List of Ancient Greek temples

This list of ancient Greek temples covers temples built by the Hellenic people from the 6th century BC until the 2nd century AD on mainland Greece and in Hellenic towns in the Aegean Islands, Asia Minor, Sicily and Italy, wherever there were Greek colonies, and the establishment of Greek culture. Ancient Greek architecture was of very regular form, the construction being "post and lintel". There are three clearly defined styles: the Doric Order, found throughout Greece, Sicily and Italy; the Ionic Order, from Asia Minor, with examples in Greece; and the more ornate Corinthian Order, used initially only for interiors, becoming more widely used during the Hellenistic period from the 1st century BC onwards and used extensively by Roman architects.

Each ancient Greek temple was dedicated to a specific god within the pantheon and was used in part as a storehouse for votive offerings. Unlike a church, the interior space was not used as a meeting place, but held trophies and a large cult statue of the deity.

Tempio di Zeus Olimpo apr2005 02
The Temple of Olympian Zeus, Athens, (174 BC-132 AD), with the Parthenon (447-432 BC) in the background

Terminology

Greek temples
Plans of Ancient Greek Temples
Top: 1. distyle in antis, 2. amphidistyle in antis, 3. tholos, 4. prostyle tetrastyle, 5. amphiprostyle tetrastyle,
Bottom: 6. dipteral octastyle, 7. peripteral hexastyle, 8. pseudoperipteral hexastyle, 9. pseudodipteral octastyle

Most ancient Greek temples were rectangular, and were approximately twice as long as they were wide, with some notable exceptions such as the enormous Temple of Olympian Zeus, Athens with a length of nearly 2 1/2 times its width. A number of surviving temple-like structures are circular, and are referred to as tholos.[1]

The smallest temples are less than 25 metres (approx. 75 feet) in length, or in the case of the circular tholos, in diameter. The great majority of temples are between 30–60 metres (approx. 100–200 feet) in length. A small group of Doric temples, including the Parthenon, are between 60–80 metres (approx. 200–260 feet) in length. The largest temples, mainly Ionic and Corinthian, but including the Doric Temple of the Olympian Zeus, Agrigento, were between 90–120 metres (approx. 300–390 feet) in length.

The temple rises from a stepped base or "stylobate", which elevates the structure above the ground on which it stands. Early examples, such as the Temple of Zeus, Olympia, have two steps, but the majority, like the Parthenon, have three, with the exceptional example of the Temple of Apollo, Didyma, having six.[2] The core of the building is a masonry-built "naos" within which is a cella, a windowless room originally housing the statue of the god. The cella generally has a porch or "pronaos" before it, and perhaps a second chamber or "antenaos" serving as a treasury or repository for trophies and gifts. The chambers were lit by a single large doorway, fitted with a wrought iron grill. Some rooms appear to have been illuminated by skylights.[2]

On the stylobate, often completely surrounding the naos, stand rows of columns. Each temple is defined as being of a particular type, with two terms: one describing the number of columns across the entrance front, and the other defining their distribution.[2]

Examples:

  • Distyle in antis describes a small temple with two columns at the front, which are set between the projecting walls of the pronaos or porch, like the Temple of Nemesis at Rhamnus.(see left, figure 1.)[2]
  • Amphiprostyle tetrastyle describes a small temple that has columns at both ends which stand clear of the naos. Tetrastyle indicates that the columns are four in number, like those of the Temple on the Ilissus in Athens.(Figure 4.)[2]
  • Peripteral hexastyle describes a temple with a single row of peripheral columns around the naos, with six columns across the front, like the Theseion in Athens. (Figure 7.) [2]
  • Peripteral octastyle describes a temple with a single row of columns around the naos, (Figure 7.) with eight columns across the front, like the Parthenon, Athens.(Figs. 6 and 9.)[2]
  • Dipteral decastyle describes the huge temple of Apollo at Didyma, with the naos surrounded by a double row of columns, (Figure 6.) with ten columns across the entrance front.[2]
  • The Temple of the Olympian Zeus, Agrigento, is termed Pseudo-periteral heptastyle, because its encircling colonnade has pseudo columns that are attached to the walls of the naos. (Figure 8.) Heptastyle means that it has seven columns across the entrance front.[2]

Note:

Precise measurements are not available for all buildings. Some have foundations that are intact and have been well surveyed so that the dimensions can be stated with accuracy. For others the size can only be estimated from scant remains. In these cases, in converting, measurements are stated to the nearest whole number. Some measurements may have been made originally in feet, converted to metres for publication, and converted back to feet for this article, with slight differences from some older publication.

The list

Sorting behaviour (by column #):

  1. Towns' alphabetical order
  2. Towns by region (A-Greece, B-Turkey, C-Italy, D-Italy/Sicily)
  3. By coordinates
  4. By the deity’s name
  5. By date
  6. By area size
  7. By temple style (1-Doric, 2-Doric with Ionic or Corinthian elements, 3-Ionic, 4-Corinthian)
Ancient place name Modern place name
(country)
Coordinates Temple's name Date Dimens. Notes Images
Corinth Corinth
(Greece)
37°54′57″N 22°59′35″E / 37.91583°N 22.99305°E Temple of Isthmia c.
690 - 650 BC
[3]
14.018 m × 40.05 m [ 45.99 ft × 131.40 ft ]
[4]
The date of the Archaic temple's construction establishes when monumental architecture began in Greece, as well as when the transition from Iron Age architecture to Doric occurred. This was also the point at which the Greek temple became a defined form.<[5] Archaic Temple at Isthmia, Greece
Corcyra Corfu
(Greece)
39°36′13″N 19°55′28″E / 39.6035°N 19.9245°E Temple of Hera, Mon Repos c.
610 BC
20140418 corfu179
Corcyra Corfu
(Greece)
39°36′28″N 19°55′04″E / 39.6077°N 19.917706°E Temple of Artemis c.
580 BC
23.46 m × 49.00 m [ 76.97 ft × 160.76 ft ]
[6]
Doric peripteral pseudodipteral temple,[6] which may be the earliest known to incorporate all the major elements of the Doric order.[7] It is the earliest known Doric temple to have been built entirely in stone.[6] Full Medusa pediment at the Archaelogical museum of Corfu
Corcyra Corfu
(Greece)
39°36′05″N 19°55′34″E / 39.601523°N 19.926100°E Kardaki Temple c.
510 BC
20140418 corfu168
Olympia Olympia
(Greece)
37°38′20″N 21°37′47″E / 37.63877°N 21.62969°E Temple of Hera c.
590 BC
[3]
18.75 m × 50.01 m [ 61.5 ft × 164.1 ft ]
[4]
Doric peripteral hexastyle building with 16 columns at each side, being long for its breadth in the Archaic style of this date.[4] The building was originally of wood and clay brick construction on a stone base, with the wooden external columns and internal hypostyle columns being replaced with stone piecemeal, so columns are greatly varied.[3] 20090725 olympia15
Corinth Corinth
(Greece)
37°54′22″N 22°52′45″E / 37.90604°N 22.87916°E Temple of Apollo c.
540 BC
[3]
21.36 m × 53.30 m [ 70.1 ft × 174.9 ft ]
[8]
Doric peripteral hexastyle temple with 15 columns at each side with two inner chambers on a crepidoma of 3 steps. It was like the Temple of Hera at Olympia, but built entirely of stone.[8] The columns were monolithic with seven of the original 38 surviving. The broad capitals were carved as separate pieces and coated with marble stucco.[9] 20100409 korinthos33
Delphi Delphi
(Greece)
38°28′57″N 22°30′05″E / 38.48241°N 22.50145°E Temple of Apollo c.
510 BC
[3]
23.82 m × 60.32 m [ 78.1 ft × 197.9 ft ]
[10]
Doric temple on the side of Mount Parnassus, had its legendary origins with the mythical hero architects Trophonius and Agamedes. This, the third temple on the site (330 BC), is by Spintharus, Xenodoros and Agathon. with sculpture by Praias and Androsthenes, retained a hexastyle form with 15 columns at the sides from an earlier building, and was constructed of porous limestone. Little of the temple remains beyond its foundations.[11] A Delphi detail
Aegina Aegina
(Greece)
37°45′16″N 23°31′59″E / 37.75448°N 23.53306°E The Temple of Aphaia c.
490 BC
[3]
15.5 m × 30.5 m [ 51 ft × 100 ft ]
[12]
Doric temple which commands a high point on the east side of the island of Aegina, 40 km (25 mi) from Athens. It has a peripteral hexastyle plan with 12 columns along each side, showing the development towards temples that were shorter for their width. The interior has a hypostyle in two stages.[13] The Doric Order demonstrates great refinement throughout.[14] Ceramic roof ornaments and pedimental sculpture showing the battle before Troy have survived.[15] No metopes have been found, and it is thought that they were of wood.[16] Aegina, The Temple of Aphaia
Olympia Olympia
(Greece)
37°38′16″N 21°37′48″E / 37.63786°N 21.63010°E Temple of Zeus c.
460 BC
[3]
27.43 m × 64 m [ 90.0 ft × 210.0 ft ]
[17]
Doric, architect: Libon of Elis.[18] A refined peripteral hexastyle temple with 13 columns along each side, in the Classical manner. It had pedimental sculpture of "outstanding magnificence".[17] The local limestone was covered with stucco, while the sculpture, tiles and gutters were marble[19] with bronze acroteria. From 448 BC it housed a colossal chryselephantine statue of Zeus 12 metres (40 feet) high by Pheidias.[18] Tempio di Zeus Olimpia April 2006
Athens Athens
(Greece)
37°58′06″N 23°43′59″E / 37.96835°N 23.73305°E Temple on the Ilisos[20] 449 BC
[21]
approx.
6 m × 12.8 m [ 20 ft × 42 ft ]
[22]
A small Ionic temple, architect: Callicrates, beside the Ilissus River which ran through Athens. It was amphi-prostyle tetrastyle. It differed from the small temples and treasuries by builders from Asia Minor in having a frieze around the entablature.[22] Ilissos leftovers
Athens Athens
(Greece)
37°58′32″N 23°43′17″E / 37.97556°N 23.72145°E Temple of Hephaestos 449 BC - 444 BC
[3]
13.72 m × 31.77 m [ 45.0 ft × 104.2 ft ]
[23]
Also known as the Theseion, a Doric peripteral hexastyle building with 13 columns at each side.[23] It is well preserved externally, having been modified at the eastern end to serve as an Orthodox church. It has internal friezes over the porches at either end and has retained much of the original marble coffering over the ambulatory, some with original colourful paint.[18] Temple of Hephaestos
Bassae Oichalia
(Greece)
37°25′47″N 21°54′01″E / 37.42972°N 21.90028°E Temple of
Apollo Epicurius
c.
450 BC - 425 BC
[3]
14.6 m × 38.3 m [ 48 ft × 126 ft ]
[24]
The architect, Ictinus, introduced the use of all three orders within a single building and orientated the building north south instead of east west. While the ends appear a regular hexastyle temple, it is very long for its width, about 2.3:1 The interior had many unusual features including Ionic capitals of unique design, a central Corinthian column and an asymmetrically placed statue of Apollo, lit by a side door facing the morning sun.[24][25] Bassai Temple Of Apollo Detail straight
Athens Athens
(Greece)
37°58′17″N 23°43′36″E / 37.97146°N 23.72667°E The Parthenon 447 BC - 432 BC
[3]
30.86 m × 69.5 m [ 101.2 ft × 228.0 ft ]
[26]
A temple of the Doric Order commanding the Acropolis of Athens. The most renowned of Greek temples and one of the most influential buildings in the world of architecture. Built for Pericles by Ictinus and Callicrates and ornamented with sculpture under the direction of Pheidias. A peripetral octastyle plan, with a ratio of about 4:9. The hypostyle naos contained a colossal statue of Athena. A second chamber, the parthenon or "virgins' chamber" was supported on four tall Ionic columns. While the High Classical sculpture of the exterior is contained by pediment and metope in the Doric style, a frieze encircles the exterior wall of the naos in the Ionic manner. The temple remained relatively intact until the 18th century, from when it suffered several incidents of serious damage. Much of its sculptured ornament is in the British Museum.[26] The Parthenon
Cape Sounion Cape Sounion
(Greece)
37°39′01″N 24°01′28″E / 37.65023°N 24.02445°E Temple of Poseidon 444 BC - 440 BC
[3]
13.47 m × 31.12 m [ 44.2 ft × 102.1 ft ]
[27]
Doric peripteral hexastyle building, with attenuated columns (6.12m) and the perfected Classical proportion of being just slightly longer than twice its width and representing, with the Parthenon and the Temple of Poseidon at Paestum, the ultimate refinement of the Doric Order. Remnants of its frieze depicting the story of Theseus and the Battle of Lapiths and Centaurs survive.[28] Tempio di Poseidone
Rhamnous Marathon
(Greece)
38°13′03″N 24°01′37″E / 38.21760°N 24.02689°E Temple of Nemesis 436 BC - 432 BC
[3]
10.05 m × 21.4 m [ 33.0 ft × 70.2 ft ] Doric hexastyle temple with 12 columns on the sides, with the columns left unfluted and the stylobate unfinished. Ramnous001
Athens Athens
(Greece)
37°58′17″N 23°43′31″E / 37.97152°N 23.72514°E Temple of
Athena Nike
427 BC
[21]
approx.
5.5 m × 8 m [ 18 ft × 26 ft ]
[29]
Ionic temple[21] also called "Nike Apteros" (Victory without wings), architect: Callicrates. A small amphi-prostyle tetrastyle temple, which was built close to the Propylaea on the Acropolis. The temple was demolished in 1687 and the stone reused for Turkish fortifications, but were recovered and the temple reassembled in 1836.[21][29] Temple of athena nike 2010
Athens Athens
(Greece)
37°58′19″N 23°43′35″E / 37.97206°N 23.72652°E The Erechtheion 421 BC - 405 BC
[21]
approx.
11.5 m × 22.85 m [ 37.7 ft × 75.0 ft ]
[29]
Ionic temple on the Acropolis of Athens[21] dedicated to Athena Polias, defender of the city; Erechtheus and Poseidon. Architect: Mnesicles. The building is highly irregular, as there are encroaching sacred sites on two sides, and the ground falls away steeply. The main part is an amphi-prostyle hexastyle building with its portico to the east and encircled by a frieze of black limestone previously adorned with marble figures. There are three chambers, the larger dedicated to Athena and accessed by the eastern portico. The north porch is tetrastyle two bays deep and contains a large doorway in a good state of preservation. The southern porch has six caryatids (7 ft 9 ins high) supporting the entablature.[30] Erechtheum- Acropolis of Athens
Delphi Delphi
(Greece)
38°28′57″N 22°30′05″E / 38.48241°N 22.50145°E Tholos of Athena c.
400 BC
[21]
diameter:
14.76 m (48.4 ft)
[12]
A circular temple or treasury built by Theodorus of Phocaea which established the pattern of circular temples.[31] An early example of a Doric exterior with a Corinthian interior.[32] The exterior and interior had 20 and 10 columns respectively.[33] Tholos Athena Pronaia
Epidauros Epidauros
(Greece)
37°35′55″N 23°04′28″E / 37.59850°N 23.07433°E Temple of Asclepius
(foreground)
c.
380 BC
[3]
approx.
80 m × 43 m [ 262 ft × 141 ft ]
Doric hexastyle building with 11 columns on the sides,[34] architect: Theodotus. It had pedimental sculpture by Timotheos, including acroteria in the form of small statues.[35] The expense accounts for the construction of this temple have survived.[34]
(Picture: The ruins of the temple's foundations are in the foreground. The columns are part of the Stoa of the Sick and mark an area dedicated to Asclepius.)[36]
Epidauros Abaton 2008-09-11
Epidauros Epidauros
(Greece)
37°35′54″N 23°04′26″E / 37.59835°N 23.07398°E The Tholos of Polycleitos c.
350 BC
[3]
diameter:
21.95 m (72.0 ft)
[37]
A circular temple or treasury, surrounded by twenty six columns of the Doric Order and having 14 internal Corinthian columns.[37] 20100408 epidaure21
Olympia Olympia
(Greece)
37°38′19″N 21°37′45″E / 37.63863°N 21.62916°E The Philippeion 339 BC
[25]
diameter:
16 m (52 ft)
[37]
Ionic tholos, with 18 external Ionic columns and 9 internal Corinthian columns, architect: Leochares[37] It was built as a memorial to Philip II of Macedon and his family. Olympia Philippeion 2010 4
Delos Delos
(Greece)
37°24′02″N 25°16′01″E / 37.40058°N 25.26708°E Delian Temple
of Apollo
470 BC - c. 300 BC
[3]
approx.
13 m × 30 m [ 43 ft × 98 ft ]
[38]
Doric peripteral hexastyle building with 13 columns on the sides. With other temple buildings inside the sanctuary at Delos. Its completion was delayed. The whole site is in a ruinous state and little of the temple remains except the outer part of the crepidoma.[38] Delos 3023
Syracuse Syracuse
(Sicily/Italy)
37°03′50″N 15°17′35″E / 37.06394°N 15.29297°E Temple of Apollo 565 BC
[3]
21.57 m × 55.33 m [ 70.8 ft × 181.5 ft ]
[23]
Doric peripteral hexastyle building with 17 columns down each side and an additional row of columns at the eastern end. The columns at the sides are very close together.
[23]
0417 - Siracusa - Tempio di Apollo - Foto Giovanni Dall'Orto - 21-May-2008
Athens Athens
(Greece)
37°58′10″N 23°43′59″E / 37.96934°N 23.73310°E The Temple of
Olympian Zeus
174 BC - AD 132
[25]
44.35 m × 110.5 m [ 145.5 ft × 362.5 ft ]
[39]
A huge Corinthian temple, architect: Cossutius. Built as a gift to Athens by Antiochus Epiphanes and constructed in 3 stages. It was dipteral octastyle and was long for its width in the style off the much earlier Archaic period. It had 20 columns on each side and a triple row at the porticos, 104 columns, (diameter: 1.9 metres diameter, height: 17 metres high)(6 ft 4 ins; 56 ft). Some of the columns were shipped to Rome before the temple was complete and used for the Temple of Jupiter Capitolinus where they had a profound effect on Roman architecture. It was completed and dedicated by Hadrian, more than 300 years after it began. Only 15 columns remain.[25][39][40] Temple Of Olympian Zeus - Olympieion (retouched)
Selinunte Castelvetrano
(Sicily/Italy)
37°34′59″N 12°49′31″E / 37.58316°N 12.82528°E Selinunte Temple "C" c.
550 BC
[3]
23.93 m × 63.76 m [ 78.5 ft × 209.2 ft ]
[41]
One of a group of Doric temples on the Acropolis or "western group" at Selinunte.[3] (distant view) It has similarities to the Temple of Apollo at Syracuse. It is a peripteral hexastyle temple with 17 columns at the sides and an additional row of columns at the eastern end. Like other temples at this location it had a second room, only accessible from the naos, which was narrow and had no internal columns. The aisles are correspondingly wider.[41] Metopes from this temple showing Archaic sculpture of the Labours of Hercules are in the National Museum, Palermo.[42] Selinunte, View of the Acropolis from the Eastern Temple Group
Paestum Paestum
(Italy)
40°25′10″N 15°00′19″E / 40.41932°N 15.00536°E Temple of Hera I c.
550 BC
[3]
24.26 m × 59.98 m [ 79.6 ft × 196.8 ft ]
[43]
One of the earliest Doric temples to have survived substantially intact.[44] Also known as "the Basilica", it is an unusual building with 9 columns across the front, 18 on each side and a row of columns along the centre of the naos; peripteral enneastyle in plan.[45] Its columns have very marked entasis (cigar-shaped) and flattened bulging capitals.[46] Paestum BW 2013-05-17 15-08-53
Selinunte Castelvetrano
(Sicily/Italy)
37°35′12″N 12°50′05″E / 37.58662°N 12.83480°E Temple of Hera,
(Temple "E")
5th century BC
[41]
25.32 m × 67.74 m [ 83.1 ft × 222.2 ft ]
[41]
The best preserved Doric temple at Selinunte, it is in the eastern group with Temple "F" and Temple "G". It is a peripteral hexastyle temple with 15 columns at each side, wide aisles and a broad flight of steps to the stylobate.. It has a long narrow naos and inner chamber like other temples at Selinunte but has inner porches at both ends in the Greek manner.[41] Selinunte - Templi Orientali (Temple E) 18
Selinunte Castelvetrano
(Sicily/Italy)
37°35′14″N 12°50′06″E / 37.58727°N 12.83492°E Selinunte Temple "F" 5th century BC 24.23 m × 61.83 m [ 79.5 ft × 202.9 ft ]
[41]
Doric hexastyle temple with 14 columns at each side. The columns appear to have had a low screen wall running between them. In other ways it strongly resembles Selinunte Temple "C", having wide aisles, a deep colonnaded porch and a long narrow naos with a second chamber.[41] It at the eastern temple site at Selinunte, between Temples "E" and "G". It is in a ruined state. Selinunte-Temple F 01
Selinunte Castelvetrano
(Sicily/Italy)
37°35′17″N 12°50′06″E / 37.58819°N 12.83491°E The Great Temple of Apollo, (Temple "G") c.
520 BC - 450 BC
[3]
50.10 m × 110.36 m [ 164.4 ft × 362.1 ft ]
[41]
Doric peripteral octastyle temple with 18 columns at the sides, in the eastern group at Selinunte, with Temples "E" and "F". It is the largest temple at this site and was never completed. It is now in a state of total ruin. An ambitious building of distinctive plan, having a stylobate rising in two levels and aisles of sufficient width to suggest that either a second row of columns was intended, or that the builders of Sicily, unlike their mainland Greek counterparts, used the trussed roof. The colonnaded inner porch has side, as well as front columns, so that the temple might be termed "pseudo-dipteral". There was a double row of columns within the cella, rising in two stages, of very much more delicate proportions than the exterior colonnade.[41] Selinunte AF3
Paestum Paestum
(Italy)
40°25′28″N 15°00′20″E / 40.42451°N 15.00545°E Temple of Athena c.
510 BC
[3]
14.54m 32.88m
(47' 8" x 107' 10")
[47]
Also called the Temple of Demeter, a Doric peripteral hexastyle building with thirteen columns at the side, having proportions that were to be established as the Doric ideal in such buildings as the Temple of Poseidon at Sunion. The columns have pronounced entasis and the capitals are large and wide.[48] This temple had a number of Ionic features, including the columns of its inner porch and the moulding that ran between the architrave and typically Doric frieze of triglyphs and metopes.[49] Paestum BW 2013-05-17 13-58-28
Akragas Agrigento
(Sicily/Italy)
37°17′27″N 13°35′04″E / 37.29082°N 13.58441°E Temple of
the Olympian Zeus
c.
510 BC - 409 BC
[3]
52.75 m × 110 m [ 173.1 ft × 360.9 ft ]
[45]
Doric pseudoperipteral building with seven attached columns (height: approx. 17 metres)(56 ft) across the front with Atlantes (height: 6 metres)(20 feet) (shown left) between them. The building's coarse exterior stone was coated with marble stucco.[45] Agrigento-Tempio di Zeus Olimpico Atlas01
Syracuse Syracuse
(Sicily/Italy)
37°03′35″N 15°17′37″E / 37.05965°N 15.29354°E Temple of Athena 480 BC
[3]
22 m × 55 m [ 72 ft × 180 ft ]
[41]
Of Doric hexastyle plan with 14 columns at the sides. Part of the structure is incorporated in Syracuse Cathedral.[41] Lateral duomo
Akragas Agrigento
(Sicily/Italy)
37°17′19″N 13°36′00″E / 37.28860°N 13.60013°E Temple of
Hera Lacinia
c.
460 BC
[3]
16.89 m × 38.13 m [ 55.4 ft × 125.1 ft ]
[41]
Doric temple built south east of the large ancient city of Agrigento, with the Temple of Concord, the Temple of Zeus Olympias and several others, in an area known as the Valle dei Templi[41] Agrigento5 (js)
Paestum Paestum
(Italy)
40°25′12″N 15°00′19″E / 40.41997°N 15.00530°E Temple of Poseidon c.
460 BC
[3]
18.25 m × 60.35 m [ 59.9 ft × 198.0 ft ]
[45]
Doric, one of the best preserved temples, showing a consolidation of ideas of design that were developing towards an "ideal type" already prevalent in Greece. It is a hexastyle temple with rather stout columns (8.85 metres high)(29 ft) and a hypostyle naos rising in two stages. (also thought to have been dedicated to Hera)[3][45] Paestum Poseindontempel2
Akragas Agrigento
(Sicily/Italy)
37°17′23″N 13°35′31″E / 37.28963°N 13.59202°E Temple of Concordia c.
430 BC
[3]
16.92 m × 39.42 m [ 55.5 ft × 129.3 ft ] Doric temple (Agrigento "F") is a very well preserved peripteral hexastyle building with 13 columns at each side, in the manner of temples in Greece. Agrigent BW 2012-10-07 13-09-13
Segesta Calatafimi-Segesta
(Sicily/Italy)
37°56′29″N 12°49′57″E / 37.94147°N 12.83239°E Temple at Segesta c.
424 BC
[3]
21 m × 56 m [ 69 ft × 184 ft ]
[12]
Doric peripteral hexastyle plan, is unusual in having unfluted columns that stand on square plinths in two stages.[48] It also has no cella walls. These features probably indicate that the building was left incomplete, but it has been suggested that no cella was intended.[41] Segesta BW 2012-10-10 17-18-06
Ephesus Selçuk
(Turkey)
37°56′59″N 27°21′50″E / 37.94968°N 27.36381°E The Archaic Temple
of Artemis
c.
560 BC,
lost 356 BC
[50]
over 50m x 110m
(appx. 170' x 360')
[51]
Ionic temple, probably a dipteral octastyle plan, with columns having up to 48 flutes, and a varied design on the Ionic capitals which were each 3 metres wide (10 ft). The lower part of each column had an encircling frieze of figures and stood on a deeply moulded torus and, used here for the first time, a square plinth that was to become an accepted feature of Classical architecture. The temple was burned down in 356 BC and rebuilt.[51] Ac artemisephesus
Samos Samos
(Greece)
37°40′19″N 26°53′08″E / 37.67190°N 26.88556°E Temple of Hera c. 540 BC
[50]
52.45 m × 108.6 m [ 172.1 ft × 356.3 ft ]
[52]
Ionic temple, architects: Rhoikos and Theodoros of Samos, of dipteral plan, having two rows of 8 columns at the eastern end and two rows of 9 at the western and 24 columns at each side.. It was built on the site of the earliest very large Ionic temple, destroyed by fire. It was of similar plan, and retained the bases of the earlier temple's columns within its foundations.[52] Heraion antika fötter, Samos, Grekland
Ephesus Selçuk
(Turkey)
37°56′59″N 27°21′50″E / 37.94968°N 27.36381°E Temple of Artemis
(a model of the lost temple, as viewed from the back)
c.
356 BC
[50]
64.3 m × 119.175 m [ 210.96 ft × 390.99 ft ]
[51]
One of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. It was an Ionic temple, architects: Demetrius and Paeonius of Ephesus; sculptor: Scopas. Centre of the Pan-Ionian festival. The third temple dedicated to Artemis on the site, it was dipteral octastyle at the front, with the space between the columns increasing towards the central space, where the stone lintel (height: 1.2 metres)(4 ft) spanned over 8.5 metres (28 ft). At the rear, the temple had 9 columns. The temple's stylobate was raised on a high crepidoma (height: 2.75 metres)(9 ft). The Ionic capitals were much less wide than those of the Archaic temple, and the columns had the regular 24 flutes. A feature which appears to have been introduced at this temple was the cubic pedestal between the column and its square plinth. Archaeologists are still uncertain whether the temple had a frieze or not.[51] Miniaturk 009
Priene Söke
(Turkey)
37°39′34″N 27°17′47″E / 37.65932°N 27.29646°E Temple of
Athena Polias
c.
334 BC
[50]
19.5m x 37. 2m
(64' x 122')
[22]
Ionic temple, architect: Pythius of Priene, of peripteral hexastyle temple, with ratio approximately 1:2. The columns (height: 11.45)(37 ft 6 ins) rest on plinths. Like many other Ionic temples of Asia Minor, there was no frieze.[22] Templeofathenaprienemay2007
Sardis Sart
(Turkey)
38°28′45″N 28°01′53″E / 38.47921°N 28.03128°E Temple of
Artemis – Cybele
c.
325 BC
[50]
48.78 m × 91.44 m [ 160.0 ft × 300.0 ft ]
[53]
One of the largest Ionic temples. It was dipteral octastyle, with its entrance to the west. It was left unfinished, with further construction around 275 BC and was completed by the Romans. Little remains standing except the foundations, two intact columns and several stumps.[53] Artemistempel Sardes
Miletus Balat
(Turkey)
37°23′05″N 27°15′23″E / 37.38486°N 27.25639°E Temple of
Apollo Didymaeus
313 BC – AD 41
[50]
45.75 m × 109.45 m [ 150.1 ft × 359.1 ft ]
[22]
Ionic temple with early Corinthian features,[25][50] architects: Paeonius of Ephesus and Daphnis of Miletus. This dipteral decastyle temple with 21 columns on each side, was not much smaller than the enormous Temple of Artemis at Ephesus. It was under construction for about 250 years but was never completed. The naos was never roofed, but remained a sunken courtyard in which there was a shrine that housed the statue of Apollo. The temple had a door flanked by attached columns with early examples of Corinthian capitals.[22][54] Milète sanctuaire d'Apollon
Teos Sığacık
(Turkey)
38°10′38″N 26°47′06″E / 38.17723°N 26.78502°E Temple of Dionysus 193 BC
[50]
18.5 m × 35 m [ 61 ft × 115 ft ]
[55]
Ionic temple,[50] architect: Hermogenes of Priene, was peripteral hexastyle with 11 columns at the sides. The columns were set on plinths and there was a frieze of Dyonisiac scenes.[56] Teos

See also

References

  1. ^ Banister Fletcher (1963), pp. 107-9.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i Banister Fletcher (1963).
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab Banister Fletcher (1963), p. 112 (list of Doric temples, with dates).
  4. ^ a b c Boardman, Art and Architecture...., p.33.
  5. ^ Briers, William R. 1996. The Archaeology of Greece 2nd Edition. New York: Cornell University, pages 132–3.
  6. ^ a b c Darling, Janina K. Architecture of Greece. Westport CT: Greenwood. ISBN 0-313-32152-3.
  7. ^ Cruickshank, Dan (2000). Architecture: 150 Masterpieces of Western Architecture. New York City: Watson-Guptill. ISBN 0-8230-0289-6.
  8. ^ a b Boardman, Art and Architecture...., pp. 31-2.
  9. ^ Copplestone (1968), p. 45.
  10. ^ "Delphi, Temple of Apollo". Perseus Digital Library. Retrieved 30 June 2011.
  11. ^ "Temple of Apollo at Delphi". Ancient Greece. org. Retrieved 27 June 2011.
  12. ^ a b c Transferred from Wikipedia article page, unreferenced.
  13. ^ Banister Fletcher (1963), pp. 115-9.
  14. ^ Copplestone (1968), p. 48.
  15. ^ Strong (1965), p. 59.
  16. ^ Copplestone (1968), p. 44.
  17. ^ a b Strong (1965), p. 61.
  18. ^ a b c Banister Fletcher (1963), p.119.
  19. ^ Boardman, Art and Architecture... p. 34.
  20. ^ No photos of the remains of the temple are available.
  21. ^ a b c d e f g Banister Fletcher (1963), p. 129 (list of Ionic temples with dates).
  22. ^ a b c d e f Banister Fletcher (1963), p. 131.
  23. ^ a b c d Boardman, Art and Architecture..., p. 38.
  24. ^ a b Banister Fletcher (1963). pp. 123-5.
  25. ^ a b c d e Banister Fletcher (1963), p. 139 (list of Corinthian temples, with dates).
  26. ^ a b Banister Fletcher (1963), pp. 119-23.
  27. ^ "Sounion, Temple of Poseidon". Perseus Digital Library. Retrieved 30 June 2011.
  28. ^ Copplestone (1968), pp. 47-8.
  29. ^ a b c Banister Fletcher (1963), p. 133.
  30. ^ Banister Fletcher (1963), pp. 133-7.
  31. ^ Copplestone (1968), p. 46.
  32. ^ Boardman, Greek Art, pp. 138-9.
  33. ^ "Delphi Tholos plan". Ancient Greece.org. Retrieved 27 June 2011.
  34. ^ a b Dinsmoor (1973), p. 218.
  35. ^ Jose Dorig in Boardman, Art and Architecture...., p. 435.
  36. ^ Banister Fletcher (1963), p. 106.
  37. ^ a b c d Banister Fletcher (1963), p. 109.
  38. ^ a b "The Delian Temple of Apollo". Perseus Digital Library. Retrieved 27 July 2011.
  39. ^ a b Boardman, Art and Architecture..., p. 48.
  40. ^ Banister Fletcher (1963), pp. 109, 140.
  41. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Boardman, Art and Architecture... pp. 39-41.
  42. ^ Strong (1965), pp. 159-60.
  43. ^ "Rebuilding the Temple of Hera". Perseus Project. Retrieved 30 June 2011.
  44. ^ Moffett, Fazio, Wodehouse (2003), p. 48.
  45. ^ a b c d e Banister Fletcher (1963), pp. 114-5.
  46. ^ Boardman, Greek Art, p. 61.
  47. ^ "Temple of Athen". Perseus Digital Library. Retrieved 30 June 2011.
  48. ^ a b Copplestone (1968), p. 49.
  49. ^ Boardman, Art and Architecture.... p. 40.
  50. ^ a b c d e f g h i Banister Fletcher (1963), p. 128 (list of Ionic temples, with dates).
  51. ^ a b c d Banister Fletcher (1963), pp. 129-31.
  52. ^ a b Boardman, Art and Architecture...., p. 42.
  53. ^ a b "Temple of Artems, Sardis". Sacred destinations. Retrieved 27 July 2011.
  54. ^ Boardman, Art and Architecture...., pp. 46-7.
  55. ^ Transferred from Wikipedia's Hermogenes of Priene page, unreferenced.
  56. ^ Dinsmoor (1973), p. 274.

Bibliography

Major source for this list: Banister Fletcher, A History of Architecture on the Comparative method, Seventeenth edition, revised by R.A. Cordingley, Athlone Press, (1963) Chapter III, Greek Architecture, pp. 89 – 165.

Additional references

  • Boardman, John (1964). Greek Art. Thames and Hudson. ISBN 0-500-18036-9.
  • Boardman, John; Dorig, Jose; Fuchs, Werner; Hirmer, Max (1967). The Art and Architecture of Ancient Greece. London: Thames and Hudson.
  • Trewin Copplestone (editor), Lloyd, Rice, Lynton, Boyd, Carden, Rawson, Jacobus, World Architecture: an Illustrated History, Paul Hamlyn, (1968); Seton Lloyd, Chapter 1: Ancient & Classical Architecture
  • William Bell Dinsmoor, William James Anderson, The Architecture of Ancient Greece: an account of its historic development, Biblo and Tannen, (1973) ISBN 0-8196-0283-3
  • Banister Fletcher, A History of Architecture on the Comparative method (2001). Elsevier Science & Technology. ISBN 0-7506-2267-9.
  • Helen Gardner; Fred S. Kleiner, Christin J. Mamiya, Gardner's Art through the Ages. Thomson Wadsworth, (2004) ISBN 0-15-505090-7.
  • Marian Moffett, Michael Fazio, Lawrence Wodehouse, A World History of Architecture, Lawrence King Publishing, (2003), ISBN 1-85669-353-8.
  • Donald E. Strong, The Classical World, Paul Hamlyn, London (1965) ISBN 978-0-600-02302-9
  • Henri Stierlin, Greece: From Mycenae to the Parthenon, Taschen, (2004), ISBN 978-3-8228-1226-6
Ancient Greek architecture

The architecture of ancient Greece is the architecture produced by the Greek-speaking people (Hellenic people) whose culture flourished on the Greek mainland, the Peloponnese, the Aegean Islands, and in colonies in Anatolia and Italy for a period from about 900 BC until the 1st century AD, with the earliest remaining architectural works dating from around 600 BC.Ancient Greek architecture is best known from its temples, many of which are found throughout the region, and the parthenon is a prime example of this, mostly as ruins but many substantially intact. The second important type of building that survives all over the Hellenic world is the open-air theatre, with the earliest dating from around 525-480 BC. Other architectural forms that are still in evidence are the processional gateway (propylon), the public square (agora) surrounded by storied colonnade (stoa), the town council building (bouleuterion), the public monument, the monumental tomb (mausoleum) and the stadium.

Ancient Greek architecture is distinguished by its highly formalised characteristics, both of structure and decoration. This is particularly so in the case of temples where each building appears to have been conceived as a sculptural entity within the landscape, most often raised on high ground so that the elegance of its proportions and the effects of light on its surfaces might be viewed from all angles. Nikolaus Pevsner refers to "the plastic shape of the [Greek] temple ... placed before us with a physical presence more intense, more alive than that of any later building".The formal vocabulary of ancient Greek architecture, in particular the division of architectural style into three defined orders: the Doric Order, the Ionic Order and the Corinthian Order, was to have profound effect on Western architecture of later periods. The architecture of ancient Rome grew out of that of Greece and maintained its influence in Italy unbroken until the present day. From the Renaissance, revivals of Classicism have kept alive not only the precise forms and ordered details of Greek architecture, but also its concept of architectural beauty based on balance and proportion. The successive styles of Neoclassical architecture and Greek Revival architecture followed and adapted Ancient Greek styles closely.

Ancient Greek art

Ancient Greek art stands out among that of other ancient cultures for its development of naturalistic but idealized depictions of the human body, in which largely nude male figures were generally the focus of innovation. The rate of stylistic development between about 750 and 300 BC was remarkable by ancient standards, and in surviving works is best seen in sculpture. There were important innovations in painting, which have to be essentially reconstructed due to the lack of original survivals of quality, other than the distinct field of painted pottery.

Greek architecture, technically very simple, established a harmonious style with numerous detailed conventions that were largely adopted by Roman architecture and are still followed in some modern buildings. It used a vocabulary of ornament that was shared with pottery, metalwork and other media, and had an enormous influence on Eurasian art, especially after Buddhism carried it beyond the expanded Greek world created by Alexander the Great. The social context of Greek art included radical political developments and a great increase in prosperity; the equally impressive Greek achievements in philosophy, literature and other fields are well known.

The earliest art by Greeks is generally excluded from "ancient Greek art", and instead known as Greek Neolithic art followed by Aegean art; the latter includes Cycladic art and the art of the Minoan and Mycenaean cultures from the Greek Bronze Age. The art of ancient Greece is usually divided stylistically into four periods: the Geometric, Archaic, Classical, and Hellenistic. The Geometric age is usually dated from about 1000 BC, although in reality little is known about art in Greece during the preceding 200 years, traditionally known as the Greek Dark Ages. The 7th century BC witnessed the slow development of the Archaic style as exemplified by the black-figure style of vase painting. Around 500 BC, shortly before the onset of the Persian Wars (480 BC to 448 BC), is usually taken as the dividing line between the Archaic and the Classical periods, and the reign of Alexander the Great (336 BC to 323 BC) is taken as separating the Classical from the Hellenistic periods. From some point in the 1st century BC onwards "Greco-Roman" is used, or more local terms for the Eastern Greek world.In reality, there was no sharp transition from one period to another. Forms of art developed at different speeds in different parts of the Greek world, and as in any age some artists worked in more innovative styles than others. Strong local traditions, and the requirements of local cults, enable historians to locate the origins even of works of art found far from their place of origin. Greek art of various kinds was widely exported. The whole period saw a generally steady increase in prosperity and trading links within the Greek world and with neighbouring cultures.

The survival rate of Greek art differs starkly between media. We have huge quantities of pottery and coins, much stone sculpture, though even more Roman copies, and a few large bronze sculptures. Almost entirely missing are painting, fine metal vessels, and anything in perishable materials including wood. The stone shell of a number of temples and theatres has survived, but little of their extensive decoration.

Ancient Greek religion

Ancient Greek religion encompasses the collection of beliefs, rituals, and mythology originating in ancient Greece in the form of both popular public religion and cult practices. These groups varied enough for it to be possible to speak of Greek religions or "cults" in the plural, though most of them shared similarities.

Most ancient Greeks recognized the twelve major Olympian gods and goddesses—Zeus, Hera, Poseidon, Demeter, Athena, Ares, Aphrodite, Apollo, Artemis, Hephaestus, Hermes, and either Hestia or Dionysus—although philosophies such as Stoicism and some forms of Platonism used language that seems to assume a single transcendent deity. The worship of these deities, and several others, was found across the Greek world, though they often have different epithets that distinguished aspects of the deity, and often reflect the absorption of other local deities into the pan-Hellenic scheme.

The religious practices of the Greeks extended beyond mainland Greece, to the islands and coasts of Ionia in Asia Minor, to Magna Graecia (Sicily and southern Italy), and to scattered Greek colonies in the Western Mediterranean, such as Massalia (Marseille). Early Italian religions such as the Etruscan were influenced by Greek religion in forming much of the ancient Roman religion.

Ancient Greek temple

Greek temples (Ancient Greek: ναός, romanized: naós, lit. 'dwelling', semantically distinct from Latin templum, "temple") were structures built to house deity statues within Greek sanctuaries in ancient Greek religion. The temple interiors did not serve as meeting places, since the sacrifices and rituals dedicated to the respective deity took place outside them, within the wider precinct of the sanctuary, which might be large. Temples were frequently used to store votive offerings. They are the most important and most widespread building type in Greek architecture. In the Hellenistic kingdoms of Southwest Asia and of North Africa, buildings erected to fulfill the functions of a temple often continued to follow the local traditions. Even where a Greek influence is visible, such structures are not normally considered as Greek temples. This applies, for example, to the Graeco-Parthian and Bactrian temples, or to the Ptolemaic examples, which follow Egyptian tradition. Most Greek temples were oriented astronomically.

Between the 9th century BC and the 6th century BC, the ancient Greek temples developed from the small mudbrick structures into double porched monumental buildings with colonnade on all sides, often reaching more than 20 metres in height (not including the roof). Stylistically, they were governed by the regionally specific architectural orders. Whereas the distinction was originally between the Doric and Ionic orders, a third alternative arose in late 3rd century BC with the Corinthian order. A multitude of different ground plans were developed, each of which could be combined with the superstructure in the different orders. From the 3rd century BC onwards, the construction of large temples became less common; after a short 2nd century BC flourish, it ceased nearly entirely in the 1st century BC. Thereafter, only smaller structures were newly begun, while older temples continued to be renovated or brought to completion if in an unfinished state.

Greek temples were designed and constructed according to set proportions, mostly determined by the lower diameter of the columns or by the dimensions of the foundation levels. The nearly mathematical strictness of the basic designs thus reached was lightened by optical refinements. In spite of the still widespread idealised image, Greek temples were painted, so that bright reds and blues contrasted with the white of the building stones or of stucco. The more elaborate temples were equipped with very rich figural decoration in the form of reliefs and pedimental sculpture. The construction of temples was usually organised and financed by cities or by the administrations of sanctuaries. Private individuals, especially Hellenistic rulers, could also sponsor such buildings. In the late Hellenistic period, their decreasing financial wealth, along with the progressive incorporation of the Greek world within the Roman state, whose officials and rulers took over as sponsors, led to the end of Greek temple construction. New temples now belonged to the tradition of the Roman temple, which, in spite of the very strong Greek influence on it, aimed for different goals and followed different aesthetic principles (for a comparison, see the other article).

The main temple building sat within a larger precinct or temenos, usually surrounded by a peribolos fence or wall; the whole is usually called a "sanctuary". The Acropolis of Athens is the most famous example, though this was apparently walled as a citadel before a temple was ever built there. This might include many subsidiary buildings, sacred groves or springs, animals dedicated to the deity, and sometimes people who had taken sanctuary from the law, which some temples offered, for example to runaway slaves.

Kardaki Temple

Kardaki Temple is an Archaic Doric temple in Corfu, Greece, built around 500 BC in the ancient city of Korkyra (or Corcyra), in what is known today as the location Kardaki in the hill of Analipsi in Corfu. The temple features several architectural peculiarities that point to a Doric origin. The temple at Kardaki is unusual because it has no frieze, following perhaps architectural tendencies of Sicilian temples. It is considered to be the only Greek temple of Doric architecture that does not have a frieze. The spacing of the temple columns has been described as "abnormally wide". The temple also lacked both porch and adyton, and the lack of a triglyph and metope frieze may be indicative of Ionian influence. The temple at Kardaki is considered an important and to a certain degree mysterious topic on the subject of early ancient Greek architecture. Its association with the worship of Apollo or Poseidon has not been established.

List of ancient Greek and Roman roofs

The list of ancient roofs comprises roof constructions from Greek and Roman architecture ordered by clear span. Most buildings in classical Greece were covered by traditional prop-and-lintel constructions, which often needed to include interior colonnades. In Sicily truss roofs presumably appeared as early as 550 BC. Their potential was fully realized in the Roman period which saw over 30 m wide trussed roofs spanning the rectangular spaces of monumental public buildings such as temples, basilicas, and later churches. Such spans were thrice as large as the widest prop-and-lintel roofs and only superseded by the largest Roman domes.

List of modern Pagan temples

This article is a list of modern pagan temples and other religious buildings and structures, sorted alphabetically by country and city.

Outline of classical architecture

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to classical architecture:

Classical architecture – architecture of classical antiquity, that is, ancient Greek architecture and the architecture of ancient Rome. It also refers to the style or styles of architecture influenced by those. For example, most of the styles originating in post-renaissance Europe can be described as classical architecture. This broad use of the term is employed by Sir John Summerson in The Classical Language of Architecture.

Paestum

Paestum was a major ancient Greek city on the coast of the Tyrrhenian Sea in Magna Graecia (southern Italy). The ruins of Paestum are famous for their three ancient Greek temples in the Doric order, dating from about 600 to 450 BC, which are in a very good state of preservation. The city walls and amphitheatre are largely intact, and the bottom of the walls of many other structures remain, as well as paved roads. The site is open to the public, and there is a modern national museum within it, which also contains the finds from the associated Greek site of Foce del Sele.

After its foundation by Greek colonists under the name of Poseidonia (Ancient Greek: Ποσειδωνία) it was eventually conquered by the local Lucanians and later the Romans. The Lucanians renamed it to Paistos and the Romans gave the city its current name. As Pesto or Paestum, the town became a bishopric (now only titular), but it was abandoned in the Early Middle Ages, and left undisturbed and largely forgotten until the eighteenth century.

Today the remains of the city are found in the modern frazione of Paestum, which is part of the comune of Capaccio in the Province of Salerno, Campania, Italy. The modern settlement, directly to the south of the archaeological site, is a popular seaside resort, with long sandy beaches.

Parthenon

The Parthenon (; Ancient Greek: Παρθενών; Greek: Παρθενώνας, Parthenónas) is a former temple on the Athenian Acropolis, Greece, dedicated to the goddess Athena, whom the people of Athens considered their patron. Construction began in 447 BC when the Athenian Empire was at the peak of its power. It was completed in 438 BC, although decoration of the building continued until 432 BC. It is the most important surviving building of Classical Greece, generally considered the zenith of the Doric order. Its decorative sculptures are considered some of the high points of Greek art. The Parthenon is regarded as an enduring symbol of Ancient Greece, Athenian democracy and Western civilization, and one of the world's greatest cultural monuments. To the Athenians who built it, the Parthenon and other Periclean monuments of the Acropolis were seen fundamentally as a celebration of Hellenic victory over the Persian invaders and as a thanksgiving to the gods for that victory.The Parthenon itself replaced an older temple of Athena, which historians call the Pre-Parthenon or Older Parthenon, that was destroyed in the Persian invasion of 480 BC. The temple is archaeoastronomically aligned to the Hyades. Like most Greek temples, the Parthenon served a practical purpose as the city treasury. For a time, it served as the treasury of the Delian League, which later became the Athenian Empire. In the final decade of the sixth century AD, the Parthenon was converted into a Christian church dedicated to the Virgin Mary.

After the Ottoman conquest, it was turned into a mosque in the early 1460s. On 26 September 1687, an Ottoman ammunition dump inside the building was ignited by Venetian bombardment. The resulting explosion severely damaged the Parthenon and its sculptures. From 1800 to 1803, Thomas Bruce, 7th Earl of Elgin removed some of the surviving sculptures, now known as the Elgin Marbles, with the alleged permission of the Turks of the Ottoman Empire.Since 1975 numerous large-scale restoration projects have been undertaken, the latest is expected to finish in 2020.

Roman temple

Ancient Roman temples were among the most important buildings in Roman culture, and some of the richest buildings in Roman architecture, though only a few survive in any sort of complete state. Today they remain "the most obvious symbol of Roman architecture". Their construction and maintenance was a major part of ancient Roman religion, and all towns of any importance had at least one main temple, as well as smaller shrines. The main room (cella) housed the cult image of the deity to whom the temple was dedicated, and often a small altar for incense or libations. Behind the cella was a room or rooms used by temple attendants for storage of equipment and offerings. The ordinary worshiper rarely entered the cella, and most public ceremonies were performed outside, on the portico, with a crowd gathered in the temple precinct.

The most common architectural plan had a rectangular temple raised on a high podium, with a clear front with a portico at the top of steps, and a triangular pediment above columns. The sides and rear of the building had much less architectural emphasis, and typically no entrances. There were also circular plans, generally with columns all round, and outside Italy there were many compromises with traditional local styles. The Roman form of temple developed initially from Etruscan temples, themselves influenced by the Greeks, with subsequent heavy direct influence from Greece.

Public religious ceremonies of the official Roman religion took place outdoors, and not within the temple building. Some ceremonies were processions that started at, visited, or ended with a temple or shrine, where a ritual object might be stored and brought out for use, or where an offering would be deposited. Sacrifices, chiefly of animals, would take place at an open-air altar within the templum; often on one of the narrow extensions of the podium to the side of the steps. Especially under the Empire, exotic foreign cults gained followers in Rome, and were the local religions in large parts of the expanded Empire. These often had very different practices, some preferring underground places of worship, while others, like Early Christians, worshiped in houses.Some remains of many Roman temples survive, above all in Rome itself, but the relatively few near-complete examples were nearly all converted to Christian churches (and sometimes subsequently to mosques), usually a considerable time after the initial triumph of Christianity under Constantine. The decline of Roman religion was relatively slow, and the temples themselves were not appropriated by the government until a decree of the Emperor Honorius in 415. Santi Cosma e Damiano, in the Roman Forum, originally the Temple of Romulus, was not dedicated as a church until 527. The best known is the Pantheon, Rome, which is however highly untypical, being a very large circular temple with a magnificent concrete roof, behind a conventional portico front.

Spintharus of Corinth

Spintharus of Corinth (Ancient Greek: Σπίνθαρος, romanized: Spíntharos) was an ancient Greek architect. Pausanias reported in his Descriptions of Greece that the Alcmaeonids hired him to build a temple at Delphi. This is the only record of Spintharus. The temple to Apollo at Delphi had to be rebuilt after a fire in 548 BC and again after an earthquake in 373 BC. Historians have offered competing claims as to which temple Spintharus constructed.

Temple of Artemis, Corfu

The Temple of Artemis is an Archaic Greek temple in Corfu, Greece, built in around 580 BC in the ancient city of Korkyra (or Corcyra). It is found on the property of the Saint Theodore monastery, which is located in the suburb of Garitsa. The temple was dedicated to Artemis. It is known as the first Doric temple exclusively built with stone. It is also considered the first building to have incorporated all of the elements of the Doric architectural style. Very few Greek temple reliefs from the Archaic period have survived, and the large fragments of the group from the pediment are the earliest significant survivals.

The temple was a peripteral–styled building with a pseudodipteral configuration. Its perimeter was rectangular, with width of 23.46 m (77.0 ft) and length 49 m (161 ft) with an eastward orientation so that light could enter the interior of the temple at sunrise. It was one of the largest temples of its time.The metope of the temple was probably decorated, since remnants of reliefs featuring Achilles and Memnon were found in the ancient ruins. The temple has been described as a milestone of Ancient Greek architecture and one of 150 masterpieces of Western architecture. The Corfu temple architecture may have influenced the design of an archaic sanctuary structure found at St. Omobono in Italy, near Tiber in Ancient Rome, at the time of the Etruscans, which incorporates similar design elements. Kaiser Wilhelm II, while vacationing at his summer palace of Achilleion in Corfu and while Europe was preparing for war, was involved in excavations at the site of the ancient temple. The Temple of Artemis is approximately 700 m. to the northwest of the Temple of Hera in the Palaiopolis of Corfu. The massive altar of the sanctuary is precisely rectangular and stood in front of the temple. It was 2.7 m. wide and 25 m. long. Only 8 m. of its northern section survive. The rest of the altar was built over, under the foundations of the Saint Theodore monastery.

Temple of Garni

The Temple of Garni (Armenian: Գառնու տաճար, Gaṙnu tačar, [ˈgɑrnu ˈtɑtʃɑʁ]) is the only standing Greco-Roman colonnaded building in Armenia and the former Soviet Union. An Ionic pagan temple located in the village of Garni, Armenia, it is the best-known structure and symbol of pre-Christian Armenia.

The structure was probably built by king Tiridates I in the first century AD as a temple to the sun god Mihr. After Armenia's conversion to Christianity in the early fourth century, it was converted into a royal summer house of Khosrovidukht, the sister of Tiridates III. According to some scholars it was not a temple but a tomb and thus survived the universal destruction of pagan structures. It collapsed in a 1679 earthquake. Renewed interest in the 19th century led to excavations at the site in early and mid-20th century, and its eventual reconstruction between 1969 and 1975, using the anastylosis method. It is one of the main tourist attractions in Armenia and the central shrine of Armenian neopaganism.

Temple of Hera, Mon Repos

The Temple of Hera or Heraion is an archaic temple in Corfu, Greece, built around 610 BC in the ancient city of Korkyra (or Corcyra), in what is known today as Palaiopolis, and lies within the ground of the Mon Repos estate. The sanctuary of Hera at Mon Repos is considered a major temple, and one of the earliest examples of archaic Greek architecture.Large terracotta figures such as lions, gorgoneions, and Daidala maidens, created and painted in vivid colour by artisans inspired by myth traditions across the Mediterranean, decorated the roof of the temple, making it one of the most intricately adorned temples of Archaic Greece and the most ambitious roof construction project of its time. Built at the top of Analipsis Hill, Hera's sanctuary was highly visible to ships approaching the waterfront of the ancient city of Korkyra.

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