Lisa Simpson

Lisa Marie Simpson[1] is a fictional character in the animated television series The Simpsons. She is the middle child and most intelligent of the Simpson family. Voiced by Yeardley Smith, Lisa was born as a character in The Tracey Ullman Show short "Good Night" on April 19, 1987. Cartoonist Matt Groening created and designed her while waiting to meet James L. Brooks. Groening had been invited to pitch a series of shorts based on his comic Life in Hell, but instead decided to create a new set of characters. He named the elder Simpson daughter after his younger sister Lisa Groening Bartlett. After appearing on The Tracey Ullman Show for three years, the Simpson family were moved to their own series on Fox, which debuted on December 17, 1989.

Intelligent, passionate, and the moral center of the family, Lisa Simpson, at eight years old, is the second child of Homer and Marge, younger sister of Bart, and older sister of Maggie. Lisa's high intellect and liberal political stance creates a barrier between her and other children her age, therefore she is a bit of a loner and social outcast. Lisa is a vegetarian, a strong environmentalist, a feminist, and a Buddhist. Lisa's character develops many times over the course of the show: she becomes a vegetarian in season 7 and converts to Buddhism in season 13. A strong liberal, Lisa advocates for a variety of political causes (e.g. standing with the Tibetan independence movement) which usually sets her against most of the people in Springfield. However, she can also be somewhat intolerant of opinions that differ from her own, often refusing to consider alternative perspectives. In her free time, Lisa enjoys many hobbies such as reading and playing the baritone saxophone, despite her father's annoyance regarding the latter. She has appeared in other media relating to The Simpsons – including video games, The Simpsons Movie, The Simpsons Ride, commercials and comic books – and inspired a line of merchandise.

Yeardley Smith originally tried out for the role of Bart, while Nancy Cartwright (who was later cast as the voice for Bart) tried out for Lisa. Producers considered Smith's voice too high for a boy, so she was given the role of Lisa. In the Tracey Ullman Show shorts, Lisa was something of a "female Bart" who mirrored her brother's mischief, but as the series progressed she became a liberal voice of reason which has drawn both praise and criticism from fans of the show. Because of her unusual pointed hair style, many animators consider Lisa the most difficult Simpsons character to draw.

TV Guide ranked her 11th (tied with Bart) on their list of the "Top 50 Greatest Cartoon Characters of All Time". Her environmentalism has been especially well received; several episodes featuring her have won Genesis and Environmental Media Awards, including a special "Board of Directors Ongoing Commitment Award" in 2001. People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals included Lisa on their list of the "Most Animal-Friendly TV Characters of All Time". Yeardley Smith won a Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Voice-Over Performance in 1992 and Lisa and her family were awarded a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame in 2000.

Lisa Marie Simpson
The Simpsons character
A yellow-skinned cartoon character. She has large, beady eyes and is wearing a strapless red-orange dress and Mary Janes, and a white beaded necklace. She has her hands on her hips and smiles slightly.
First appearance"Good Night" (1987)
Created byMatt Groening
Voiced byYeardley Smith
Information
GenderFemale
Occupation2nd grade student at Springfield Elementary School
RelativesParents: Homer and Marge
Siblings: Bart and Maggie
Grandparents: Abe Simpson, Mona Simpson, Jacqueline Bouvier and Clancy Bouvier
Aunts: Patty and Selma Bouvier
(See also Simpson family)

Role in The Simpsons

The Simpsons uses a floating timeline in which the characters do not have physical ages;[2] as such, Lisa is always depicted as 7–8 years old.[3] The show itself is perpetually set in the year of broadcast (except for occasional flashbacks and flashforwards). In several episodes, events have been linked to specific time periods, although this timeline has been contradicted in subsequent episodes.[4] Lisa's year of birth is given in "Lisa's First Word" (season 4, 1992) as 1984, during the Summer Olympics.[5] The episode "That '90s Show" (season 19, 2008), however, contradicts much of the established backstory; for example, it presents Homer and Marge as being childless in the late 1990s.[6][7] Lisa is a lover of music, with jazz as her favorite genre. She enjoys and excels at playing the saxophone and became friends with jazz musician Bleeding Gums Murphy, whom she regards as an idol. Murphy helps pull Lisa out of her depression in "Moaning Lisa" (season 1, 1990).[8] She is later deeply saddened by Murphy's death in "'Round Springfield" (season 6, 1995).[9]

Lisa has been romantic with several boys, including Ralph Wiggum in "I Love Lisa" (season 4, 1993),[10] Nelson Muntz in "Lisa's Date with Density" (season 8, 1996)[11] and Colin in The Simpsons Movie (2007).[12] Bart's best friend Milhouse Van Houten has a crush on her, but despite dropping unsubtle hints about his feelings, he has been unsuccessful in winning her affection.[11] Her voice actor Yeardley Smith said Muntz would make a good match for Lisa.[13] In 2019, Simpsons showrunner Al Jean said he saw Lisa as being "possibly polyamorous" in the future.[14] In the 2011 Season 23 episode 9 episode "Holidays of Future Passed" Lisa is shown holding hands with an unnamed dark-haired woman in a photo, and then shown in a second photo where she is holding hands with two different women at once, suggesting polyamory; she later ends up with Milhouse. However, this episode is non-canon.[15][16][17][14]

Lisa is the most intellectual member of the Simpson family (she has an IQ of 159), and many episodes of the series focus on her fighting for various causes.[18] Lisa is often the focus of episodes with "a real moral or philosophical point", which according to former writer David S. Cohen is because "you really buy her as caring about it."[19] Lisa's political convictions are generally liberal and she often contests other's views. She is a vegetarian, feminist, environmentalist and a supporter of gay rights and the Free Tibet movement.[20][21] In a special Christmas message for the UK in 2004 Lisa showed her support for Cornish nationalism, even speaking the Cornish language to get her message across.[22] While supportive of the general ideals of the Christian church in which she was raised, Lisa became a practicing Buddhist in the episode "She of Little Faith" (season 13, 2001) after she learned about the Noble Eightfold Path.[23] An "End Apartheid Now" poster can be seen on her bedroom door during earlier seasons. She is extremely controlled by her ideals and noble, and she undergoes drastic changes when she or anyone else is immoral, such as renouncing Homer's last name and taking Marge's when she discovers that Homer bet against her in a crossword puzzle competition.

Character

Creation

Matt Groening conceived Lisa and the rest of the Simpson family in 1986 in the lobby of producer James L. Brooks's office. Groening had been called in to pitch a series of animated shorts for The Tracey Ullman Show and had intended to present an adaptation of his Life in Hell comic strip. When he realized that animating Life in Hell would require him to rescind publication rights, Groening went in another direction,[24] hurriedly sketching his version of a dysfunctional family, named after members of his own family. Lisa was named after Groening's younger sister, but little else was based on her.[25] In The Tracey Ullman Show shorts, Lisa displayed little of the intelligence for which she later became known. She was more of a "female Bart"[26] and was originally described as simply the "middle child", without much personality.[27]

Lisa made her debut with the rest of the Simpson family on April 19, 1987, in The Tracey Ullman Show short "Good Night".[28] In 1989, the shorts were adapted into The Simpsons, a half-hour series on the Fox Broadcasting Company.[24]

Design

Lisasmall2
This image illustrates how to draw Lisa's head and hairline using the three-three-two arrangement.

The entire Simpson family was designed to be easily recognized in silhouette.[29] The family was crudely drawn, because Groening had submitted basic sketches to the animators, assuming they would clean them up; instead, they just traced over his drawings.[24] Lisa's physical features are generally unique. In some early episodes, minor background characters occasionally had a similar hairline. However, in the later seasons, no character other than Maggie shares her hairline.[30] While designing Lisa, Groening "couldn't be bothered to even think about girls' hair styles".[31] At the time, Groening was primarily drawing in black and white; when designing Lisa and Maggie, he "just gave them this kind of spiky starfish hair style, not thinking that they would eventually be drawn in color".[32]

To draw Lisa's head and hair, most of the show's animators use what they call the "three-three-two arrangement". It begins with a circle, with two curving lines (one vertical, one horizontal) intersecting in the middle to indicate her eyeline. The vertical line continues outside of the circle to create one hair point, with two more added towards the back of her head. Three more points are then added in front (in the direction Lisa is facing), with two more behind it.[33] Several Simpsons animators, including Pete Michels and David Silverman, consider Lisa the most difficult Simpsons character to draw.[34] Silverman explains that "her head is so abstract" due to her hairstyle.[31]

Voice

While the roles of Homer and Marge were given to Dan Castellaneta and Julie Kavner because they were already a part of the Tracey Ullman Show cast,[35] the producers decided to hold casting for the roles of Bart and Lisa. Nancy Cartwright intended to audition for the role of Lisa, but disliked the character's bland description—Lisa was described simply as the "middle child"—and read for the role of Bart instead.[27][36] Casting director Bonita Pietila brought Yeardley Smith in for an audition after seeing her performing in the play Living on Salvation Street.[37][38] Smith was hesitant to audition for an animated series, but her agent had persuaded her to give it a try.[39] Smith originally auditioned for the role of Bart but Pietila believed her voice was too high. Smith later recalled: "I always sounded too much like a girl, I read two lines as Bart and they said, 'Thanks for coming!'"[38][40] Pietila offered Smith the role of Lisa instead.[39]

Yeardley Smith 2012
Voice actress Yeardley Smith

Smith and the show's writers worked to give Lisa a more defined personality, and she has developed greatly during the series. In her 2000 memoir My Life as a 10-Year-Old Boy, Cartwright wrote: "with the brilliant wit of the writers and the wry, in-your-eye, honest-to-a-fault interpretation, Yeardley Smith has made Lisa a bright light of leadership, full of compassion and competence beyond her years. Lisa Simpson is the kind of child we not only want our children to be, but also the kind of child we want all children to be. But, at the time, on The Tracey Ullman Show, she was just an animated eight-year-old kid who had no personality."[27]

Lisa is the only regular character voiced by Smith, who raises the pitch of her voice slightly for the role.[41] In some earlier episodes she provided some of Maggie's squeaks and occasional speaking parts, and has voiced other characters on very rare occasions.[42] Usually they are derivative of Lisa, such as Lisa Bella in "Last Tap Dance in Springfield" (season 11, 2000) and Lisa, Jr. in "Missionary: Impossible". (season 11, 2000)[43]

Despite the fame of Lisa Simpson, Smith is rarely recognized in public, which she does not mind. She said, "it's wonderful to be in the midst of all this hype about the show, and people enjoying the show so much, and to be totally a fly on the wall; people never recognise me solely from my voice."[45] In a 2009 interview with The Guardian she commented that "It's the best job ever. I have nothing but gratitude for the amount of freedom The Simpsons has bought me in my life."[46] Although Smith received a Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Voice-Over Performance in 1992, she considers it unimportant, saying "there's part of me that feels it wasn't even a real Emmy." The award is a Creative Arts prize not awarded during the primetime telecast and, at the time, a juried award without nominations.[39] Still, Smith considers her work on the show a success. "If I had to be associated with one character in fiction," she said, "I will always be thrilled that it was Lisa Simpson."[39] Matt Groening has described Smith as being very similar to Lisa: "Yeardley has strong moral views about her character. There are lines that are written for Lisa that Yeardley reads and says, 'No, I wouldn't say that.'"[44] Former Simpsons writer Jay Kogen praised her performance on the show, particularly in the episode "Lisa's Substitute", as able "to move past comedy to something really strong and serious and dramatic."[44]

Until 1998, Smith was paid $30,000 per episode. A pay dispute erupted in 1998, during which Fox threatened to replace the six main voice actors with new actors, going as far as preparing for casting of new voices.[47] The dispute was soon resolved, and Smith received $125,000 per episode until 2004 when the voice actors sought an increase to $360,000 per episode.[47] The issue was resolved a month later,[48] and Smith earned $250,000 per episode.[45] New salary negotiations took place in 2008, and the voice actors currently receive approximately $400,000 per episode.[49] Three years later, with Fox threatening to cancel the series unless production costs were cut, Smith and the other cast members accepted a 30 percent pay cut, down to just over $300,000 per episode.[50]

Development

Lisa - Good Night
Lisa in her first televised appearance in "Good Night". While designing Lisa, Groening, who was primarily drawing in black and white, "just gave [her] this kind of spiky starfish hair style, not thinking that [she] would eventually be drawn in color". Lisa's hair points would eventually be made less spiky.[32]

In The Tracey Ullman Show shorts, Lisa was something of a "female Bart": equally mischievous but lacking unique traits.[26] As the series progressed, Lisa began to develop into a more intelligent and more emotional character.[51] She demonstrates her intellect in the 1990 episode "Krusty Gets Busted" (season one), by helping Bart reveal Sideshow Bob's plot to frame Krusty the Clown for armed robbery.[52] Many episodes focusing on Lisa have an emotional nature, such as "Moaning Lisa" (season one, 1990). The idea for the episode was pitched by James L. Brooks, who wanted to do an emotional episode involving Lisa's sadness, to complement the many "jokey episodes" in the first season.[53]

In the seventh-season episode "Lisa the Vegetarian" (1995), Lisa permanently becomes a vegetarian, distinguishing her as one of the first primetime television characters to make such a choice.[54] The episode was written by David S. Cohen (in his first solo writing credit) who jotted down the idea one day while eating lunch. Then-executive producer David Mirkin, who had recently become a vegetarian, quickly approved the idea. Several of Lisa's experiences in the episode are based on Mirkin's own experiences. The episode guest stars musician Paul McCartney, a committed vegetarian and animal rights activist. McCartney's condition for appearing was that Lisa would remain a vegetarian for the rest of the series and would not revert the next week (as is common on situation comedies). The trait stayed and is one of the few permanent character changes made in the show.[55][56][57] In the season 13 episode "She of Little Faith" (2001), Lisa underwent another permanent character change when she converted to Buddhism.[58]

Lisa plays the baritone saxophone, and some episodes use that as a plot device. According to Matt Groening, the baritone saxophone was chosen because he found the thought of an eight-year-old girl playing it amusing. He added, "But she doesn't always play a baritone sax because the animators don't know what it looks like, so it changes shape and color from show to show."[59] One of the hallmarks of the show's opening sequence is a brief solo Lisa plays on her saxophone after being thrown out of music class. The Simpsons composer Alf Clausen said that the session musicians who perform her solos do not try to play at the second grade level and instead "think of Lisa as a really good player."[51]

Personality

Lisa, despite being a child prodigy, often sees herself as a misfit within the Simpson family and other children due to possessing an unusually high level of intelligence. She shows characteristics rarely seen in Springfield, including spirituality and commitment to peaceful ways,[2] and is notably more concerned with world affairs than her life in Springfield,[60] with her rebellion against social norms being depicted as constructive and heroic, yet she can be self-righteous at times.[61] In "Lisa the Vegetarian", an increasing sense of moral righteousness leads her to disrupt her father's roast-pig barbecue, an act for which she later apologizes.[62] Episodes often take shots at Lisa's idealism and virtue signalling.[63] In "Bart Star", (season nine, 1997) Lisa, departs from her typically more genuine nature and apparently looking for a new cause to crusade over,[64] defiantly declares that she, a girl, would like to join the football team. In the 1990s, it was considered odd to allow a girl to play football. However, when coach Ned Flanders reveals that several girls already play for the team, she hesitates and claims football is "not really [her] thing". She then expresses distaste about a ball made of pig's skin, but one of the girls informs her that their footballs are synthetic and that proceeds are donated to Amnesty International. Upset by being unable to gain moral superiority, Lisa runs off.[65]

Lisa is said to have an IQ of 159,[66] and in "They Saved Lisa's Brain" (season ten, 1999) she becomes a member of the Springfield chapter of Mensa.[67] When unable to attend school due to a teachers' strike in "The PTA Disbands", (season six, 1995) she suffers withdrawal symptoms because of the sudden lack of praise.[68] She even demands that her mother grade her for no obvious reason.[69] In Planet Simpson, Chris Turner writes that these traits make Lisa more realistic because "No character can aspire to realism without a few all-too-human flaws."[68]

Although she is wise beyond her years, Lisa has typical childhood issues, sometimes requiring adult intervention. One episode to show this is "See Homer Run" (season seventeen, 2005) where she goes through a developmental condition which causes her to get into trouble at school. [70] In "Lost Our Lisa" (season nine, 1998), she tricks Homer into allowing her to ride the bus alone, only to become hopelessly lost and in need of aid from her father.[71] Chris Turner writes in Planet Simpson that incidents like this illustrate that "Even when Lisa's lecturing like a college professor or mounting yet another protest, she never becomes a full-grown adult trapped in a child's body."[70] In The Simpsons and Philosophy: The D'oh! of Homer, Aeon J. Skoble states that although Lisa is an intellectual, she is still portrayed as a character who enjoys normal childhood and girl activities, plays with Malibu Stacy dolls, loves ponies, obsesses over teenage heartthrobs such as Corey, and watches The Itchy and Scratchy Show along with Bart. He writes, "One might argue that this is typical childhood behavior, but since in so many cases Lisa is presented not simply as a prodigy but as preternaturally wise, the fondness for Itchy and Scratchy and Corey seem to be highlighted, taking on greater significance. Lisa is portrayed as the avatar of logic and wisdom, but then she also worships Corey so she's 'no better [than the rest of us]'."[72] When she became depressed over being unable to pursue her dream as a musician due to inheriting her father's fingers and having to spend her time with Marge in being a homemaker, Lisa gives up on school and becomes a juvenile delinquent in Separate Vocations. She is stopped by Bart who encourages her to keep proving people wrong and pursue her dreams as a musician.

Lisa occasionally worries that her family's dull habits will rub off on her, such as in "Lisa the Simpson" (season nine, 1998) she worries that the "Simpson gene" will make her a dimwit later finding out the gene only goes through the male side.[73][74] She is often embarrassed and disapproving of her eccentric family: of her father's poor parenting skills and buffoonish personality; her mother's stereotypical image and social ineptitude; and her brother's delinquent and low-brow nature. She is also concerned that Maggie may grow up to be like the rest of the family and tries to teach her complex ideas. Chris Turner writes in Planet Simpson that "Lisa embarks on quests to find solace for her yearning spirit ... but the most reliable source of truth she finds is the one she always believed in: her family. It is from the other Simpsons that Lisa draws stability, meaning, contentment."[75] Her loyalty to her family is most clearly seen in the flashforward "Lisa's Wedding" (season six, 1995), in which she must reconcile her love for them with the distaste of her cultured fiancé.[76] In the episode "Mother Simpson" (season seven, 1995) she meets her paternal grandmother Mona Simpson for the first time.[77] Mona is also well-read and articulate, and the writers used the character as a way to explain the origins of Lisa's intelligence.[78]

Reception

Commendations

The Simpsons star
In 2000, Lisa, along with the rest of the Simpson family, was awarded a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame.

Lisa has been a popular character since the show's inception. She was listed at number 11 (tied with Bart) in TV Guide's "Top 50 Greatest Cartoon Characters of All Time."[79] She appeared in Comcast's list of TV's Most Intriguing Characters[80] and was also included in AfterEllen.com's Top 50 Favorite Female TV Characters.[81] On a less positive note, she was ranked third in AskMen's top 10 of the most irritating '90s cartoon characters.[82] Yeardley Smith has won several awards for voicing Lisa, including a Primetime Emmy Award for "Outstanding Voice-Over Performance" in 1992 for "Lisa the Greek".[83] Various episodes in which Lisa stars have won Emmy Awards for Outstanding Animated Program, including "Homer vs. Lisa and the 8th Commandment" in 1991, "Lisa's Wedding" in 1995 and "HOMR" in 2001.[83] In 2000, Lisa and the rest of the Simpson family were awarded a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame at 7021 Hollywood Boulevard.[84]

Lisa's environmentalism has been especially well received. In 2001, Lisa received a special "Board of Directors Ongoing Commitment Award" at the Environmental Media Awards.[85] "Lisa the Vegetarian" won both an Environmental Media Award for "Best Television Episodic Comedy"[86] and a Genesis Award for "Best Television Comedy Series, Ongoing Commitment".[87] Several other episodes that feature Lisa speaking out in favor of animal rights have won Genesis Awards, including "Whacking Day" in 1994,[88][89] "Bart Gets an Elephant" in 1995,[90][91][92] "Million Dollar Abie" in 2007[93] and "Apocalypse Cow" in 2009.[94]

Cultural influence

Jonathan Gray, author of the book Watching The Simpsons, feels that Lisa "is probably the best and certainly longest-running feminist character that television has had. She's the heart of the show and she quite often questions the gender politics."[95] Christopher Borrelli of The Toledo Blade wrote, "Has there ever been a female TV character as complex, intelligent, and, ahem, as emotionally well-drawn as Lisa Simpson? Meet her once and she comes off priggish and one-note – a know-it-all. Get to know her and Lisa is as well-rounded as anyone you may ever meet in the real world."[96]

According to PETA, Lisa was one of the first vegetarian characters on primetime television. In 2004 the organization included Lisa on its list of the "Most Animal-Friendly TV Characters of All Time".[54] In 2008, environmentalist website The Daily Green honored Lisa's role in The Simpsons Movie with one of its inaugural "Heart of Green" awards, which "recognize those who have helped green go mainstream." They wrote "young Lisa Simpson has inspired a generation to wear their hearts on their sleeves and get educated, and involved, about global issues, from justice to feminism and the environment."[97] Japanese broadcasters reversed viewer dislike of the series by focusing marketing of the show on Lisa. Lisa's well-intended but ill-fated struggles to be a voice of reason and a force of good in her family and community struck a chord with Japanese audiences.[98] Mario D'Amato, a specialist in Buddhist studies at Rollins College in Florida, described Lisa as "open-minded, reflective, ethical, and interested in improving herself in various ways, while still preserving a childlike sense of innocence. These are all excellent qualities, ones which are espoused by many Buddhist traditions."[99]

Lisa and the rest of the Simpsons have had a significant influence on English-language idioms. The dismissive term "Meh", used by Lisa and popularized by the show,[100] entered the Collins English Dictionary in 2008.[101] In 1996, The New York Times published an article saying that Lisa was inspiring children, especially young girls, to learn to play the saxophone.[59]

Lisa Simpson was mentioned at the 2018 CPAC when Senator Ted Cruz called the Democratic Party "The Party of Lisa Simpson", as opposed to the Republican Party being the party of the rest of the family.

Merchandising

Lisa has been included in many The Simpsons publications, toys, and other merchandise. The Lisa Book, describing Lisa's personality and attributes, was released in 2006.[102] Other merchandise includes dolls, posters, figurines, bobblehead dolls, mugs, and clothing such as slippers, T-shirts, baseball caps, and boxer shorts.[103] Lisa has appeared in commercials for Burger King,[104] C.C. Lemon, Church's Chicken, Domino's Pizza, Kentucky Fried Chicken, Ramada Inn, Ritz Crackers, Subway and Butterfinger.[105]

On April 9, 2009, the United States Postal Service unveiled a series of five 44 cent stamps featuring Lisa and the four other members of the nuclear Simpson family. They are the first characters from a television series to receive this recognition while still in production.[106] The stamps, designed by Matt Groening, went on sale in May 2009.[107][108]

Lisa has also appeared in other media relating to The Simpsons. She has appeared in each Simpsons video game, including The Simpsons Game, released in 2007.[109] In addition to the television series, Lisa regularly appears in issues of Simpsons Comics, first published on November 29, 1993 and published monthly. The comics focus on the sweeter, more naive incarnation from the early seasons.[110][111] Lisa also plays a role in The Simpsons Ride, launched in 2008 at Universal Studios Florida and Hollywood.[112]

References

  1. ^ "Lisa's Wedding". The Simpsons. Season 06. Episode 19. March 19, 1995. Fox.
  2. ^ a b Turner 2004, p. 78.
  3. ^ Jean, Al; Reiss, Mike; Moore, Rich (September 19, 1991). "Stark Raving Dad". The Simpsons. Season 03. Episode 01. Event occurs at 1:12. Fox. Bart, my birthday's in two days. I'm going to be eight years old. It's a big number, almost double digits.
  4. ^ Turner 2004, pp. 78–79.
  5. ^ Martin, Jeff; Kirkland, Mark (December 3, 1992). "Lisa's First Word". The Simpsons. Season 04. Episode 10. Fox.
  6. ^ Canning, Robert (January 28, 2008). "The Simpsons: That '90s Show Review". IGN. Retrieved May 6, 2010.
  7. ^ Selman, Matt; Kirkland, Mark (January 27, 2008). "That '90s Show". The Simpsons. Season 19. Episode 11. Fox.
  8. ^ Jean, Al; Reiss, Mike; Archer, Wes (February 11, 1990). "Moaning Lisa". The Simpsons. Season 01. Episode 06. Fox.
  9. ^ Sternin, Joshua; Ventimilia, Jeffrey; Moore, Steven Dean (April 30, 1995). "'Round Springfield". The Simpsons. Season 06. Episode 22. Fox.
  10. ^ Mula, Frank; Archer, Wes (February 11, 1993). "I Love Lisa". The Simpsons. Season 04. Episode 15. Fox.
  11. ^ a b Scully, Mike; Dietter, Susie (December 15, 1996). "Lisa's Date with Density". The Simpsons. Season 08. Episode 07. Fox.
  12. ^ The Simpsons Movie (Film). 20th Century Fox. 2007.
  13. ^ "Life as Lisa Simpson". 3 News NZ. May 24, 2013.
  14. ^ a b 10:30 am (April 8, 2019). "The Simpsons Showrunner Says Lisa Is "Possibly Polyamorous" – IN Magazine". Inmagazine.ca. Retrieved April 17, 2019.
  15. ^ "The Simpsons: 20 Ridiculous Facts About Lisa". TheGamer. June 29, 2018. Retrieved April 17, 2019.
  16. ^ Bradford Evans (October 25, 2013). "18 Things You’d Be Surprised Happened on ‘The Simpsons’ If You Stopped Watching in 2003". Vulture.com. Retrieved April 17, 2019.
  17. ^ / (April 28, 2013). "#23 Holidays Of Future Passed, Season 23, Episode 09. Magic Xylophone podcast". Player.fm. Retrieved April 17, 2019.
  18. ^ De Waal, Shaun (July 27, 2007). "Yellow peril". Mail & Guardian. Retrieved October 6, 2010.
  19. ^ Cohen, David S.; Groening, Matt; Meyer, George; Michels, Pete; Scully, Mike; Smith; Yeardley. (2005). Commentary for "Lisa the Skeptic", in The Simpsons: The Complete Seventh Season [DVD]. 20th Century Fox.
  20. ^ "Character Profiles: Lisa Simpson". Channel 4. February 16, 2009. Archived from the original on October 1, 2010. Retrieved October 6, 2010. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  21. ^ Curran, Kevin; Kruse, Nancy (February 16, 2003). "I'm Spelling as Fast as I Can". The Simpsons. Season 1. Episode 12. Fox.
  22. ^ "Lisa puts cool into Cornish cause". BBC. July 5, 2004. Retrieved April 8, 2012.
  23. ^ Freiberger, Bill; Moore, Steven Dean (December 16, 2001). "She of Little Faith". The Simpsons. Season 13. Episode 06. Fox.
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  25. ^ Rose, Joseph (August 3, 2007). "The real people behind Homer Simpson and family". The Oregonian. Archived from the original on May 25, 2012. Cite uses deprecated parameter |dead-url= (help)
  26. ^ a b Mirkin, David. (2004). Commentary for "Boy-Scoutz 'n the Hood", in The Simpsons: The Complete Fifth Season [DVD]. 20th Century Fox.
  27. ^ a b c Cartwright 2000, pp. 35–40
  28. ^ Richmond & Coffman 1997, p. 14.
  29. ^ Groening, Matt. (2005). Commentary for "Fear of Flying", in The Simpsons: The Complete Sixth Season [DVD]. 20th Century Fox.
  30. ^ Groening, Matt; Reiss, Mike; Kirkland, Mark. (2002). Commentary for "Principal Charming", in The Simpsons: The Complete Second Season [DVD]. 20th Century Fox.
  31. ^ a b Silverman, David; Reardon, Jim; Groening, Matt. (2005). Illustrated commentary for "Treehouse of Horror V", in The Simpsons: The Complete Sixth Season [DVD]. 20th Century Fox.
  32. ^ a b Groening, Matt. (2006). "A Bit From the Animators", illustrated commentary for "All Singing, All Dancing", in The Simpsons: The Complete Ninth Season [DVD]. 20th Century Fox.
  33. ^ Archer, Wes; Groening, Matt; Kirkland, Mark. (2005). "A Bit From the Animators", illustrated commentary for "Summer of 4 Ft. 2", in The Simpsons: The Complete Seventh Season [DVD]. 20th Century Fox.
  34. ^ Michels, Pete. (2006). "A Bit From the Animators", illustrated commentary for "All Singing, All Dancing", in The Simpsons: The Complete Ninth Season [DVD]. 20th Century Fox.
  35. ^ Lee, Luaine (February 27, 2003). "D'oh, you're the voice". The Age. Melbourne. Retrieved August 18, 2007.
  36. ^ "Bart's voice tells all". BBC News. November 10, 2000. Retrieved May 16, 2007.
  37. ^ a b Freeman, Paul (November 20, 1994). "Local actress finds a voice in `Simpsons'". The Washington Times.
  38. ^ a b Miranda, Charles (December 8, 2007). "She who laughs last". The Daily Telegraph. p. 8E.
  39. ^ a b c d Heidi Vogt (April 4, 2004). "She's happy as Lisa Simpson, although she'd like more d'oh". The Spokesman-Review. Associated Press.
  40. ^ Larry Carroll (October 26, 2008). "'Simpsons' Trivia, From Swearing Lisa To "Burns-Sexual" Smithers". MTV. Archived from the original on December 20, 2007. Retrieved July 29, 2007. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  41. ^ Charles Miranda (December 8, 2007). "She who laughs last". The Daily Telegraph. p. 8E.
  42. ^ Smith, Yeardley (2007). Audio commentary for The Simpsons Movie (DVD). 20th Century Fox.
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Bibliography

Further reading

External links

2012 Summer Olympics

The 2012 Summer Olympics, formally the Games of the XXX Olympiad and commonly known as London 2012, was an international multi-sport event that was held from 27 July to 12 August 2012 in London, United Kingdom. The first event, the group stage in women's football, began on 25 July at the Millennium Stadium in Cardiff, followed by the opening ceremonies on 27 July. 10,768 athletes from 204 National Olympic Committees (NOCs) participated.Following a bid headed by former Olympic champion Sebastian Coe and then-Mayor of London Ken Livingstone, London was selected as the host city on 6 July 2005 during the 117th IOC Session in Singapore, defeating bids from Moscow, New York City, Madrid, and Paris. London became the first city to host the modern Olympics three times, having previously hosted the Summer Games in 1908 and in 1948.Construction for the Games involved considerable redevelopment, with an emphasis on sustainability. The main focus was a new 200-hectare (490-acre) Olympic Park, constructed on a former industrial site at Stratford, East London. The Games also made use of venues that already existed before the bid.The Games received general praise for their organisation, with the volunteers, the British military and public enthusiasm praised particularly highly. The opening ceremony, directed by Danny Boyle, received widespread acclaim throughout the world, particular praise from the British public and a minority of widely ranging criticisms from some social media sites. During the Games, Michael Phelps became the most decorated Olympic athlete of all time, winning his 22nd medal. Saudi Arabia, Qatar, and Brunei entered female athletes for the first time, so that every currently eligible country has sent a female competitor to at least one Olympic Games. Women's boxing was included for the first time, thus the Games became the first at which every sport had female competitors. These were the final Olympic Games under the IOC presidency of Belgian Jacques Rogge, who was succeeded by German Thomas Bach next year.

The final medal tally was led by the United States, followed by China and host Great Britain. Several world and Olympic records were set at the games. Though there were several controversies, the 2012 games were deemed highly successful with the rising standards of competition amongst nations across the world, packed stadiums and smooth organisation. Furthermore, the focus on sporting legacy and post-games venue sustainability was seen as a blueprint for future Olympics.

24 Minutes

"24 Minutes" is the twenty-first episode of The Simpsons' eighteenth season. It originally aired on the Fox network in the United States on May 20, 2007 as part of the one-hour season finale, alongside the episode "You Kent Always Say What You Want". It was originally promoted as being the 400th episode, but was broadcast as the 399th. It was written by Ian Maxtone-Graham and Billy Kimball. It was Kimball's first writing credit.

The episode is a spoof of the Fox television drama 24, and sees Principal Skinner's new Counter Truancy Unit (CTU), led by Lisa Simpson, attempting to prevent a stink bomb being released at Springfield Elementary School. Guest stars include Kiefer Sutherland and Mary Lynn Rajskub as their characters from 24, Jack Bauer and Chloe O'Brian.

Critically acclaimed, it won the 2008 Annie Award for Best Writing in an Animated Television Production.

All About Lisa

"All About Lisa" is the twentieth episode and season finale of The Simpsons' nineteenth season. It originally aired on the Fox network in the United States on May 18, 2008. Lisa Simpson becomes Krusty the Clown's newest assistant and steals his spotlight. She wins Entertainer of the Year at the Springfield Media awards, but is warned that with her sudden fame comes a new attitude towards others and herself. Meanwhile, Homer and Bart bond over their newfound love of coin collecting. The episode features narration by Sideshow Mel. It was written by John Frink and directed by Steven Dean Moore. Drew Carey guest voices himself, appearing as a guest on Krusty's show.

Chie Kōjiro

Chie Kōjiro (神代 知衣, Kōjiro Chie, born October 17, 1960) is a Japanese voice actress from Shimonoseki, Yamaguchi. She was previously affiliated with Mausu Promotion and Production Baobab, and is now affiliated with 81 Produce.

She is best known as the Japanese voice of Lisa Simpson.

Invincible (Pat Benatar song)

"Invincible" is the Grammy-nominated lead single from Pat Benatar's sixth studio album Seven the Hard Way (1985), released on July 6, 1985. The song was written by Holly Knight and Simon Climie (Knight also co-wrote "Love Is a Battlefield"), and was used as a theme song for the film The Legend of Billie Jean (1985). "Invincible" was heard in the film over 720 times, and Benatar was paid $12.50 for its use. Helen Slater (Billie Jean) once stated "That song will always take me back to a part in the movie where Lisa Simpson gets her period". The song was a huge hit, peaking at #10 on the Billboard Hot 100 chart on September 14, 1985.

Jazzman

"Jazzman" is a 1974 song performed by Carole King, from her album Wrap Around Joy. King composed the music for the song, while David Palmer (formerly of Steely Dan) wrote the lyrics.

The song is best known for its lengthy saxophone solos, performed by Tom Scott, while King sings an ode to "the Jazzman" and the effect he has on her. Curtis Amy, saxophonist, composer, and former musical director for the Ray Charles band, was the "jazz man" of the song.Shortly after arriving on the Billboard Hot 100 the single rose to the #2 spot for a week in mid-November 1974 (stuck behind "You Ain't Seen Nothing Yet" by Bachman Turner Overdrive). The song also reached No. 4 on the Billboard easy listening chart. The B-side of the "Jazzman" single was "You Go Your Way, I'll Go Mine".

The song was nominated for a Grammy Award in 1975 in the category Best Female Pop Vocal performance, losing out to Olivia Newton-John's song "I Honestly Love You".The song is prominently featured in the Simpsons episode "'Round Springfield", sung by Yeardley Smith as Lisa Simpson. The song is presented as a duet between Lisa and recurring character Bleeding Gums Murphy, who plays the saxophone.

Lisa's Rival

"Lisa's Rival" is the second episode of The Simpsons' sixth season. It originally aired on the Fox network in the United States on September 11, 1994. It was the first episode to be written by Mike Scully, and was directed by Mark Kirkland. Winona Ryder guest stars as Allison Taylor, a new student at Springfield Elementary School. Lisa Simpson begins to feel threatened by Allison because she is smarter, younger, and a better saxophone player than she is. The episode's subplot sees Homer steal a large pile of sugar from a crashed truck, and begin selling it door-to-door.

Although written by Scully, the episode was originally pitched by former writer Conan O'Brien, while the subplot was suggested by George Meyer. It features references to films such as The Fugitive and Scarface, while production of the episode was affected by the 1994 Northridge earthquake.

Lisa Goes Gaga

"Lisa Goes Gaga" is the twenty-second and final episode of the twenty-third season of the American animated sitcom The Simpsons. It originally aired on the Fox network in the United States on May 20, 2012. In the episode, American singer-songwriter Lady Gaga makes a visit to Springfield, where all of its residents are in a state of depression. Main character Lisa Simpson is arguably the most depressed person in the city, prompting Gaga to go out of her way to teach Lisa the meaning of happiness.

The episode was written by Tim Long and directed by Matthew Schofield. Gaga guest-starred in the episode, portraying an animated version of herself. A fan of the show, she was brought on by showrunner Al Jean, who wrote a script after James L. Brooks saw an interview of her on 60 Minutes. The design team conceived eighteen outfits to complement Gaga's eccentric persona, which satirized several of her outfits including her meat dress. Recording sessions for "Lisa Goes Gaga" took place in Los Angeles, California over four days in August 2011. Critical responses to the episode were mixed to negative; critics praised Lady Gaga's performance, while they looked down upon the episode's concept and general execution. According to the Nielsen ratings, the installment attained 4.79 million American viewers upon its original airing.

Lisa Simpson, This Isn't Your Life

"Lisa Simpson, This Isn't Your Life" is the fifth episode of The Simpsons' 22nd season. It first aired on the Fox network in the United States on November 14, 2010.

Lisette Dufour

Lisette Dufour (Born 1949) is a Québécoise voice actress who is better known as the French voice of Lisa Simpson on The Simpsons.She also did a number of French dubbings, including most notably Pocahontas in the Disney movie.

List of The Simpsons comics

The following is a list of comic book series based on the animated TV show The Simpsons and published by Bongo Comics in the United States. The first comic strips based on The Simpsons appeared in 1991 in the magazine Simpsons Illustrated (not to be confused with the comic publications from 2012 bearing the same name), which was a companion magazine to the show. The comic strips were popular and a one-shot comic book entitled Simpsons Comics and Stories, containing three different stories, was released in 1993 for the fans. The book was a success and due to this, the creator of The Simpsons, Matt Groening, and his companions Bill Morrison, Mike Rote, Steve Vance and Cindy Vance created the publishing company Bongo Comics. By the end of 1993, Bongo was publishing four titles: Simpsons Comics, Bartman, Radioactive Man and Itchy & Scratchy Comics. Since then, many more titles have been published, out of which Simpsons Comics, Bart Simpson, Bart Simpson's Treehouse of Horror, Simpsons Super Spectacular, Simpsons Summer Shindig, and Simpsons Winter Wingding.Simpsons Comics and Bart Simpson comics are reprinted in the United Kingdom by the publishing company Titan Magazines, under the same titles. Various stories from other Bongo publications released in the United States, are also reprinted in the UK Simpsons Comics. The same titles are published in Australia by Otter Press. Issues of Simpsons Comics, Bart Simpson's Treehouse of Horror and Bart Simpson have been collected and reprinted in trade paperbacks in the United States by HarperCollins.

List of The Simpsons episodes

The Simpsons is an American animated television sitcom created by Matt Groening for the Fox Broadcasting Company. It is a satirical depiction of a middle class American lifestyle epitomized by its eponymous family, which consists of Homer, Marge, Bart, Lisa, and Maggie. The show is set in the fictional town of Springfield, and lampoons American culture, society, and television, as well as many aspects of the human condition. The family was conceived by Groening shortly before a pitch for a series of animated shorts with producer James L. Brooks. Groening created a dysfunctional family and named the characters after members of his own family, substituting Bart for his own name. The shorts became a part of the Fox series The Tracey Ullman Show on April 19, 1987. After a three-season run, the sketch was developed into a half-hour prime-time show that was an early hit for Fox.Since its debut on December 17, 1989, The Simpsons has broadcast 662 episodes. The show holds several American television longevity records. It is the longest-running prime-time animated series and longest-running sitcom in the United States. On February 19, 2012, The Simpsons reached its 500th episode in the twenty-third season. With its twenty-first season (2009–10), the series surpassed Gunsmoke in seasons to claim the spot as the longest-running American prime-time scripted television series, and later also surpassed Gunsmoke in episode count with the episode "Forgive and Regret" on April 29, 2018.Episodes of The Simpsons have won dozens of awards, including 31 Emmy Awards (with ten for Outstanding Animated Program), 30 Annie Awards, and a Peabody Award. The Simpsons Movie, a feature-length film, was released in theaters worldwide on July 26 and 27, 2007 and grossed US$526.2 million worldwide. The first eighteen seasons are available on DVD in regions 1, 2, and 4, with the twentieth season released on both DVD and Blu-ray in 2010 to celebrate the 20th anniversary of the series. On April 8, 2015, show runner Al Jean announced that there would be no more DVD or Blu-ray releases, shifting focus to digital distribution, although this was later reversed on July 22, 2017. Another two years later, on July 20, 2019, it was announced that Season 19 will be released on December 3, 2019 on DVD.On November 4, 2016, The Simpsons was renewed for seasons 29 and 30. It reached its 600th episode on October 16, 2016, in its twenty-eighth season. The thirtieth season ended on May 12, 2019. On February 6, 2019, The Simpsons was renewed for seasons 31 and 32, in which the latter will contain the 700th episode.Season 31 will premiere on September 29, 2019.

Mike B. Anderson

Mike B. Anderson (born 1973), sometimes credited as Mikel B. Anderson, is an American television director who works on The Simpsons and has directed numerous episodes of the show, and was animated in "The Secret War of Lisa Simpson" as cadet Anderson. While a college student, he directed the live action feature films Alone in the T-Shirt Zone (1986) and Kamillions (1989). Since 1990, he has worked primarily in animation including being a consulting producer on the series, "The Oblongs", and story consultant on "Tripping the Rift".

He has won two Emmy Awards for directing Simpsons episodes, "Homer's Phobia" in 1997 and "HOMR" in 2001. For "Homer's Phobia" he won the Annie Award for Best Individual Achievement: Directing in a TV Production, and the WAC Winner Best Director for Primetime Series at the 1998 World Animation Celebration. Mike was also a sequence director on "The Simpsons Movie" (2007), was the supervising director on "The Simpsons Ride" at Universal Studios and is currently the supervising director for "The Simpsons" television series.

Ralph Wiggum

Ralph Wiggum is a recurring character on the animated series The Simpsons, voiced by Nancy Cartwright. The son of Police Chief Wiggum, Ralph is a classmate of Lisa Simpson and an odd child noted for his frequent non-sequiturs and bizarre behavior. His lines range from nonsensical, or bizarre interpretations of a current event, to profound statements that go over people's heads; and his behavior varies between blissfully unaware, to dim-witted, to awkwardly spontaneous, even occasionally straightforward. The very nature of the character has undergone differing interpretations over the years and within various media.

The creator of the show, Matt Groening, has cited Ralph as his favorite character. He generally remains one of the more popular and often quoted secondary characters in the show. In 2006, IGN ranked Ralph No. 3 on their list of the "Top 25 Simpsons Peripheral Characters," behind Sideshow Bob and Troy McClure.

Tawgs Salter

Thomas "Tawgs" Salter is a Canadian musician, songwriter, producer and recording engineer. His extensive body of musical work includes a vast array of artists ranging from Josh Groban, Lights and Lenka to Chantal Kreviazuk, Fefe Dobson, Dear Rouge, Midway State and USS. Salter has also worked alongside Grammy-winning writer/producer Walter Afanasieff. Salter's music, production and collaborations have been featured on television shows, including Vampire Diaries, Grey's Anatomy, American Idol and The Simpsons to films such as Prom Night and Joe Somebody (Tom Wilson).Salter's writing and production of the soaring pop ballad You Are Loved (Don't Give Up), Josh Groban's first single from his multi-platinum selling third studio album Awake, reached #9 on the Adult Contemporary Billboard chart. The song was sung by Lisa Simpson on the television show The Simpsons in Season 20, Episode 9.On December 15, 2009, Canadian singer-songwriter LIGHTS was acknowledged with two No.1 song awards by SOCAN, alongside writing partner Salter, who helped her pen her smash hits Drive My Soul and Saviour. Drive My Soul reached the top spot on MuchMusic Countdown on January 8, 2009.

In 2012, Tawgs Salter produced "Drive", the debut song of American actor and singer Cheyenne Jackson.

In 2016, he produced Chantal Kreviazuk's album Hard Sail.

Also in 2016 he appeared on Schiller's Future album (For You).

The Secret War of Lisa Simpson

"The Secret War of Lisa Simpson" is the twenty-fifth and final episode of The Simpsons' eighth season. It first aired on the Fox network in the United States on May 18, 1997. Bart gets sent to a military academy as punishment for bad behavior. While visiting the academy, Lisa sees that the school is far more challenging than hers and she decides that she wants to attend as well. It was directed by Mike B. Anderson, written by Richard Appel and featured Willem Dafoe in a guest spot as the school's commandant.

The Simpsons Theme

"The Simpsons Theme", also referred to as "The Simpsons Main Title Theme" in album releases, is the theme music of the animated television series The Simpsons. It plays during the opening sequence and was composed by Danny Elfman in 1989, after series creator Matt Groening approached him requesting a retro-style theme. The piece has been noted by Elfman as the most popular of his career. The theme, as used for the opening sequence, was re-arranged during season 2, and the current arrangement by Alf Clausen was introduced at the beginning of the third season.

It has also been edited many times to coincide with edits of various lengths for the opening sequence, and there have been extended edits and re-recordings for lengthened opening sequences. Several versions of the saxophone solo riff, ostensibly played by character Lisa Simpson in the animated sequence, have been created over the course of the series. The theme is in the acoustic scale.A slightly different arrangement of the theme usually plays over the end credits of the show. Originally, there were two main versions of the closing theme, with the longer version ending in a lower key. Both versions were re-arranged for season 3, but only the short version was in use by the time the show switched domestic production from Klasky Csupo to Film Roman season 4, and that version was edited to be even shorter by the end of season 6. The alternate longer closing theme however resurfaced in a handful of post-season 4 episodes, but mostly in credit sequences that do not play music during the first half of the sequence (either with dialogue heard underneath or video footage playing under the first half of the credits).

Yeardley Smith

Martha Maria Yeardley Smith ( YARD-lee; born July 3, 1964) is an American actress, voice actress, comedian, writer and artist. She is known for her long-running role as Lisa Simpson on the animated television series The Simpsons.

Smith was born in Paris on July 3, 1964 and moved with her family to Washington, D.C., in 1966. As a child, she was often teased for her voice. She became an actress in 1982 after graduating from drama school and moved to New York City in 1984, where she appeared in the Broadway production of Tom Stoppard's The Real Thing. She made her film debut in 1985's Heaven Help Us, followed by roles in The Legend of Billie Jean and Maximum Overdrive. She moved to Los Angeles in 1986 and took a recurring role in the television series Brothers.

In 1987, Smith auditioned for the Simpsons shorts on The Tracey Ullman Show. Smith intended to audition for the role of Bart Simpson, but the casting director felt her voice was too high, and she was cast as Bart's sister Lisa. In 1989, the shorts were spun off into their own half-hour show, The Simpsons. For her work on The Simpsons, Smith received a Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Voice-Over Performance in 1992.

Alongside The Simpsons, Smith appeared in the sitcom Herman's Head as Louise, and had recurring appearances as Marlene on Dharma & Greg and Penny in two episodes of Dead Like Me. She has appeared in several films, including City Slickers, Just Write, Toys and As Good as It Gets. In 2004, Smith performed an off-Broadway one-woman show entitled More at the Union Square Theatre in New York City. Aside from The Simpsons, Smith has recorded few voice-over parts, only commercials and the film We're Back! A Dinosaur's Story. Smith starred in and served as executive producer for the independent romantic comedy Waiting For Ophelia, which had its world premiere at the Phoenix Film Festival in April 2009.

Smith was married to actor Christopher Grove from 1990 to 1992 and Daniel Erickson from 2002 to 2008. She enjoys writing and painting. During the first season of Herman's Head, Smith taught herself to paint by copying other artists. She released a children's book titled I, Lorelei in 2009 and her story "The Race" was included in the book Just Humor Me.

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