-Malik Lucky star of the King سعد الملك Alpha Aquarii
Sadalsuud Saʿad us-Suʿūd Luck of Lucks سعد السعود Beta Aquarii
Sadr aṣ-Ṣadr the Breast (of the hen) الصدر Gamma Cygni
Saiph as-Sayf the Sword (of Orion) السيف Kappa Orionis
Scheat as-Sāʿid the Shoulder الساعد Beta Pegasi
Shaula ash-Shawlāh the Raised (tail of the scorpion) الشولة Lambda Scorpii
Shedir as-Ṣadr the Breast الصدر Alpha Cassiopeiae
Sheliak ash-Shiliyāq Lyra الشلياق Beta Lyrae
Sheratan ash-Sharāṭān the Two Signs الشرطان Beta Arietis
Sirrah Surratu l-Faras Navel (of the Mare) سُرَّة الفرس Alpha Andromedae
Skat as-Sāq (or Shi'at) the Leg (or the Wish) الساق / شئت Delta Aquarii
Spica as-Sunbulah the Stem السنبلة Alpha Virginis
Sulafat as-Sulḥafāh the Tortoise السلحفاة Gamma Lyrae

T

Arab-Latinized name Arabic star name

(vowelled)

Arabic star name Arabic name (transliteration) Meaning Scientific star name
Talitha Australis, Talitha Borealis القفزة الثّالثة القفزة الثّالثة al-Qafzat uth-Thālathah the Third Leap (of the ghazal) Kappa Ursae Majoris
Tania Australis, Tania Borealis القفزة الثّانية القفزة الثّانية al-Qafzat uth-Thāniyah the Second Leap (of the gazelle) Mu Ursae Majoris
Tarf الطرف الطرف aț-Țarf "The glance" of the lion Beta Cancri
Thuban الْثُّعْبَان الثعبان ath-Thuʽabān

[Ath-ThuʽAbaan]

the Snake Alpha Draconis

U

Common name Arabic name (transliteration) Meaning Arabic name Scientific star name
Unukalhai ʿUnuq ul-Ḥayyah Neck of the Snake عنق الحية Alpha Serpentis

V

Common name Arabic name (transliteration) Meaning Arabic name Scientific star name
Vega an-Nisr ul-Wāqiʿ the Falling Eagle النسر الواقع Alpha Lyrae

W

Common name Arabic name (transliteration) Meaning Arabic name Scientific star name
Wasat Wasṭ us-Samā' "Middle" of the sky وسط السماء Delta Geminorum
Wezen al-Wazn the Weight الوزن Delta Canis Majoris
Wezn al-Wazn the Weight الوزن Beta Columbae

Y

Common name Arabic name (transliteration) Meaning Arabic name Scientific star name
Yed Posterior Mu'akhkhir Yad ul-Ḥawwā' (Back of the Snake Man's) Hand مؤخّر يد الحوّاء Epsilon Ophiuchi
Yed Prior Muqaddim Yad ul-Ḥawwā' (Palm of the Snake Man's) Hand مقدّم يد الحوّاء Delta Ophiuchi

Z

Common name Arabic name (transliteration) Meaning Arabic name Scientific star name
Zaurac az-Zawraq the Boat الزورق Gamma Eridani
Zavijava Zāwiyat ul-ʿAwwā' the Angle of the Barking Dog زاوية العواء Beta Virginis
Zawiah

aka Zaniah

az-Zāwiyah The angle الزاوية Eta Virginis
Zubenelgenubi az-Zubān ul-Janūbiy Southern Claw (of the scorpion) الزبان الجنوبي Alpha Librae
Zubenelhakrabi Zuban al-ʿAqrab Claws (of the scorpion) زبانى العقرب Gamma Librae
Zubeneshamali az-Zubān ush-Shamāliy Northern Claw (of the scorpion) الزبان الشمالي Beta Librae

Others

Common name Arabic name (transliteration) Meaning Arabic name
Milky Way Darb ut-Tabānah The Milky Road درب التبانة
Andromeda Galaxy as-Saḥābat uş-Şaghirah ("small cloud")[3][4] "little cloud" was the Arabic name for the Andromeda Galaxy, which was first mentioned by Al-Sufi in his Book of Fixed Stars السَحَابَة الصَغِيرَة

See also

References

  1. ^ "Stargazing Network". Stargazing.net. Retrieved 2011-10-05.
  2. ^ "Star Names: Where Do They Come From? And Can You Buy One?", RMSC Strasenburgh Planetarium Information Bulletin #19 December 1996, (archived 2007)
  3. ^ Henbest, N.; Couper, H. (1994). The guide to the galaxy. p. 31. ISBN 0-521-45882-X.
  4. ^ Kepple, G. R.; Sanner, G. W. (1998). The Night Sky Observer's Guide. Vol. 1. Willmann-Bell. p. 18. ISBN 0-943396-58-1.
  • Islamic Crescents' Observation Project (ICOP) website, which in turn cites
    • Paul Kunitzsch, Tim Smart, Short Guide to Modern Star Names and Their Derivations (1986);
    • Guy Ottewell, The Astronomical Companion;
    • Abdul-Rahim Bader, Rasd al-Sama' ("Observing the Sky");
    • Hamid Al-Naimy Elm al-Falak ("Astronomy").

External links

Alcor (star)

Alcor is the fainter companion of Mizar, the two stars forming a naked eye double in the handle of the Big Dipper (or Plough) asterism in the constellation of Ursa Major. The two both lie about 83 light-years away from the Sun, as measured by the Hipparcos astrometry satellite.

Arabic name

Arabic names were historically based on a long naming system; most Arabs did not have given/middle/family names, but a full chain of names. This system is mainly in use throughout the Arab world.

Arabic star

For stars with Arabic names, see List of Arabic star names.The Arabic star is a punctuation mark developed to be distinct from the asterisk (*). The asterisk had existed in feudal times, and the original shape of the asterisk was six-pointed, each point like a teardrop coming from the center. However, some typewriters had difficulty printing the six arms distinctly.

The Arabic star is given a distinct character in Unicode, U+066D ٭ ARABIC FIVE POINTED STAR (HTML ٭ · noted: "Appearance rather variable"), in the range Arabic punctuation.

Astronomical naming conventions

In ancient times, only the Sun and Moon, a few stars, and the most easily visible planets had names. Over the last few hundred years, the number of identified astronomical objects has risen from hundreds to over a billion, and more are discovered every year. Astronomers need to be able to assign systematic designations to unambiguously identify all of these objects, and at the same time give names to the most interesting objects and, where relevant, features of those objects.

The International Astronomical Union (IAU) is the officially recognized authority in astronomy for assigning designations to celestial bodies such as stars, planets, and minor planets, including any surface features on them. In response to the need for unambiguous names for astronomical objects, it has created a number of systematic naming systems for objects of various sorts.

Influence of Arabic on other languages

Arabic has had a great influence on other languages, especially in vocabulary. The influence of Arabic has been most profound in those countries dominated by Islam or Islamic power. Arabic is a major source of vocabulary for languages as diverse as Amharic, Baluchi, Bengali, Berber, Bosnian, Chaldean, Chechen, Croatian, Dagestani, English, German, Gujarati, Hausa,

Hebrew,

Hindi,

Kazakh, Kurdish, Kutchi, Kyrgyz, Malay (Malaysian and Indonesian), Pashto, Persian, Punjabi, Rohingya, Romance languages (French, Catalan, Italian, Portuguese, Sicilian, Spanish, etc.) Saraiki, Sindhi, Somali, Sylheti, Swahili, Tagalog, Tigrinya, Turkish, Turkmen, Urdu, Uyghur, Uzbek, Visayan and Wolof as well as other languages in countries where these languages are spoken. For example, the Arabic word for book (كتاب kitāb) is used in most of the languages listed. Other languages such as Maltese and Nubi derive from Arabic, rather than merely borrowing vocabulary. Spanish has the largest Arabic influenced vocabulary outside the Islamic world due to Muslim rule in the Iberian Peninsula from 711 until 1492 known as Al-Andalus, although Spain's re-Christianization and resulting loss of contact with Quranic Arabic has led to a significant shift in both meaning and pronunciation of Spanish words of Arabic etymology.

The terms borrowed range from religious terminology (like Berber taẓallit "prayer" < salat), academic terms (like Uyghur mentiq "logic"), to everyday conjunctions (like Urdu/Hindi/Punjabi lekin "but".) Most Berber varieties (such as Kabyle), along with Swahili, borrow some numbers from Arabic. Most religious terms used by Muslims around the world are direct borrowings from Arabic, such as ṣalāt 'prayer' and imām 'prayer leader'. In languages not directly in contact with the Arab world, Arabic loanwords are often mediated by other languages rather than being transferred directly from Arabic; for example many older Arabic loanwords in Hausa were borrowed from Kanuri.

Outside the Islamic world, there are more limited borrowings from Arabic, usually to denote vegetables and other articles in commerce, such as "aubergine", "alcohol" and also some other terms like "admiral". Among European languages, these mostly were transmitted through Turkish and Spanish.

List of proper names of stars

These names of stars that have either been approved by the International Astronomical Union (its Working Group on Star Names has since 2016 been publishing a "List of IAU-approved Star Names", which as of June 2018 included a total of 330 proper names of stars) or which have been in somewhat recent usage. See also the lists of stars by constellation, which give variant names, derivations, and magnitudes.

Of the roughly 10,000 stars visible to the naked eye, only a few hundred have been given proper names in the history of astronomy. Traditional astronomy tends to group stars into asterisms, and give proper names to those, not to individual stars.

Many star names are in origin descriptive of the part of the asterism they are found in; thus Phecda, a corruption of the Arabic -فخذ الدب- fakhth al-dubb "thigh of the bear". Only a handful of the brightest stars have individual proper names not depending on their asterism; so Sirius "the scorcher", Antares "like Mars", Canopus (of uncertain origin), Alphard "the solitary one", Regulus "kinglet"; and arguably Aldebaran "the follower" (of the Pleiades), Procyon "preceding the dog [Sirius]". The same holds for Chinese star names, where most stars are enumerated within their asterisms, with a handful of exceptions such as 織女 "weaving girl" (Vega).

In addition to the limited number of traditional star names, there are some coined in modern times, e.g. "Avior" for Epsilon Carinae (1930), and a number of stars named after people (mostly in the 20th century).

Lists of star names

In astronomy, star names, in contrast to star designations, are proper names of stars that have emerged from usage in pre-modern astronomical traditions. Lists of these names appear in the following articles:

List of Arabic star names

List of proper names of stars: traditional proper names in modern usage around astronomy

by constellation

in alphabetical order

Stars named after people

Traditional Chinese star names

Lists of stars

The following are lists of stars. These are astronomical objects that spend some portion of their existence generating energy through thermonuclear fusion.

Mizar and Alcor

Mizar and Alcor are two stars forming a naked eye double in the handle of the Big Dipper (or Plough) asterism in the constellation of Ursa Major. Mizar is the second star from the end of the Big Dipper's handle, and Alcor its fainter companion. The traditional name Mizar derives from the Arabic المئزر miʼzar meaning 'apron; wrapper, covering, cover'.

Alcor was originally Arabic سها‎ Suhā/Sohā, meaning either the ‘forgotten’ or ‘neglected’ one; notable as a faintly perceptible companion of Mizar.

Mizar, also designated Zeta Ursae Majoris (ζ Ursae Majoris, abbreviated Zeta UMa, ζ UMa), is itself a quadruple system and Alcor, also designated 80 Ursae Majoris (80 UMa), is a binary, the pair together forming a sextuple system. The whole system lies about 83 light-years away from the Sun, as measured by the Hipparcos astrometry satellite.

Outline of astronomy

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to astronomy:

Astronomy – studies the universe beyond Earth, including its formation and development, and the evolution, physics, chemistry, meteorology, and motion of celestial objects (such as galaxies, planets, etc.) and phenomena that originate outside the atmosphere of Earth (such as the cosmic background radiation).

Proper names (astronomy)

Some astronomical objects have proper names (common names, popular names, traditional names); as opposed to catalogue numbers or other systematic designations.

This trivially includes the naked-eye planets as well as the Sun and Moon.

A small number of stars have proper names in pre-modern astronomical tradition, but most naked-eye stars are identified by their Bayer or Flamsteed designations.

In modern astronomy, there has been a tradition of giving proper names to newly discovered heavenly bodies, initiated with the discovery of the planets beyond Saturn, and later extended to minor planets and moons.

Star catalogue

A star catalogue (Commonwealth English) or star catalog (American English), is an astronomical catalogue that lists stars. In astronomy, many stars are referred to simply by catalogue numbers. There are a great many different star catalogues which have been produced for different purposes over the years, and this article covers only some of the more frequently quoted ones. Star catalogues were compiled by many different ancient people, including the Babylonians, Greeks, Chinese, Persians, and Arabs. They were sometimes accompanied by a star chart for illustration. Most modern catalogues are available in electronic format and can be freely downloaded from space agencies data centres.

Completeness and accuracy is described by the weakest apparent magnitude V (largest number) and the accuracy of the positions.

Stellar designations and names

In astronomy, stars have a variety of different stellar designations and names, including catalogue designations, current and historical proper names, and foreign language names.

Only a tiny minority of known stars have proper names; all others have only designations from various catalogues or lists, or no identifier at all. Hipparchus in the 2nd century BC enumerated about 850 naked-eye stars. Johann Bayer in 1603 listed about twice this number. Only in the 19th century did star catalogues list the naked-eye stars exhaustively. The Bright Star Catalogue, which is a star catalogue listing all stars of apparent magnitude 6.5 or brighter, or roughly every star visible to the naked eye from Earth, contains 9,096 stars. The most voluminous modern catalogues list on the order of a billion stars, out of an estimated total of 200 to 400 billion in the Milky Way.

Proper names may be historical, often transliterated from Arabic or Chinese names. Such transliterations can vary so there may be multiple spellings. A smaller number of names have been introduced since the Middle Ages, and a few in modern times as nicknames have come into popular use, for example Sualocin for α Delphini and Navi for γ Cassiopeiae.

The International Astronomical Union (IAU) has begun a process to select and formalise unique proper names for the brighter naked-eye stars and for other stars of popular interest. To the IAU, name refers to the (usually colloquial) term used for a star in everyday speech, while "designation is solely alphanumerical" and used almost exclusively in official catalogues and for professional astronomy. Many of the names and some of the designations in use today were inherited from the time before the IAU existed. Other designations are being added all the time. As of the start of 2019, the IAU had decided on a little over 300 proper names, mostly for the brighter naked-eye stars.

Formation
Evolution
Spectral
classification
Remnants
Hypothetical
Nucleosynthesis
Structure
Properties
Star systems
Earth-centric
observations
Lists
Related articles

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