Liquor

Liquor (also hard liquor, hard alcohol, spirit, or distilled drink) is an alcoholic drink produced by distillation of grains, fruit, or vegetables that have already gone through alcoholic fermentation. The distillation process purifies the liquid and removes diluting components like water, for the purpose of increasing its proportion of alcohol content (commonly expressed as alcohol by volume, ABV).[1] As liquors contain significantly more alcohol, they are considered "harder" – in North America, the term hard liquor is used to distinguish distilled alcoholic drinks from non-distilled ones.

As examples, this term does not include beverages such as beer, wine, mead, sake, or cider, as they are fermented but not distilled. These all have a relatively low alcohol content, typically less than 15%. Brandy is a liquor produced by the distillation of wine, and has an ABV of over 35%. Other examples of liquors include vodka, baijiu, gin, rum, tequila, mezcal, and whisky. (Also see list of alcoholic drinks, and liquors by national origin.)

Liquor Still Frankfort 489226997
An old whiskey still
Spirituosen-im-supermarkt
A display of various liquors in a supermarket
17-05-06-Miniaturen RR79033
Some single-drink liquor bottles available in Germany

Nomenclature

The term "spirit" refers to liquor that contains no added sugar and has at least 20% alcohol by volume (ABV).

Liquor bottled with added sugar and added flavorings, such as Grand Marnier, Frangelico, and American schnapps, are known instead as liqueurs.

Liquor generally has an alcohol concentration higher than 30%. Beer and wine, which are not distilled, are limited to a maximum alcohol content of about 20% ABV, as most yeasts cannot metabolise when the concentration of alcohol is above this level; as a consequence, fermentation ceases at that point.

Etymology

The origin of "liquor" and its close relative "liquid" was the Latin verb liquere, meaning "to be fluid". According to the Oxford English Dictionary, an early use of the word in the English language, meaning simply "a liquid", can be dated to 1225. The first use the OED mentions of its meaning "a liquid for drinking" occurred in the 14th century. Its use as a term for "an intoxicating alcoholic drink" appeared in the 16th century.

The term "spirit" in reference to alcohol stems from Middle Eastern alchemy. These alchemists were more concerned with medical elixirs than with transmuting lead into gold. The vapor given off and collected during an alchemical process (as with distillation of alcohol) was called a spirit of the original material.

History of distillation

Precursors

Zosimos distillation equipment
Distillation equipment used by the 3rd century alchemist Zosimos of Panopolis,[2][3] from the Byzantine Greek manuscript Parisinus graces.[4]

Early evidence of distillation comes from Akkadian tablets dated circa 1200 BC describing perfumery operations, providing textual evidence that an early, primitive form of distillation was known to the Babylonians of ancient Mesopotamia.[5] Early evidence of distillation also comes from alchemists working in Alexandria, Roman Egypt, in the 1st century.[6] Distilled water was described in the 2nd century AD by Alexander of Aphrodisias.[7] Alchemists in Roman Egypt were using a distillation alembic or still device in the 3rd century.

Distillation was known in the ancient Indian subcontinent, evident from baked clay retorts and receivers found at Taxila and Charsadda in modern Pakistan, dating back to the early centuries of the Christian era. These "Gandhara stills" were only capable of producing very weak liquor, as there was no efficient means of collecting the vapors at low heat.[8]

Distillation in China could have begun during the Eastern Han dynasty (1st–2nd centuries), but the distillation of beverages began in the Jin (12th–13th centuries) and Southern Song (10th–13th centuries) dynasties according to archaeological evidence.[9]

Freeze distillation involves freezing the alcoholic beverage and then removing the ice. The freezing technique had limitations in geography and implementation limiting how widely this method was put to use.

True distillation

Brewing and distillation industries. ( 1858- )
An illustration of brewing and distilling industry methods in England, 1858

The medieval Arabs used the distillation process extensively, and there is evidence that they distilled alcohol. Al-Kindi unambiguously described the distillation of wine in the 9th century.[10][11][12] The process later spread to Italy,[10][8] where later evidence of the distillation of alcohol comes from the School of Salerno in southern Italy during the 12th century.[13][14]

In China, archaeological evidence indicates that the true distillation of alcohol began during the 12th century Jin or Southern Song dynasties.[9] A still has been found at an archaeological site in Qinglong, Hebei, dating to the 12th century.[9] In India, the true distillation of alcohol was introduced from the Middle East, and was in wide use in the Delhi Sultanate by the 14th century.[8]

Fractional distillation was developed by Taddeo Alderotti in the 13th century.[15] The production method was written in code, suggesting that it was being kept secret.

In 1437, "burned water" (brandy) was mentioned in the records of the County of Katzenelnbogen in Germany.[16] It was served in a tall, narrow glass called a Goderulffe.

Claims upon the origin of specific beverages are controversial, often invoking national pride, but they are plausible after the 12th century AD, when Irish whiskey and German brandy became available. These spirits would have had a much lower alcohol content (about 40% ABV) than the alchemists' pure distillations, and they were likely first thought of as medicinal elixirs. Liquor consumption rose dramatically in Europe in and after the mid-14th century, when distilled liquors were commonly used as remedies for the Black Death. Around 1400, methods to distill spirits from wheat, barley, and rye beers, a cheaper option than grapes, were discovered. Thus began the "national" drinks of Europe: jenever (Belgium and the Netherlands), gin (England), Schnaps (Germany), grappa (Italy), borovička (Slovakia), horilka (Ukraine), akvavit/snaps (Scandinavia), vodka (Poland and Russia), ouzo (Greece), rakia (the Balkans), and poitín (Ireland). The actual names emerged only in the 16th century, but the drinks were well known prior to then.

Government regulation

Production

It is legal to distill beverage alcohol as a hobby for personal use in some countries, including New Zealand and the Netherlands.

In the United States, it is illegal to distill beverage alcohol without a license. In some parts of the U.S., it is also illegal to sell a still without a license. However, all states allow unlicensed individuals to make their own beer, and some also allow unlicensed individuals to make their own wine (although making beer and wine is also prohibited in some local jurisdictions).

Sale

Some countries and sub-national jurisdictions limit or prohibit the sale of certain very high-percentage alcohol, commonly known as neutral spirit.

Microdistilling

Microdistilling (also known as craft distilling) began to re-emerge as a trend in the United States following the microbrewing and craft beer movement in the last decades of the 20th century. In contrast, large-scale distillation facilities were never as dominant in Scotland, so the tradition of small-scale distillation was never really lost in the Scotch whisky market.

Flammability

Flaming cocktails
These flaming cocktails illustrate that some liquors will readily catch fire and burn.

Liquor that contains 40% ABV (80 US proof) will catch fire if heated to about 26 °C (79 °F) and if an ignition source is applied to it. This temperature is called its flash point.[17] The flash point of pure alcohol is 16.6 °C (61.9 °F), less than average room temperature.[18]

The flammability of liquor is applied in the cooking technique flambé.

The flash points of alcohol concentrations from 10% ABV to 96% ABV are:[19]

Serving

Bar Hard Rock Cafe Prague
A row of alcoholic beverages – in this case, spirits – in a bar

Liquor can be served:

  • Neat — at room temperature without any additional ingredient(s)[21]
  • Up — shaken or stirred with ice, strained, and served in a stemmed glass.
  • Down — shaken or stirred with ice, strained, and served in a rocks glass.
  • On the rocks — over ice cubes
  • Blended or frozen — blended with ice
  • With a simple mixer, such as club soda, tonic water, juice, or cola
  • As an ingredient of a cocktail
  • As an ingredient of a shooter
  • With water
  • With water poured over sugar (as with absinthe)

Alcohol consumption by country

The World Health Organization measures and publishes alcohol consumption patterns in different countries. The WHO measures alcohol consumed by persons 15 years of age or older and reports it on the basis of liters of pure alcohol consumed per capita in a given year in a country.[22]

Health effects

Short-term effects

Distilled spirits contain ethyl alcohol, the same chemical that is present in beer and wine and as such, spirit consumption has short-term psychological and physiological effects on the user. Different concentrations of alcohol in the human body have different effects on a person. The effects of alcohol depend on the amount an individual has drunk, the percentage of alcohol in the spirits and the timespan that the consumption took place, the amount of food eaten and whether an individual has taken other prescription, over-the-counter or street drugs, among other factors. Drinking enough to cause a blood alcohol concentration (BAC) of 0.03%-0.12% typically causes an overall improvement in mood and possible euphoria, increased self-confidence, and sociability, decreased anxiety, a flushed, red appearance in the face and impaired judgment and fine muscle coordination. A BAC of 0.09% to 0.25% causes lethargy, sedation, balance problems and blurred vision. A BAC from 0.18% to 0.30% causes profound confusion, impaired speech (e.g., slurred speech), staggering, dizziness and vomiting. A BAC from 0.25% to 0.40% causes stupor, unconsciousness, anterograde amnesia, vomiting, and respiratory depression (potentially life-threatening). Death may occur due to inhalation of vomit (pulmonary aspiration) while unconscious. A BAC from 0.35% to 0.80% causes a coma (unconsciousness), life-threatening respiratory depression and possibly fatal alcohol poisoning. As with all alcoholic beverages, driving under the influence, operating an aircraft or heavy machinery increases the risk of an accident; as such many countries have penalties for drunk driving.

Long-term effects

The main active ingredient of distilled spirits is alcohol, and therefore, the health effects of alcohol apply to spirits. Drinking small quantities of alcohol (less than one drink per day for women and 2 drinks per day for men) is associated with a decreased risk of heart disease, stroke, diabetes mellitus, and early death.[23] Drinking more than this amount; however, increases the risk of heart disease, high blood pressure, atrial fibrillation, and stroke.[23] The risk is greater in younger people due to binge drinking which may result in violence or accidents.[23] About 3.3 million deaths (5.9% of all deaths) are believed to be due to alcohol each year.[24]

Alcoholism, also known as "alcohol use disorder", is a broad term for any drinking of alcohol that results in problems.[25] It was previously divided into two types: alcohol abuse and alcohol dependence.[26][27] In a medical context, alcoholism is said to exist when two or more of the following conditions is present: a person drinks large amounts over a long time period, has difficulty cutting down, acquiring and drinking alcohol takes up a great deal of time, alcohol is strongly desired, usage results in not fulfilling responsibilities, usage results in social problems, usage results in health problems, usage results in risky situations, withdrawal occurs when stopping, and alcohol tolerance has occurred with use.[27] Alcoholism reduces a person's life expectancy by around ten years[28] and alcohol use is the third-leading cause of early death in the United States.[23] No professional medical association recommends that people who are nondrinkers should start drinking wine.[23][29]

While lower quality evidence suggests a cardioprotective effect, no controlled studies have been completed on the effect of alcohol on the risk of developing heart disease or stroke. Excessive consumption of alcohol can cause liver cirrhosis and alcoholism.[30] The American Heart Association "cautions people NOT to start drinking ... if they do not already drink alcohol. Consult your doctor on the benefits and risks of consuming alcohol in moderation."[31]

See also

References

  1. ^ "distilled spirit - alcoholic beverage". Encyclopædia Britannica.
  2. ^ E. Gildemeister and Fr. Hoffman, translated by Edward Kremers (1913). The Volatile Oils. 1. New York: Wiley. p. 203.
  3. ^ Bryan H. Bunch and Alexander Hellemans (2004). The History of Science and Technology. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. p. 88. ISBN 0-618-22123-9.
  4. ^ Marcelin Berthelot Collection des anciens alchimistes grecs (3 vol., Paris, 1887–1888, p.161)
  5. ^ Levey, Martin (1959). Chemistry and Chemical Technology in Ancient Mesopotamia. Elsevier. p. 36. As already mentioned, the textual evidence for Sumero-Babylonian distillation is disclosed in a group of Akkadian tablets describing perfumery operations, dated ca. 1200 B.C.
  6. ^ Forbes, Robert James (1970). A short history of the art of distillation: from the beginnings up to the death of Cellier Blumenthal. BRILL. pp. 57, 89. ISBN 978-90-04-00617-1. Archived from the original on 20 December 2011. Retrieved 29 June 2010.
  7. ^ Taylor, F. Sherwood (1945). "The Evolution of the Still". Annals of Science. 5 (3): 186. doi:10.1080/00033794500201451. ISSN 0003-3790.
  8. ^ a b c Irfan Habib (2011), Economic History of Medieval India, 1200-1500, page 55, Pearson Education
  9. ^ a b c Haw, Stephen G. (2006). "Wine, women and poison". Marco Polo in China. Routledge. pp. 147–148. ISBN 978-1-134-27542-7. Retrieved 2016-07-10. The earliest possible period seems to be the Eastern Han dynasty... the most likely period for the beginning of true distillation of spirits for drinking in China is during the Jin and Southern Song dynasties
  10. ^ a b Ahmad Y. al-Hassan (2001), Science and Technology in Islam: Technology and applied sciences, pages 65-69, UNESCO
  11. ^ Hassan, Ahmad Y. "Alcohol and the Distillation of Wine in Arabic Sources". History of Science and Technology in Islam. Retrieved 2014-04-19.
  12. ^ The Economist: "Liquid fire - The Arabs discovered how to distil alcohol. They still do it best, say some" December 18, 2003
  13. ^ Forbes, Robert James (1970). A short history of the art of distillation: from the beginnings up to the death of Cellier Blumenthal. BRILL. pp. 57, 89. ISBN 978-90-04-00617-1. Retrieved 29 June 2010.
  14. ^ Sarton, George (1975). Introduction to the history of science. R. E. Krieger Pub. Co. p. 145.
  15. ^ Holmyard, Eric John (1990). Alchemy. Courier Dover Publications. p. 53.
  16. ^ graf-von-katzenelnbogen.com, see entry at Trinkglas.
  17. ^ "Flash Point and Fire Point". Archived from the original on December 14, 2010. Retrieved March 6, 2011.
  18. ^ "Material Safety Data Sheet, Section 5". Retrieved March 7, 2011.
  19. ^ "Flash points of ethanol-based water solutions". Retrieved June 23, 2011.
  20. ^ Robert L. Wolke (5 July 2006). "Combustible Combination". Washington Post. Retrieved 27 January 2011.
  21. ^ Walkart, C.G. (2002). National Bartending Center Instruction Manual. Oceanside, California: Bartenders America, Inc. p. 104.  ASIN: B000F1U6HG.
  22. ^ who.int
  23. ^ a b c d e O'Keefe, JH; Bhatti, SK; Bajwa, A; DiNicolantonio, JJ; Lavie, CJ (March 2014). "Alcohol and cardiovascular health: the dose makes the poison...or the remedy". Mayo Clinic Proceedings. 89 (3): 382–93. doi:10.1016/j.mayocp.2013.11.005. PMID 24582196.
  24. ^ "Alcohol Facts and Statistics". Retrieved 9 May 2015.
  25. ^ Jill Littrell (2014). Understanding and Treating Alcoholism Volume I: An Empirically Based Clinician's Handbook for the Treatment of Alcoholism:volume Ii: Biological, Psychological, and Social Aspects of Alcohol Consumption and Abuse. Hoboken: Taylor and Francis. p. 55. ISBN 9781317783145. The World Health Organization defines alcoholism as any drinking which results in problems
  26. ^ Hasin, Deborah (December 2003). "Classification of Alcohol Use Disorders". pubs.niaaa.nih.gov/. Retrieved 28 February 2015.
  27. ^ a b "Alcohol Use Disorder: A Comparison Between DSM–IV and DSM–5". November 2013. Retrieved 9 May 2015.
  28. ^ Schuckit, MA (27 November 2014). "Recognition and management of withdrawal delirium (delirium tremens)". The New England Journal of Medicine. 371 (22): 2109–13. doi:10.1056/NEJMra1407298. PMID 25427113.
  29. ^ Alcohol and Heart Health American Heart Association
  30. ^ Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. "General Information on Alcohol Use and Health". Retrieved 26 June 2008.
  31. ^ American Heart Association. "Alcohol, Wine and Cardiovascular Disease". Retrieved 26 June 2008.

Bibliography

  • Blue, Anthony Dias (2004). The Complete Book of Spirits: A Guide to Their History, Production, and Enjoyment. New York: HarperCollins Publishers. ISBN 0-06-054218-7.
  • Forbes, Robert (1997). Short History of the Art of Distillation from the Beginnings up to the Death of Cellier Blumenthal. Brill Academic Publishers. ISBN 90-04-00617-6.
  • Multhauf, Robert (1993). The Origins of Chemistry. Gordon & Breach Science Publishers. ISBN 2-88124-594-3.

External links

Ammonia solution

Ammonia solution, also known as ammonia water, ammonium hydroxide, ammoniacal liquor, ammonia liquor, aqua ammonia, aqueous ammonia, or (inaccurately) ammonia, is a solution of ammonia in water. It can be denoted by the symbols NH3(aq). Although the name ammonium hydroxide suggests an alkali with composition [NH4+][OH−], it is actually impossible to isolate samples of NH4OH. The ions NH4+ and OH− do not account for a significant fraction of the total amount of ammonia except in extremely dilute solutions.

Baijiu

Baijiu (Chinese: 白酒; pinyin: báijiǔ; literally: 'white (clear) liquor"), also known as shaojiu, is a category of at least a dozen Chinese liquors made from grain. Báijiǔ literally means "white (clear) alcohol" or liquor.

Báijiǔ is a clear liquid usually distilled from fermented sorghum, although other grains may be used; some southeastern Chinese styles may employ rice or glutinous rice, while other Chinese varieties may use wheat, barley, millet, or even Job's tears (yìyǐ) in their mash bills. The qū starter culture used in the production of baijiu is usually made from pulverized wheat grain or steamed rice.Because of its clarity, baijiu can appear similar to several other East Asian liquors, but it often has a significantly higher alcohol content than, for example, Japanese shōchū (25%) or Korean soju (20–45%). Despite being a white spirit, it more closely resembles a dark spirit like whisky in terms of complexity and mouthfeel.

It is the most widely consumed spirit (alcohol) in the world, with 5 billion litres sold in 2016.

Bar

A bar (also known as a saloon or a tavern or sometimes a pub or club, referring to the actual establishment, as in pub bar or savage club etc.) is a retail business establishment that serves alcoholic beverages, such as beer, wine, liquor, cocktails, and other beverages such as mineral water and soft drinks and often sell snack foods such as potato chips (also known as crisps) or peanuts, for consumption on premises. Some types of bars, such as pubs, may also serve food from a restaurant menu. The term "bar" also refers to the countertop and area where drinks are served. The term "bar" is also derived from the metal or wooden bar that is often located at feet along the length of the "bar".Bars provide stools or chairs that are placed at tables or counters for their patrons. Bars that offer entertainment or live music are often referred to as music bars, live venues, or nightclubs. Types of bars range from inexpensive dive bars to elegant places of entertainment, often accompanying restaurants for dining.

Many bars have a discount period, designated a "happy hour" or discount of the day to encourage off-peak-time patronage. Bars that fill to capacity sometimes implement a cover charge or a minimum drink purchase requirement during their peak hours. Bars may have bouncers to ensure patrons are of legal age, to eject drunk or belligerent patrons, and to collect cover charges. Such bars often feature entertainment, which may be a live band, vocalist, comedian, or disc jockey playing recorded music.

Patrons may sit or stand at the counter and be served by the bartender. Depending on the size of a bar and its approach, alcohol may be served at the bar by bartenders, at tables by servers, or by a combination of the two. The "back bar" is a set of shelves of glasses and bottles behind that counter. In some establishments, the back bar is elaborately decorated with woodwork, etched glass, mirrors, and lights.

Caffè corretto

Caffè corretto (pronounced [kafˈfɛ korˈrɛtto]), an Italian beverage, consists of a shot of espresso with a small amount of liquor, usually grappa, and sometimes sambuca or brandy. It is also known (outside Italy) as an "espresso corretto". It is ordered as "un caffè corretto alla grappa", "[…] corretto alla sambuca", or "[…] corretto al cognac" "corretto di Spadino" depending on the desired liquor.

Most Italian bartenders prepare a caffè corretto simply adding a few drops of the desired liquor into an espresso shot; however in some cases the liquor is served in a shot alongside the coffee allowing the customer to pour the quantity they desire. A few bartenders also let their regular customers make their drink themselves providing the espresso shot and the bottle of liquor.

The Italian word corretto corresponds to the English word 'correct' in the sense of 'corrected'. The term is now an Italian phraseme.In Spain, a similar drink is known as carajillo, in Portugal is known as Café com Cheirinho (coffee with scent) and in Sweden, in France Pousse-Café or Café-Calva (coffee and Calvados), Norway and Denmark as kaffekask, karsk or kaffegök.

Chocolate liquor

Chocolate liquor (cocoa liquor) is pure cocoa mass in solid or semi-solid form. Like the cocoa beans (nibs) from which it is produced, it contains both cocoa solids and cocoa butter in roughly equal proportion.It is produced from cocoa beans that have been fermented, dried, roasted, and separated from their skins. The beans are ground into cocoa mass (cocoa paste). The mass is melted to become the liquor, and the liquor is either separated into cocoa solids and cocoa butter, or cooled and molded into blocks of raw chocolate. Its main use (often with additional cocoa butter) is in making chocolate.

The name liquor is used not in the sense of a distilled, alcoholic substance, but rather the older meaning of the word, meaning 'liquid' or 'fluid'.

Chocolate liquor contains roughly 53 percent cocoa butter (fat), about 17 percent carbohydrates, 11 percent protein, 6 percent tannins, and 1.5 percent theobromine.

Feni (liquor)

Feni (sometimes spelled fenno or fenim) is a spirit produced in Goa, India and other southern Indian states. The two most popular types of feni are cashew feni and toddy palm feni, depending on the original ingredient; however, many other varieties are sold. The small-batch distillation of feni has a fundamental effect on its final character, which still retains some of the delicate aromatics, congeners and flavour elements of the juice from which it was produced.

The word feni is derived from the Sanskrit word phena ("froth"); this is thought to be because of the bubbles that form a light froth when the liquor is shaken in a bottle or poured into a glass. It is generally accepted that coconut feni was produced before and then followed to adapt the same procedure for distilling the exotic cashew fruit. Coconut palms are abundant along the coastline of Western India and Goa, whereas the cashew tree was an exotic species brought by the Portuguese from Brazil to India. There is ambiguity about when and who started distilling fermented juice into a spirit.

The feni consumed in South Goa is generally of a higher alcohol content (43-45% abv) as compared to the feni produced in North Goa. Commercially packaged feni is available at 42.8% abv.

Kaoliang wine

Kaoliang wine, Gaoliang wine or sorghum wine is a strong distilled liquor of Chinese origin made from fermented sorghum. It is a type of unflavoured baijiu. The liquor originates from Dazhigu (大直沽, located east of Tianjin), first appearing in the Ming Dynasty. It is now primarily made and sold in mainland China and Taiwan and also popular in Korea, where it is called goryangju (hangul: 고량주; hanja: 高粱酒) or bbaegal (which is originated from Chinese character 白干). Kaoliang is an important product of the islands Kinmen and Matsu which are part of Taiwan. Kaoliang ranges usually between 38 and 63 percent alcohol by volume. At present, world’s highest alcohol content of kaoliang wine is up to 92%.

Legal drinking age

The legal drinking age is the age at which a person can legally consume alcoholic beverages. These laws cover a wide range of issues and behaviors, addressing when and where alcohol can be consumed. The minimum age alcohol can be legally consumed can be different from the age when it can be purchased in some countries. These laws vary between different countries and many laws have exemptions or special circumstances. Most laws apply only to drinking alcohol in public places with alcohol consumption in the home being mostly unregulated (an exception being the UK, which has a minimum legal age of five for supervised consumption in private places). Some countries also have different age limits for different types of alcoholic drinks.Kazakhstan, Oman, Pakistan, Qatar, Sri Lanka, Tajikistan, Thailand, United Arab Emirates, Federated States of Micronesia, Palau, Paraguay, Solomon Islands, India (certain states), the United States (except U.S. Virgin Islands and Puerto Rico), Yemen (Aden and Sana'a), Japan, Iceland, Canada (certain Provinces and Territories), and South Korea have the highest set drinking ages; however, some of these countries do not have off-premises drinking limits. Austria, Antigua and Barbuda, Belgium, Bermuda, British Virgin Islands, Cuba, Ethiopia, Gibraltar, Luxembourg and Nicaragua have the lowest set drinking ages.The most commonly known reason for the law behind the legal drinking age is the effect on the brain in adolescents. Since the brain is still maturing, alcohol can have a negative effect on the memory and long-term thinking. Alongside that, it can cause liver failure, and create a hormone imbalance in teens due to the constant changes and maturing of hormones during puberty.

Liquor license

A liquor license is a permit to sell alcoholic beverages.

Liquor store

A liquor store is a retail shop that predominantly sells prepackaged alcoholic beverages — typically in bottles — intended to be consumed off the store's premises. Depending on region and local idiom (social issue), they may also be called bottle store, off licence, bottle shop, bottle-o, package store (in New England, called a packie) party store (in Michigan), ABC store, state store, or other similar terms. Many states and jurisdictions have an alcohol monopoly.

List of alcohol laws of the United States

The following table of alcohol laws of the United States provides an overview of alcohol-related laws by first level jurisdictions throughout the US. This list is not intended to provide a breakdown of such laws by local jurisdiction within a state; see that state's alcohol laws page for more detailed information.

On July 17, 1984, Congress passed the National Minimum Drinking Age Act. The bill would force all states to raise their drinking age from 18, 19, or 20 to 21. States that did not choose to raise their drinking age to 21 would risk losing 10% (Changed to 8% in 2012) of federal highway funding as a penalty. As of July 1988, all 50 states and the District of Columbia had a minimum purchase age of 21, with some grandfather clauses, and with the exception of Louisiana's complicated legal situation that was not resolved until July 2, 1996. Prior to 1988, the minimum purchase age varied by jurisdiction. After Congress passed the Act, states not in compliance had a portion of their federal highway budget withheld. South Dakota and Wyoming were the final two states to comply, in mid-1988. However, most states continue to allow those under 21 to drink in certain circumstances. Examples are some states like Tennessee and Washington, which allow those under 21 to drink for religious purposes. States including Oregon and New York allow those under 21 to drink on private non-alcohol selling premises.

Unlike on the mainland, the U.S. territories of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands have a minimum purchase and drinking age of 18. The minimum purchase age is 21 in the Northern Mariana Islands, Guam, American Samoa, and US Minor Outlying Islands.

U.S. military reservations are exempt under federal law from state, county, and locally enacted alcohol beverage laws. Class Six stores in a base exchange facility, officers' or NCO clubs, as well as other military commissaries which are located on a military reservation, may sell and serve alcohol beverages at any time during their prescribed hours of operation to authorized patrons. While the installation commander is free to set the drinking age, with some exceptions, most stateside military bases have a drinking age that mirrors the local community.

Individual states remain free to restrict or prohibit the manufacture of beer, mead, hard cider, wine, and other fermented alcoholic beverages at home. Homebrewing beer became legal in all 50 states in 2013 as the governor of Mississippi signed a bill legalizing homebrewing on March 19, 2013 and as the governor of Alabama signed a bill legalizing homebrewing of beer and wine which came into effect on May 9, 2013. The Mississippi bill went into effect July 1, 2013. Most states allow brewing 100 US gallons (380 L) of beer per adult per year and up to a maximum of 200 US gallons (760 L) per household annually when there are two or more adults residing in the household. Because alcohol is taxed by the federal government via excise taxes, homebrewers are prohibited from selling any beer they brew. This similarly applies in most Western countries. In 1979, President Jimmy Carter signed into law a bill allowing home beers, which was at the time not permitted without paying the excise taxes as a holdover from the prohibition of alcoholic beverages (repealed in 1933). This change also exempted home brewers from posting a "penal bond" (which is currently $1000.00).

Production of distilled alcohols is regulated at the National level under USC Title 26 subtitle E Ch51. Numerous requirements must be met to do so and production carries an excise tax. Owning or operating a distillation apparatus without filing the proper paperwork and paying the taxes carries federal criminal penalties.In land or property that is being rented or owned by the federal government, state, federal district, and territory alcohol laws do not apply. Instead, only laws made by the federal government apply.

Lupe Fiasco

Wasalu Muhammad Jaco (born February 16, 1982), better known by his stage name Lupe Fiasco ( LOO-pay), is an American rapper, record producer, and entrepreneur. He rose to fame in 2006 following the success of his debut album, Lupe Fiasco's Food & Liquor. He also performs as the frontman of rock band Japanese Cartoon under his real name. As an entrepreneur, Fiasco is the chief executive officer of 1st and 15th Entertainment.

Raised in Chicago, Jaco developed an interest in hip hop after initially disliking the genre for its use of vulgarity and misogyny. After adopting the name Lupe Fiasco and recording songs in his father's basement, 19-year-old Fiasco joined a group called Da Pak. The group disbanded shortly after its inception, and Fiasco soon met rapper Jay-Z who helped him sign a record deal with Atlantic Records. In September 2006, Fiasco released his debut album Lupe Fiasco's Food & Liquor on the label, which received three Grammy nominations. He released his second album, Lupe Fiasco's The Cool, in December 2007. The lead single "Superstar" became his first top 40 hit on the Billboard Hot 100. After a two-year delay, Lasers was released in March 2011 to mixed reviews; however, it became his first album to debut at number one on the Billboard 200. His latest album, Drogas Wave, was released in September 2018.

In addition to music, Fiasco has pursued other business ventures, including fashion. He runs two clothing lines, Righteous Kung-Fu and Trilly & Truly; he has designed sneakers for Reebok. He has been involved with charitable activities, including the Summit on the Summit expedition, and in 2010 he recorded a benefit single for victims of the 2010 Haiti earthquake. Fiasco is also noted for his anti-establishment views, which he has expressed in both interviews and his music.

Lye

A lye is a metal hydroxide traditionally obtained by leaching ashes (containing largely potassium carbonate or "potash"), or a strong alkali which is highly soluble in water producing caustic basic solutions. "Lye" is commonly an alternative name of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) or historically potassium hydroxide (KOH), though the term "lye" refers to any member of a broad range of metal hydroxides.

Today, lye is commercially manufactured using a membrane cell chloralkali process. It is supplied in various forms such as flakes, pellets, microbeads, coarse powder or a solution.

Malt liquor

Malt liquor, in North America, is beer with high alcohol content. Legally, it often includes any alcoholic beverage with 5% or more alcohol by volume made with malted barley. In common usage, it refers to beers containing a high alcohol content, generally above 6%, which are made with ingredients and processes resembling those for American-style lagers.

Moonshine

Moonshine was originally a slang term for high-proof distilled spirits that were usually produced illicitly, without government authorization. In recent years, however, moonshine has been legalized in various countries and has become a commercial product.

Legal in the United States since 2010, moonshine is defined as "clear, unaged whiskey", typically made with corn mash as its main ingredient. Liquor control laws in the United States always applied to moonshine, with efforts accelerated during the total ban on alcohol production mandated under the Eighteenth Amendment of the Constitution. Since the amendment's repeal and moonshine's recent legalization, the laws focus on evasion of taxation on spirits or intoxicating liquors. Applicable laws are enforced by the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives of the US Department of Justice. Enforcement agents were once known colloquially as "revenooers".

Pus

Pus is an exudate, typically white-yellow, yellow, or yellow-brown, formed at the site of inflammation during bacterial or fungal infection. An accumulation of pus in an enclosed tissue space is known as an abscess, whereas a visible collection of pus within or beneath the epidermis is known as a pustule, pimple, or spot.

Pus consists of a thin, protein-rich fluid, known as liquor puris, and dead leukocytes from the body's immune response (mostly neutrophils). During infection, macrophages release cytokines which trigger neutrophils to seek the site of infection by chemotaxis. There, the neutrophils release granules which destroy the Bacteria. The bacteria resist the immune response by releasing toxins called leukocidins. As the neutrophils die off from toxins and old age, they are destroyed by macrophages, forming the viscous pus.

Bacteria that cause pus are called pyogenic.Although pus is normally of a whitish-yellow hue, changes in the color can be observed under certain circumstances. Pus is sometimes green because of the presence of myeloperoxidase, an intensely green antibacterial protein produced by some types of white blood cells. Green, foul-smelling pus is found in certain infections of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The greenish color is a result of the bacterial pigment pyocyanin that it produces. Amoebic abscesses of the liver produce brownish pus, which is described as looking like "anchovy paste". Pus from anaerobic infections can more often have a foul odor.In almost all cases when there is a collection of pus in the body, the clinician will try to create an opening to drain it. This principle has been distilled into the famous Latin aphorism "Ubi pus, ibi evacua" ("Where there is pus, evacuate it").

Some disease processes caused by pyogenic infections are impetigo, osteomyelitis, septic arthritis, and necrotizing fasciitis.

Schnapps

Schnapps ( or ) or schnaps is a type of alcoholic beverage that may take several forms, including distilled fruit brandies, herbal liqueurs, infusions, and "flavored liqueurs" made by adding fruit syrups, spices, or artificial flavorings to neutral grain spirits.

The English loanword "schnapps" is derived from the colloquial German word Schnaps [ʃnaps] (listen) (plural: Schnäpse) which is used in reference to spirit drinks. The word Schnaps stems from Low German language and is related to the German term "schnappen", which refers to the fact that the spirit or liquor drink is usually consumed in a quick slug from a small glass (i.e., a shot glass). In British English, a corresponding term is "dram" [of liquor].

Sulfite process

The sulfite process produces wood pulp which is almost pure cellulose fibers by using various salts of sulfurous acid to extract the lignin from wood chips in large pressure vessels called digesters. The salts used in the pulping process are either sulfites (SO32−), or bisulfites (HSO3−), depending on the pH. The counter ion can be sodium (Na+), calcium (Ca2+), potassium (K+), magnesium (Mg2+) or ammonium (NH4+).

Washington State Liquor and Cannabis Board

The Washington State Liquor and Cannabis Board, formerly the Washington State Liquor Control Board, is an administrative agency of the State of Washington. The Liquor and Cannabis Board is part of the executive branch and reports to the Governor. The board's primary function is the licensing of on and off premises establishments which sell any type of alcohol, and the enforcement and education of the state's alcohol, tobacco, and cannabis laws.

In November 2011, citizen's initiative 1183 was passed to end the state monopoly on liquor sales that has held since the end of prohibition, beginning June 1, 2012. State and local government revenues are projected to increase by $42 million and $38 million respectively over the next six years as a result along with a 48 percent increase in alcohol consumption.In November 2012, citizen's initiative 502 was passed legalizing the recreational use of cannabis and assigning regulation of the cannabis industry to the then Liquor Control Board. The board's name was officially changed to reflect the addition of cannabis effective July 24, 2015.

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