LinkedIn (/lɪŋktˈɪn/) is a business and employment-oriented service that operates via websites and mobile apps. Founded on December 28, 2002,[4] and launched on May 5, 2003,[5] it is mainly used for professional networking, including employers posting jobs and job seekers posting their CVs. As of 2015, most of the company's revenue came from selling access to information about its members to recruiters and sales professionals.[6] As of March 2019, LinkedIn had 610 million registered members in 200 countries.

LinkedIn allows members (both workers and employers) to create profiles and "connections" to each other in an online social network which may represent real-world professional relationships. Members can invite anyone (whether an existing member or not) to become a connection.[7] Since December 2016 it has been a wholly owned subsidiary of Microsoft. LinkedIn participated in the EU's International Safe Harbor Privacy Principles.[8]

LinkedIn Logo 2013
LinkedIn homepage
LinkedIn homepage
Type of businessSubsidiary
Type of site
Social networking service
Available inMultilingual (24)
FoundedDecember 28, 2002
Mountain View, California, U.S.
Area servedWorldwide
Founder(s)Reid Hoffman
Allen Blue
Konstantin Guericke
Eric Ly
Jean-Luc Vaillant
Key peopleJeff Weiner (CEO)
Employees14,000 (2019)[1]
ParentMicrosoft Corporation
Alexa rankPositive decrease 26 (February 2019)[2]
AdvertisingGoogle, AdSense
Users610 million members (March 2019)[3]
LaunchedMay 5, 2003
Current statusActive

Company overview

LinkedIn Headquarters Mountain View
Former LinkedIn headquarters on Stierlin Court in Mountain View, California

LinkedIn is headquartered in Sunnyvale, California, with offices in Omaha, Chicago, Los Angeles, New York, San Francisco, Washington, D.C., São Paulo, London, Dublin, Amsterdam, Milan, Paris, Munich, Madrid, Stockholm, Singapore, Hong Kong, China, Japan, Australia, Canada, India and Dubai. In January 2016, the company had around 9,200 employees.[9]

LinkedIn's CEO is Jeff Weiner,[10] previously a Yahoo! Inc. executive. Founder Reid Hoffman, previously CEO of LinkedIn, is Chairman of the Board.[10][11] It is funded by Sequoia Capital, Greylock, Bain Capital Ventures,[12] Bessemer Venture Partners and the European Founders Fund.[13] LinkedIn reached profitability in March 2006.[14] Through January 2011, the company had received a total of $103 million of investment.[15]

The site has an Alexa Internet ranking as the 28th most popular website (December 2018).[2] According to the New York Times, US high school students are now creating LinkedIn profiles to include with their college applications.[16] Based in the United States, the site is, as of 2013, available in 24 languages,[10] including Arabic, Chinese, English, French, German, Italian, Portuguese, Spanish, Dutch, Swedish, Danish, Romanian, Russian, Turkish, Japanese, Czech, Polish, Korean, Indonesian, Malay, and Tagalog.[17][18] LinkedIn filed for an initial public offering in January 2011 and traded its first shares on May 19, 2011, under the NYSE symbol "LNKD".[19]


Founding to 2010

The company was founded in December 2002 by Reid Hoffman and founding team members from PayPal and (Allen Blue, Eric Ly, Jean-Luc Vaillant, Lee Hower, Konstantin Guericke, Stephen Beitzel, David Eves, Ian McNish, Yan Pujante, Chris Saccheri).[20] In late 2003, Sequoia Capital led the Series A investment in the company.[21] In August 2004, LinkedIn reached 1 million users.[22] In March 2006, LinkedIn achieved its first month of profitability.[22] In April 2007, LinkedIn reached 10 million users.[22] In February 2008, LinkedIn launched a mobile version of the site.[23]

In June 2008, Sequoia Capital, Greylock Partners, and other venture capital firms purchased a 5% stake in the company for $53 million, giving the company a post-money valuation of approximately $1 billion.[24] In November 2009, LinkedIn opened its office in Mumbai[25] and soon thereafter in Sydney, as it started its Asia-Pacific team expansion. In 2010, LinkedIn opened an International Headquarters in Dublin, Ireland,[26] received a $20 million investment from Tiger Global Management LLC at a valuation of approximately $2 billion,[27] announced its first acquisition, Mspoke,[28] and improved its 1% premium subscription ratio.[29] In October of that year, Silicon Valley Insider ranked the company No. 10 on its Top 100 List of most valuable start ups.[30] By December, the company was valued at $1.575 billion in private markets.[31]

2011 to present

LinkedIn office building at 222 Second Street in San Francisco (opened in March 2016)
LinkedIn office in Toronto

LinkedIn filed for an initial public offering in January 2011. The company traded its first shares on May 19, 2011, under the NYSE symbol "LNKD", at $45 per share. Shares of LinkedIn rose as much as 171% on their first day of trade on the New York Stock Exchange and closed at $94.25, more than 109% above IPO price. Shortly after the IPO, the site's underlying infrastructure was revised to allow accelerated revision-release cycles.[10] In 2011, LinkedIn earned $154.6 million in advertising revenue alone, surpassing Twitter, which earned $139.5 million.[32] LinkedIn's fourth-quarter 2011 earnings soared because of the company's increase in success in the social media world.[33] By this point, LinkedIn had about 2,100 full-time employees compared to the 500 that it had in 2010.[34]

In April 2014, LinkedIn announced that it had leased 222 Second Street, a 26-story building under construction in San Francisco's SoMa district, to accommodate up to 2,500 of its employees,[35] with the lease covering 10 years.[9] The goal was to join all San Francisco-based staff (1,250 as of January 2016) in one building, bringing sales and marketing employees together with the research and development team.[9] They started to move in in March 2016.[9] In February 2016, following an earnings report, LinkedIn's shares dropped 43.6% within a single day, down to $108.38 per share. LinkedIn lost $10 billion of its market capitalization that day.[36][37]

On June 13, 2016, Microsoft announced that it would acquire LinkedIn for $196 a share, a total value of $26.2 billion and the largest acquisition made by Microsoft to date. The acquisition would be an all-cash, debt-financed transaction. Microsoft would allow LinkedIn to "retain its distinct brand, culture and independence", with Weiner to remain as CEO, who would then report to Microsoft CEO Satya Nadella. Analysts believed Microsoft saw the opportunity to integrate LinkedIn with its Office product suite to help better integrate the professional network system with its products. The deal was completed on December 8, 2016.[38]

In late 2016, LinkedIn announced a planned increase of 200 new positions in its Dublin office, which would bring the total employee count to 1,200.[39]


In July 2012, LinkedIn acquired 15 key Digg patents for $4 million including a "click a button to vote up a story" patent.[40]

Number Acquisition date Company Business Country Price Description Ref.
1 August 4, 2010 mspoke Adaptive personalization of content  USA $0.6 million[41] LinkedIn Recommendations [42]
2 September 23, 2010 ChoiceVendor Social B2B Reviews  USA $3.9 million[43] Rate and review B2B service providers [44]
3 January 26, 2011 CardMunch Social Contacts  USA $1.7 million[41] Scan and import business cards [45]
4 October 5, 2011 Connected Social CRM  USA - LinkedIn Connected [46]
5 October 11, 2011 IndexTank Social search  USA - LinkedIn Search [47]
6 February 22, 2012 Rapportive Social Contacts  USA $15 million[48] - [49]
7 May 3, 2012 SlideShare Social Content  USA $119 million Give LinkedIn members a way to discover people through content [50]
8 April 11, 2013 Pulse Web / Mobile newsreader  USA $90 million Definitive professional publishing platform [51]
9 February 6, 2014 Job Matching  USA $120 million [52]
10 July 14, 2014 Newsle Web application  USA - Allows users to follow real news about their Facebook friends, LinkedIn contacts, and public figures. [53]
11 July 22, 2014 Bizo Web application  USA $175 million Helps advertisers reach businesses and professionals [54]
12 March 16, 2015 Careerify Web application  Canada - Helps businesses hire people using social media [55]
13 April 2, 2015 Web application  USA - Surfaces insights about people in your networks right before you meet them [56]
14 April 9, 2015 eLearning  USA $1.5 billion[57] Lets users learn business, technology, software, and creative skills through videos [58]
15 August 28, 2015 Fliptop Predictive Sales and Marketing Firm  USA - Using data science to help companies close more sales [59]
16 February 4, 2016 Connectifier Web application  USA - Helps companies with their recruiting [60]
17 July 26, 2016 PointDrive Web application  USA - Lets salespeople share visual content with prospective clients to help seal the deal [61]
18 September 16, 2018 Glint Inc. Web application  USA - Employee engagement platform. [62]


In 2013, a class action lawsuit entitled Perkins vs. LinkedIn Corp was filed against the company, accusing it of automatically sending invitations to contacts in a member's email address book without permission. The court agreed with LinkedIn that permission had in fact been given for invitations to be sent, but not for the two further reminder emails.[63] LinkedIn settled the lawsuit in 2015 for $13 million.[64] Many members should have received a notice in their email with the subject line "Legal Notice of Settlement of Class Action". The Case No. is 13-CV-04303-LHK.[65] 94% of B2B marketers use LinkedIn to distribute content. [66]


Linkedin Chocolates
Social media websites can also use "traditional" marketing approaches, as seen in these LinkedIn-branded chocolates.

As of 2015, LinkedIn had more than 400 million members in over 200 countries and territories.[10][67] It is significantly ahead of its competitors Viadeo (50 million as of 2013)[68] and XING (11 million as of 2016).[69] In 2011, its membership grew by approximately two new members every second.[70] As of 2019, there are over 600 million LinkedIn members.[71]

User profile network

The basic functionality of LinkedIn allows users (workers and employers) to create profiles, which for employees typically consist of a curriculum vitae describing their work experience, education and training, skills, and a personal photo. The site also enables members to make "connections" to each other in an online social network which may represent real-world professional relationships. Members can invite anyone (whether a site member or not) to become a connection. However, if the invitee selects "I don't know" or "Spam", this counts against the inviter. If the inviter gets too many of such responses, the member's account may be restricted or closed.[7]

A member's list of connections can then be used in a number of ways:

  • Users can obtain introductions to the connections of connections (termed second-degree connections) and connections of second-degree connections (termed third-degree connections)
  • Users can search for second-degree connections who work at a specific company they are interested in, and then ask a specific first-degree connection in common for an introduction[72]
  • Users can find jobs, people and business opportunities recommended by someone in one's contact network.
  • Employers can list jobs and search for potential candidates.
  • Job seekers can review the profile of hiring managers and discover which of their existing contacts can introduce them.
  • Users can post their own photos and view photos of others to aid in identification.
  • Users can follow different companies.
  • Users can save (i.e. bookmark) jobs that they would like to apply for.
  • Users can "like" and "congratulate" each other's updates and new employments.
  • Users can wish each other a happy birthday.
  • Users can see who has visited their profile page.
  • Users can share video with text and filters with the introduction of LinkedIn Video.[73][74]
  • Users can write posts and articles[75] within the LinkedIn platform to share with their network.

The "gated-access approach" (where contact with any professional requires either an existing relationship, or the intervention of a contact of theirs) is intended to build trust among the service's users. LinkedIn participated in the EU's International Safe Harbor Privacy Principles.[8]

Security and technology

In June 2012, cryptographic hashes of approximately 6.4 million LinkedIn user passwords were stolen by hackers who then published the stolen hashes online.[76] This action is known as the 2012 LinkedIn hack. In response to the incident, LinkedIn asked its users to change their passwords. Security experts criticized LinkedIn for not salting their password file and for using a single iteration of SHA-1.[77] On May 31, 2013 LinkedIn added two-factor authentication, an important security enhancement for preventing hackers from gaining access to accounts.[78] In May 2016, 117 million LinkedIn usernames and passwords were offered for sale online for the equivalent of $2,200.[79] These account details are believed to be sourced from the original 2012 LinkedIn hack, in which the number of user IDs stolen had been underestimated. To handle the large volume of emails sent to its users every day with notifications for messages, profile views, important happenings in their network, and other things, LinkedIn uses the Momentum email platform from Message Systems.[80]

In 2014, Dell SecureWorks Counter Threat Unit (CTU) discovered that Threat Group-2889, an Iran-based group, created 25 fake LinkedIn accounts. The accounts were either fully developed personas or supporting personas, and they use spearphishing or malicious websites to comprise victims' information.[81]


LinkedIn 'applications' often refers to external third party applications that interact with LinkedIn's developer API. However, in some cases it could refer to sanctioned applications featured on a user's profile page.

External, third party applications

On February 12, 2015 LinkedIn released an updated terms of use for their developer API.[82] The developer API allows both companies and individuals the ability to interact with LinkedIn's data through creation of managed third party applications. Applications must go through a review process and request permission from the user before accessing a user's data.

Normal use of the API is outlined in LinkedIn's developer documents,[83] including:

  • Sign into external services using LinkedIn
  • Add items or attributes to a user profile
  • Share items or articles to user's timeline

Embedded in profile

In October 2008, LinkedIn enabled an "applications platform" which allows external online services to be embedded within a member's profile page. Among the initial applications were an Amazon Reading List that allows LinkedIn members to display books they are reading, a connection to Tripit, and a Six Apart, WordPress and TypePad application that allows members to display their latest blog postings within their LinkedIn profile.[84] In November 2010, LinkedIn allowed businesses to list products and services on company profile pages; it also permitted LinkedIn members to "recommend" products and services and write reviews.[85] Shortly after, some of the external services were no longer supported, including Amazon's Reading List[86]


A mobile version of the site was launched in February 2008, which gives access to a reduced feature set over a mobile phone. The mobile service is available in six languages: Chinese, English, French, German, Japanese and Spanish.[87] In January 2011, LinkedIn acquired CardMunch, a mobile app maker that scans business cards and converts into contacts.[88] In June 2013, CardMunch was noted as an available LinkedIn app.[10] In August 2011, LinkedIn revamped its mobile applications on the iPhone, Android and HTML5. At the time, mobile page views of the application were increasing roughly 400% year over year according to CEO Jeff Weiner.[89] In October 2013, LinkedIn announced a service for iPhone users called "Intro", which inserts a thumbnail of a person's LinkedIn profile in correspondence with that person when reading mail messages in the native iOS Mail program.[90] This is accomplished by re-routing all emails from and to the iPhone through LinkedIn servers, which security firm Bishop Fox asserts has serious privacy implications, violates many organizations' security policies, and resembles a man-in-the-middle attack.[91][92]


LinkedIn also supports the formation of interest groups, and as of March 29, 2012 there are 1,248,019 such groups whose membership varies from 1 to 744,662.[93][94] The majority of the largest groups are employment related, although a very wide range of topics are covered mainly around professional and career issues, and there are currently 128,000 groups for both academic and corporate alumni. Groups support a limited form of discussion area, moderated by the group owners and managers.[95] Since groups offer the functionality to reach a wide audience without so easily falling foul of anti-spam solutions, there is a constant stream of spam postings, and there now exist a range of firms who offer a spamming service for this very purpose. LinkedIn has devised a few mechanisms to reduce the volume of spam,[96] but recently took the decision to remove the ability of group owners to inspect the email address of new members in order to determine if they were spammers. Groups also keep their members informed through emails with updates to the group, including most talked about discussions within your professional circles.[93][97] Groups may be private, accessible to members only or may be open to Internet users in general to read, though they must join in order to post messages.

In December 2011, LinkedIn announced that they are rolling out polls to groups.[98] In November 2013, LinkedIn announced the addition of Showcase Pages to the platform.[99] In 2014, LinkedIn announced they were going to be removing Product and Services Pages[100] paving the way for a greater focus on Showcase Pages.[101]

Job listings

LinkedIn allows users to research companies, non-profit organizations, and governments they may be interested in working for. Typing the name of a company or organization in the search box causes pop-up data about the company or organization to appear. Such data may include the ratio of female to male employees, the percentage of the most common titles/positions held within the company, the location of the company's headquarters and offices, and a list of present and former employees. In July 2011, LinkedIn launched a new feature allowing companies to include an "Apply with LinkedIn" button on job listing pages.[102] The new plugin allowed potential employees to apply for positions using their LinkedIn profiles as resumes.[102]

Online recruiting

Job recruiters, head hunters, and personnel HR are increasingly using LinkedIn as a source for finding potential candidates. By using the Advanced search tools, recruiters can find members matching their specific key words with a click of a button. They then can make contact with those members by sending a request to connect or by sending InMail about a specific job opportunity he or she may have. Recruiters also often join industry-based groups on LinkedIn to create connections with professionals in that line of business.[103]


Since September 2012, LinkedIn has enabled users to "endorse" each other's skills. This feature also allows users to efficiently provide commentary on other users' profiles – network building is reinforced. However, there is no way of flagging anything other than positive content.[104] LinkedIn solicits endorsements using algorithms that generate skills members might have. Members cannot opt out of such solicitations, with the result that it sometimes appears that a member is soliciting an endorsement for a non-existent skill.[105]

Publishing platform

LinkedIn continues to add different services to its platform to expand the ways that people use it. On May 7, 2015, LinkedIn added an analytics tool to its publishing platform. The tool allows authors to better track traffic that their posts receive.[106]


The LinkedIn Influencers program launched in October 2012 and features global thought leaders who share their professional insights with LinkedIn's members. As of May 2016, there are 750+ Influencers, approximately 74% of which are male.[107] The program is invite-only and features leaders from a range of industries including Richard Branson, Narendra Modi, Arianna Huffington, Greg McKeown, Rahm Emanuel, Jamie Dimon, Martha Stewart, Deepak Chopra, Jack Welch, and Bill Gates.[108][109]

Top Companies

LinkedIn Top Companies is a series of lists published by LinkedIn, identifying companies in the United States, Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, France, Germany, India, Japan, Mexico and the United Kingdom that are attracting the most intense interest from job candidates. The 2019 lists identified Google's parent company, Alphabet, as the most sought-after U.S. company, with Facebook ranked second and Amazon ranked third.[110] The lists are based on more than one billion actions by LinkedIn members worldwide. The Top Companies lists were started in 2016 and are published annually.

Advertising and for-pay research

In mid-2008, LinkedIn launched LinkedIn DirectAds as a form of sponsored advertising.[111] In October 2008, LinkedIn revealed plans to open its social network of 30 million professionals globally as a potential sample for business-to-business research. It is testing a potential social network revenue model – research that to some appears more promising than advertising.[112] On July 23, 2013, LinkedIn announced their Sponsored Updates ad service. Individuals and companies can now pay a fee to have LinkedIn sponsor their content and spread it to their user base. This is a common way for social media sites such as LinkedIn to generate revenue.[113]

Future plans

Economic graph

Inspired by Facebook's "social graph", LinkedIn CEO Jeff Weiner set a goal in 2012 to create an "economic graph" within a decade.[114] The goal is to create a comprehensive digital map of the world economy and the connections within it.[115] The economic graph was to be built on the company's current platform with data nodes including companies, jobs, skills, volunteer opportunities, educational institutions, and content.[116][117][118] They have been hoping to include all the job listings in the world, all the skills required to get those jobs, all the professionals who could fill them, and all the companies (nonprofit and for-profit) at which they work.[116] The ultimate goal is to make the world economy and job market more efficient through increased transparency.[114] In June 2014, the company announced its "Galene" search architecture to give users access to the economic graph's data with more thorough filtering of data, via user searches like "Engineers with Hadoop experience in Brazil."[119][120]

LinkedIn has used economic graph data to research several topics on the job market, including popular destination cities of recent college graduates,[121] areas with high concentrations of technology skills,[122] and common career transitions.[123] LinkedIn provided the City of New York with data from economic graph showing "in-demand" tech skills for the city's "Tech Talent Pipeline" project.[124]

New user interface in 2017

Soon after LinkedIn's acquisition by Microsoft, on January 19, 2017, LinkedIn's new desktop version was introduced.[125] The new version was meant to make the user experience seamless across mobile and desktop. Some of the changes were made according to the feedback received from the previously launched mobile app. Features that were not heavily used were removed. For example, the contact tagging and filtering features are not supported any more.[126]

User reaction

Following the launch of the new user interface (UI), some users, including blogger Zubair Abbas, complained about the missing features which were there in the older version, slowness, and bugs in it.[127] The issues were faced by both free and premium users, and with both the desktop version and the mobile version of the site.

Discontinued features

In January 2013, LinkedIn dropped support for LinkedIn Answers, and cited a new 'focus on development of new and more engaging ways to share and discuss professional topics across LinkedIn' as the reason for the retirement of the feature. The feature had been launched in 2007, and allowed users to post question to their network and allowed users to rank answers.[128]

On September 1, 2014 LinkedIn retired InMaps, a feature which allowed you to visualize your professional network.[129] The feature had been in use since January 2011.

Business units

LinkedIn derives its revenues from four business divisions:[130]

  • Talent Solutions, through which recruiters and corporations pay for branded corporation and career listing pages, pay-per-click targeted job ads, and access to the LinkedIn database of users and resumes
  • Marketing Solutions, which advertisers pay for pay per click-through targeted ads
  • Premium Subscriptions, through which LinkedIn users can pay for advanced services, such as LinkedIn Business, LinkedIn Talent (for recruiters), LinkedIn JobSeeker, and LinkedIn Sales for sales professions
  • Learning Solutions, through which users can learn various skills related to their job function or personal learning goals, on the or LinkedIn Learning platforms

Some elements of the various subscription services are also on a pay per use basis like InMail.


LinkedIn has been described by online trade publication TechRepublic as having "become the de facto tool for professional networking".[131] LinkedIn has also been praised for its usefulness in fostering business relationships.[132] "LinkedIn is, far and away, the most advantageous social networking tool available to job seekers and business professionals today," according to Forbes.[133] LinkedIn has also received criticism, primarily regarding e-mail address mining and auto-update.

  • The sign-up process includes a step for users to enter their email password (there is an opt-out feature). LinkedIn will then offer to send out contact invitations to all members in that address book or that the user has had email conversations with. When the member's email address book is opened it is opened with all email addresses selected and the member is advised invitations will be sent to "selected" email addresses, or to all. LinkedIn was sued for sending out another two follow-up invitations to each contact from members to link to friends who had ignored the initial, authorized, invitation. In November 2014, LinkedIn lost a motion to dismiss the lawsuit, in a ruling that the invitations were advertisements not broadly protected by free speech rights that would otherwise permit use of people's names and images without authorization.[134][135][136][137] The lawsuit was eventually settled in 2015 in favor of LinkedIn members.[64]
  • Changing the description below a member's name is seen as a change in a job title, even if it is just a wording change or even a change to "unemployed". Unless a member opts to "turn off activity updates", an update is sent to all of that person's contacts, telling them to congratulate the member on the "new job".[138]
  • The feature that allows LinkedIn members to "endorse" each other's skills and experience has been criticized as meaningless, since the endorsements are not necessarily accurate or given by people who have familiarity with the member's skills.[139] In October 2016, LinkedIn acknowledged that it "really does matter who endorsed you" and began highlighting endorsements from "coworkers and other mutual connections" to address the criticism.[140]
  • LinkedIn has inspired the creation of specialised professional networking opportunities, such as co-founder Eddie Lou's Chicago startup, Shiftgig (released in 2012 as a platform for hourly workers).[141]

International restrictions

In 2009, Syrian users reported that LinkedIn server stopped accepting connections originating from IP addresses assigned to Syria. The company's customer support stated that services provided by them are subject to US export and re-export control laws and regulations and "As such, and as a matter of corporate policy, we do not allow member accounts or access to our site from Cuba, Iran, North Korea, Sudan, or Syria."[142]

In February 2011, it was reported that LinkedIn was being blocked in China after calls for a "Jasmine Revolution". It was speculated to have been blocked because it is an easy way for dissidents to access Twitter, which had been blocked previously.[143] After a day of being blocked, LinkedIn access was restored in China.[144]

In February 2014, LinkedIn launched its Simplified Chinese language version named "" (pinyin: Lǐngyīng; literally: 'leading elite'), officially extending their service in China.[145][146] LinkedIn CEO Jeff Weiner acknowledged in a blog post that they would have to censor some of the content that users post on its website in order to comply with Chinese rules, but he also said the benefits of providing its online service to people in China outweighed those concerns.[145][147] Since Autumn 2017 job postings from western countries for China aren't possible anymore.[148]

On 4 August 2016, a Moscow court ruled that LinkedIn must be blocked in Russia for violating a new data retention law, which requires the user data of Russian citizens to be stored on servers within the country. This ban was upheld on 10 November 2016, and all Russian ISPs began blocking LinkedIn thereafter. LinkedIn's mobile app was also banned from Google Play Store and iOS App Store in Russia in January 2017.[149][150]

SNA LinkedIn

The Search, Network, and Analytics (SNA) team at LinkedIn has a website[151] that hosts the open source projects built by the group. Notable among these projects is Project Voldemort,[152] a distributed key-value structured storage system with low-latency similar in purpose to's Dynamo and Google's Bigtable.

Surveillance and NSA program

In the 2013 global surveillance disclosures, documents released by Edward Snowden revealed that British Government Communications Headquarters (GCHQ) (an intelligence and security organisation) infiltrated the Belgian telecommunications network Belgacom by luring employees to a false LinkedIn page.[153]


Use of e-mail accounts of members for spam sending

LinkedIn sends "invite emails" to Outlook contacts from its members' email accounts, without obtaining their consent. The "invitations" give the impression that the e-mail holder himself has sent the invitation. If there is no response, the answer will be repeated several times ("You have not yet answered XY's invitation.") LinkedIn was sued in the United States on charges of hijacking e-mail accounts and spamming. The company argued with the right to freedom of expression. In addition, the users concerned would be supported in building a network.[154][155][156]

Moving Outlook mails on LinkedIn servers

At the end of 2013, it was announced that the LinkedIn app intercepted users' emails and silently moved them to LinkedIn servers for full access.[157] LinkedIn used man-in-the-middle attacks.[158]

Privacy policy

The German Stiftung Warentest has criticized that the balance of rights between users and LinkedIn is disproportionate, restricting users' rights excessively while granting the company far-reaching rights.[159] It has also been claimed that LinkedIn does not respond to consumer protection center requests.[160]

In November 2016, Russia announced its intention to block the network in its own country, as it "illegally stores data of Russian users on servers abroad." The relevant law had been in force there since 2014.[161][162]

Potential new breach, or extended impacts from earlier incidents

In July 2018, Credit Wise reported "dark web" email and password exposures from LinkedIn. Shortly thereafter, users began receiving extortion emails, using that information as "evidence" that users' contacts had been hacked, and threatening to expose pornographic videos featuring the users. LinkedIn asserts that this is related to the 2012 breach; however, there is no evidence that this is the case.


Massive amounts of data from LinkedIn allows scientists and machine learning researchers to extract insights and build product features.[163]. For example, the data from this resource can help to shape patterns of deception in resumes.[164]. Another example shows, how to use signals from LinkedIn to assess quality of Wikipedia articles and their sources.[165]

See also


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External links

2012 LinkedIn hack

The social networking website LinkedIn was hacked on June 5, 2012, and passwords for nearly 6.5 million user accounts were stolen by Russian cybercriminals. Owners of the hacked accounts were no longer able to access their accounts, and the website repeatedly encouraged its users to change their passwords after the incident. Vicente Silveira, the director of LinkedIn, confirmed, on behalf of the company, that the website was hacked in its official blog. He also said that the holders of the compromised accounts would find their passwords were no longer valid on the website.The stolen passwords, which were hashed (i.e. just a checksum was stored, allowing testing whether a given password is the correct one), were cracked and posted on a Russian password forum later on that day. By the morning of June 6, passwords for thousands of accounts were available online in plain text. Graham Cluley of the internet security firm Sophos warned that the leaked passwords could be in the possession of criminals by 6 June. LinkedIn said, in an official statement, that they would email all its members with security instructions and instructions on how they could reset their passwords.In May 2016, LinkedIn discovered an additional 100 million email addresses and hashed passwords that claimed to be additional data from the same 2012 breach. In response, LinkedIn invalidated the passwords of all users that had not changed their passwords since 2012.

222 Second Street

222 Second Street is a 370-foot (110 m) office skyscraper in the South of Market District of San Francisco, California. It is under lease by social networking company LinkedIn (headquartered in nearby Sunnyvale).

Developed by Tishman Speyer and designed by Thomas Phifer, the high rise was planned to provide 450,209 square feet (41,825.8 m2) of office space, 2,209 square feet (205.2 m2) of ground floor retail, and 8,600 square feet (800 m2) of open space accessible to the public, at the southern corner of Second and Howard Streets. Construction began in August 2013, still without a tenant on hand.In April 2014, LinkedIn announced it was leasing the building for an undisclosed sum, to accommodate up to 2,500 of its employees, with the lease covering 10 years. The goal was to join all of its San Francisco based staff (1,250 as of January 2016) in one building, bring sales and marketing employees together with the research and development team.The building was topped-out in August 2014 and opened in March 2016, with LinkedIn staff moving in in stages until 2017.The ground floor is open to the public during work hours, as a privately owned public space. It features three large artworks by Frank Stella, in accordance with the developers' public art proposal to the city Planning Commission, with the purchase price of $1 million matching 1% of the total "construction hard costs".The San Francisco Chronicle's architecture critic John King characterized the building as "severe yet sleek" and expressed appreciation for the arrangement of the "panes of overlapping glass 6 feet wide and 13 feet high [that] cover a form that begins as a squat 16-story rectangle and concludes as a 10-story square. On the lower four stories the shingled pattern fans to the right; the fifth floor panels are flat, side by side, and then the shingles resume in reverse, flipping tightly to the left. The upper floors reverse the pattern yet again." However, while acknowledging their appeal in certain light situations ("a large-scale shuffle of vivid reflections"), King criticized their dark color (evoking a "dull gloom" on cloudy days). And he chastised the building - "designed and built by New Yorkers" - as being aesthetically out of place on Second Street, "an alien presence in a well-established setting where other recent buildings have done their best to add to the ambiance".

Apache Helix

Apache Helix is an open source software application developed by LinkedIn Corporation.

Apache Kafka

Apache Kafka is an open-source stream-processing software platform developed by LinkedIn and donated to the Apache Software Foundation, written in Scala and Java. The project aims to provide a unified, high-throughput, low-latency platform for handling real-time data feeds. Its storage layer is essentially a "massively scalable pub/sub message queue designed as a distributed transaction log," making it highly valuable for enterprise infrastructures to process streaming data. Additionally, Kafka connects to external systems (for data import/export) via Kafka Connect and provides Kafka Streams, a Java stream processing library.

The design is heavily influenced by transaction logs.


BranchOut was a Facebook application designed for finding jobs, networking professionally, and recruiting employees. It was founded by Rick Marini in July 2010, and was, as of March 2012, the largest professional networking service on Facebook. The company sold its assets to HR Software Company 1-Page in November 2014 and the staff was picked up by Hearst.

Curriculum vitae

A curriculum vitae (English: ), often shortened as CV or vita, is a written overview of someone's life's work (academic formation, publications, qualifications, etc.). Vitae often aim to be a complete record of someone's career, and can be extensive. So, they are different than a résumé, which is typically a brief 1–2 page summary of qualifications and work experience for the purposes of employment, and often only presents recent highlights. In many countries, a résumé is typically the first item that a potential employer encounters regarding the job seeker and is typically used to screen applicants, often followed by an interview. Vitae may also be requested for applicants to postsecondary programs, scholarships, grants and bursaries. In the 2010s, some applicants provide an electronic text of their CV to employers using email, an online employment website or using a job-oriented social-networking-service website, such as LinkedIn.

Flask (web framework)

Flask is a micro web framework written in Python. It is classified as a microframework because it does not require particular tools or libraries. It has no database abstraction layer, form validation, or any other components where pre-existing third-party libraries provide common functions. However, Flask supports extensions that can add application features as if they were implemented in Flask itself. Extensions exist for object-relational mappers, form validation, upload handling, various open authentication technologies and several common framework related tools. Extensions are updated far more regularly than the core Flask program.Applications that use the Flask framework include Pinterest, LinkedIn, and the community web page for Flask itself.


Fundly is a crowdfunding site for online fundraising. It allows non-profits, charities, politics, clubs, schools, teams, churches, and other causes to raise money online from friends, family, colleagues, donors, and other supporters via email, Facebook, Twitter, LinkedIn, Google, and social media networks. It is also an app for social networks like Facebook and LinkedIn. It uses WePay to process donations. Donors are charged when they make a donation.

The CEO of the company is Dennis Hu. In 2011, Fundly obtained $2 million in seed funding using the on-line investor marketplace, AngelList.

LinkedIn Learning

LinkedIn Learning is an American massive open online course website offering video courses taught by industry experts in software, creative, and business skills. It is a subsidiary of LinkedIn.

It was founded in 1995 by Lynda Weinman as before being acquired by LinkedIn in 2015. Microsoft acquired LinkedIn in December 2016.

LinkedIn Pulse

LinkedIn Pulse is a built-in news aggregation app in LinkedIn, originally developed for Android, iOS and HTML5 browsers, originally released in 2010. The app, in its original incarnation, was deprecated in 2015 and integrated into LinkedIn.

Reid Hoffman

Reid Garrett Hoffman CBE (born August 5, 1967) is an American internet entrepreneur, venture capitalist and author. Hoffman was the co-founder and executive chairman of LinkedIn, a business-oriented social network used primarily for professional networking. He is currently a partner at the venture capital firm Greylock Partners. On the Forbes 2019 list of the world's billionaires, Hoffman was ranked #1349 with a net worth of US$1.8 billion.

Sinatra (software)

Sinatra is a free and open source software web application library and domain-specific language written in Ruby. It is an alternative to other Ruby web application frameworks such as Ruby on Rails, Merb, Nitro, and Camping. It is dependent on the Rack web server interface. It is named after musician Frank Sinatra.Designed and developed by Blake Mizerany, Sinatra is small and flexible. It does not follow the typical model–view–controller pattern used in other frameworks, such as Ruby on Rails. Instead, Sinatra focuses on "quickly creating web-applications in Ruby with minimal effort."Some notable companies and institutions that use Sinatra include Apple, BBC, the British Government's Government Digital Service, LinkedIn, the National Security Agency, Engine Yard, Heroku, GitHub, Stripe, and Songbird. Travis CI provides much of the financial support for Sinatra's development.Sinatra was created and open-sourced in 2007.

Six degrees of separation

Six degrees of separation is the idea that all people are six, or fewer, social connections away from each other. As a result, a chain of "a friend of a friend" statements can be made to connect any two people in a maximum of six steps. It was originally set out by Frigyes Karinthy in 1929 and popularized in an eponymous 1990 play written by John Guare. It is sometimes generalized to the average social distance being logarithmic in the size of the population.


LinkedIn SlideShare is a hosting service for professional content including presentations, infographics, documents, and videos. Users can upload files privately or publicly in PowerPoint, Word, PDF, or OpenDocument format. Content can then be viewed on the site itself, on hand held devices or embedded on other sites. Launched on October 4, 2006, the website is considered to be similar to YouTube, but for slideshows. It was acquired by LinkedIn in 2012. The website was originally meant to be used for businesses to share slides among employees more easily, but it also has expanded to become a host of a large number of slides that are uploaded merely to entertain. Although the website is primarily a slide hosting service, it also supports documents, PDFs, videos and webinars. SlideShare also provides users the ability to rate, comment on, and share the uploaded content.

The website gets an estimated 80 million unique visitors a month, and has about 38 million registered users. SlideShare's biggest competitors include,, Issuu and edocr. Some of the notable users of SlideShare include The White House, NASA, World Economic Forum, State of Utah, O'Reilly Media, Hewlett Packard and IBM.

Social media marketing

Social media marketing is the use of social media platforms and websites to promote a product or service. Although the terms e-marketing and digital marketing are still dominant in academia, social media marketing is becoming more popular for both practitioners and researchers. Most social media platforms have built-in data analytics tools, which enable companies to track the progress, success, and engagement of ad campaigns. Companies address a range of stakeholders through social media marketing, including current and potential customers, current and potential employees, journalists, bloggers, and the general public. On a strategic level, social media marketing includes the management of a marketing campaign, governance, setting the scope (e.g. more active or passive use) and the establishment of a firm's desired social media "culture" and "tone."

When using social media marketing, firms can allow customers and Internet users to post user-generated content (e.g., online comments, product reviews, etc.), also known as "earned media," rather than use marketer-prepared advertising copy.

Terry Myerson

Terry Myerson (born 1972 or 1973) is a Canadian-American venture partner at Madrona Venture Group and an operating executive at The Carlyle Group. Formerly an Executive Vice President of Microsoft and head of its Windows and Devices Group. He graduated from Duke University in 1992 and founded Intersé Corporation, which Microsoft purchased in 1997. At Microsoft, he led software and engineering teams behind Microsoft Exchange and Windows Phone before his executive promotion in the company's July 2013 reorganization. His plan to leave Microsoft after a transition period was announced in March 2018. Myerson announced his new role in October 2018 via a personal post on his LinkedIn page.

Timeline of LinkedIn

This is a timeline of online work-focused networking service LinkedIn.


Viadeo is a Web 2.0 professional social network whose members include business owners, entrepreneurs and managers. As of 2014, the site had 65 million members.

Web 2.0 Suicide Machine

The Web 2.0 Suicide Machine is a service that helps users tired of MySpace, LinkedIn and Twitter, to "commit suicide in social networks", by automatically "removing their private content and friend relationships" (but without deleting or deactivating their accounts). The service is part of the non-profit foundation WORM, based in Rotterdam, Netherlands.The "Web 2.0 Suicide Machine" has, as of January 2010, assisted with more than 1,000 virtual deaths, ending more than 80,500 friendships on Facebook and removing 276,000 tweets from Twitter.


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