Lingwu

Lingwu (simplified Chinese: 灵武; traditional Chinese: 靈武; pinyin: Língwǔ Shì) is the most important industrial city of the Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region, in the northwestern region of the People's Republic of China. It is under the jurisdiction of Yinchuan, the Region's capital city.

Lingwu

灵武市 · لٍ ءُ شِ
Lingwu is located in Ningxia
Lingwu
Lingwu
Location in Ningxia
Coordinates: 38°06′11″N 106°20′24″E / 38.103°N 106.340°ECoordinates: 38°06′11″N 106°20′24″E / 38.103°N 106.340°E
CountryPeople's Republic of China
RegionNingxia
Prefecture-level cityYinchuan
Area
 • Total4,639 km2 (1,791 sq mi)
Population
(2010 Census)
 • Total261,677
 • Density56/km2 (150/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC+8 (China Standard)

History

Lingwu's former name is Lingzhou (simplified Chinese: 灵州; traditional Chinese: 靈州; pinyin: Lingzhou). During the Tang Dynasty, Emperor Suzong of Tang (711–762) fled to Lingzhou from Maweipo during the Anshi Rebellion, where he ascended the throne with the aid of loyal bureaucrats and military supporters, only notifying his father Xuanzong after the fact (and received permission). Later on, Lingzhou became part of the Western Xia (Tangut Empire, 1032-1227). It was laid siege by Genghis Khan in November 1226.

Economy

Lingwu is known for its growing of "Lingwu long jujube" (灵武长红枣). This fruit has proven to be one of Ningxia's most popular agricultural products, producing an income of over 10 million yuan per year.[1]

See also

References

  1. ^ [1]

External links

Du Hongjian

Du Hongjian (杜鴻漸) (709 – December 13, 769), courtesy name Zhisun (之巽), formally Duke Wenxian of Wei (衛文憲公), was an official of the Chinese Tang dynasty who served as a chancellor during the reign of Emperor Daizong. He was known, and much criticized by traditional Chinese historians, for his devotion to Buddhism.

Emperor Daizong of Tang

Emperor Daizong of Tang (9 January 727 – 10 June 779), personal name Li Yu (name changed in 758 after being created crown prince), né Li Chu (李俶), was an emperor of the Chinese Tang Dynasty.

Emperor Daizong was the eldest son of Emperor Suzong – the first Emperor of the Tang dynasty to succeed as the eldest child, and during the Anshi Rebellion (which Emperor Suzong's entire reign was dedicated to fighting), he served as a general of Tang and Huige joint operations that recaptured the capital Chang'an and the eastern capital Luoyang from the rebel state of Yan, and the Anshi Rebellion was finally put down early in his own reign, in 763. However, thereafter, the Tang state was plagued by warlords such as Tian Chengsi, Li Baochen, and Liang Chongyi who essentially governed their realms as independent states while only pledging nominal loyalty to the emperor. This would prove disastrous for future generations as subsequent Tang emperors would be unable to remove or control these warlords and the central government's power was thus slowly eroded and diminished. The power of the warlords would not prevent the Tang western territories from being overrun by Tibetan invasions and eventually lost to the Tibetan Empire, which even managed to capture Chang'an in 763 for a short period before being expelled.

Emperor Daizong was credited for removing the corrupt eunuch Li Fuguo, who had placed him on the throne, from power, but the rest of Emperor Daizong's reign would also see dominance by such individuals as the eunuchs Cheng Yuanzhen and Yu Chao'en, as well as the chancellor Yuan Zai. It is also worth noting that Emperor Daizong became the first Tang emperor to succeed to the throne as a result of maneuvers by eunuchs. Emperor Daizong was himself also said to be overly devout in Buddhism.

Li Jun, then the Prince of Zhong under his father Emperor Xuanzong. His mother was Li Jun's concubine Consort Wu. He was the oldest of Emperor Xuanzong's over 100 grandsons. In 740, by which time Li Jun (whose name had been changed to Li Heng by that point) was crown prince, Li Chu was created the Prince of Guangping. That year, his mother Consort Wu died. In his youth, he was said to be kind, meek, and filially pious, and was studious, particularly in the Classic of Rites and the I Ching. He was much favored by his grandfather. Emperor Xuanzong chose for him, as his wife and princess, Lady Cui the daughter of the Lady of Han, a sister of Emperor Xuanzong's favorite concubine Consort Yang Yuhuan; however, his oldest son Li Kuo was born of a concubine, Consort Shen.In 755, the general An Lushan rebelled at Fanyang (范陽, in modern Beijing), and by summer 756, the forces of his new state of Yan were approaching the Tang capital Chang'an, forcing Emperor Xuanzong to flee to Chengdu. When Emperor Xuanzong's train reached Mawei Station (馬嵬驛, in modern Baoji, Shaanxi), angry soldiers, blaming the rebellion on the chancellor Yang Guozhong (Consort Yang's cousin), killed Yang Guozhong and his family members and forced Emperor Xuanzong to kill Consort Yang. Subsequently, the people in the Mawei region tried to persuade Emperor Xuanzong not to continue on to Chengdu—believing that Chang'an could be recaptured. Emperor Xuanzong asked Li Heng to try to comfort the people. Once Li Heng left Emperor Xuanzong's presence, however, Li Heng's trusted eunuch Li Fuguo, Li Chu's brother Li Tan the Prince of Jianning, and Li Chu, persuaded Li Heng not to follow Emperor Xuanzong to Chengdu—arguing that with the physical barriers between Chang'an and Jiannan Circuit (劍南, headquartered in modern Chengdu), that once they had left the region, Chang'an could no longer be captured. Li Heng agreed and had Li Chu report this to Emperor Xuanzong. Emperor Xuanzong agreed with Li Heng's decision, but he himself continued on to Jiannan. Li Heng, escorted by a small number of guard soldiers commanded by Li Tan, then headed to the border city of Lingwu. With the army at Lingwu pressuring him to take imperial title, Li Heng declared himself emperor (as Emperor Suzong).

Emperor Suzong of Tang

Emperor Suzong of Tang (19 October 711 – 16 May 762; r. 756 – 762), personal name Li Heng, né Li Sisheng (李嗣升), known as Li Jun (李浚) from 725 to 736, known as Li Yu (李璵) from 736 to 738, known briefly as Li Shao (李紹) in 738, was an emperor of the Tang dynasty and the son of Emperor Xuanzong. Suzong ascended the throne after his father fled to Sichuan during the An Lushan Rebellion in 756; Li Heng himself had fled in the opposite direction, to Lingwu, where he was declared emperor by the army. Much of Emperor Suzong's reign was spent in quelling the aforementioned rebellion, which was ultimately put down in 763 during the reign of his son Emperor Daizong.

During Emperor Suzong's reign, the tradition of eunuchs becoming top-ranked officials began, with Li Fuguo becoming the commander of the imperial guards and possessing nearly absolute power near Emperor Suzong's reign. In 762, with Emperor Suzong gravely ill, Li Fuguo killed Emperor Suzong's wife Empress Zhang in a power struggle and shortly after that, Emperor Suzong died of myocardial infarction. He was succeeded by his son Emperor Daizong, who was eventually able to kill Li Fuguo, but the tradition of eunuchs in power had started. Suzong's death on 16 May came only 13 days after the death of his father, the Emperor Xuanzong.

Empress Zhang (Tang dynasty)

Empress Zhang (; Chinese: 張皇后, personal name unknown; died May 16, 762) was an empress of the Chinese Tang Dynasty. She was the second wife of Emperor Suzong and gained great power during his reign, in alliance with the eunuch Li Fuguo, but eventually she and Li Fuguo turned against each other late in Emperor Suzong's reign, as the emperor grew gravely ill. Zhang tried to have Li Fuguo put to death, but instead was captured and killed by Li Fuguo.

Jiedushi

The jiedushi were regional military governors in China during the Tang dynasty and the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period. The post of jiedushi has been translated as "military commissioner", "legate", or "regional commander". Originally introduced in 711 to counter external threats, the jiedushi were posts authorized with the supervision of a defense command often encompassing several prefectures, the ability to maintain their own armies, collect taxes and promote and appoint subordinates.Powerful jiedushi eventually became fanzhen rulers (de facto warlords) and overrode the power of the central government. An early example of this was An Lushan, who was appointed jiedushi of three regions, which he used to start the An Lushan Rebellion that abruptly ended the golden age of the Tang dynasty. Even after the difficult suppression of that rebellion, some jiedushi such as the Three Fanzhen of Hebei were allowed to retain their powers due to the weakened state of the court. The jiedushi were one the primary factors which contributed to the political division of the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period, a period marked by continuous infighting among rival kingdoms, dynasties, and regional regimes established by jiedushi.

Li Guangbi

Li Guangbi (李光弼) (708 – August 15, 764), formally Prince Wumu of Linhuai (臨淮武穆王), was a general of the Chinese dynasty Tang dynasty, of ethnic Khitan ancestry, who was instrumental in Tang's suppression of the Anshi Rebellion.

Li Tan

Li Tan (李倓) (died 757), known by his princely title of Prince of Jianning (建寧王), posthumously honored as the Prince of Qi (齊王) and then Emperor Chengtian (承天皇帝, literally "the emperor who bore the heaven"), was an imperial prince of the Chinese Tang Dynasty. He was a son of Emperor Suzong who was credited with suggesting to his father the idea of fleeing to Lingwu during the Anshi Rebellion, allowing Emperor Suzong to eventually reestablish a power base and defeat the rebellion. He was also credited with protecting his father on the way to Lingwu. However, he offended Emperor Suzong's favorite concubine Consort Zhang and the powerful eunuch Li Fuguo by accusing them of crimes; in turn, they accused him of having designs on the life of his older brother Li Chu the Prince of Guangping, causing Emperor Suzong to order him to commit suicide. After Li Chu became emperor in 762 (as Emperor Daizong), he posthumously honored Li Tan, first as the Prince of Qi, and then as Emperor Chengtian, to recognize him for his contributions.

Lingwulong

Lingwulong is a genus of dicraeosaurid sauropod dinosaur from the Early or Middle Jurassic Yanan Formation in Lingwu, Yinchuan, Ningxia Hui, China. The type and only species is L. shenqi, known from several partial skeletons. It is the earliest aged neosauropod ever discovered, as well as the only definite diplodocoid from east Asia. Its exact age is uncertain, but it lived between the late Toarcian and Bajocian ages, with an midpoint estimate age of 174 Ma.

Linhe

Linhe may refer to the following places in China:

Linhe District, in Baynnur, Inner Mongolia

Linghe, Jiangsu (临河), town in Siyang County, Jiangsu

Linhe, Ningxia, town in Lingwu, Ningxia

Linhe Township, Hebei (临河乡), in Xian County, Hebei

Linhe Township, Henan (临河乡), in Xi County, Henan

Linhe Township, Shaanxi (蔺河乡), in Langao County, Shaanxi

Linghe Subdistrict (林和街道), in Tianhe District, Guangzhou, Guangdong

Linhe, Ningxia

Linhe Town (临河镇) is town located in Lingwu City (灵武市), Yinchuan, Ningxia, China.

It is the site of the Yinchuan Hedong Airport.

List of Major National Historical and Cultural Sites in Ningxia

This list is of Major Sites Protected for their Historical and Cultural Value at the National Level in the autonomous region of Ningxia, People's Republic of China.

List of administrative divisions of Ningxia

Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region, an autonomous region of the People's Republic of China, is made up of the following three levels of administrative division.

Ningxia Campaign (1949)

The Ningxia Campaign was a series of battles fought between the nationalists and the communists during Chinese Civil War in the post World War II era, and resulted in the communist victory.

Wuzhong, Ningxia

Wuzhong (simplified Chinese: 吴忠; traditional Chinese: 吳忠) is a prefecture-level city in the Ningxia autonomous region of the People's Republic of China. It was known as Yinnan Prefecture (Chinese: 银南地区) before it was upgraded to a prefecture-level city in 1998. In 2010, Wuzhong had a population of 1.3 million. Wuzhong is located in Northwest of China, the Yellow River flows through the center of the city.

Yang Wan

Yang Wan (Chinese: 楊綰; died August 27, 777), courtesy name Gongquan (公權), was an official of the Chinese Tang dynasty, serving briefly as chancellor during the reign of Emperor Daizong. He was known for his frugality, and it was said that his becoming chancellor caused a number of other officials to change their wasteful ways.

Yinchuan

Yinchuan is the capital of the Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region, China, and historically it was the former capital of the Western Xia Empire of the Tanguts. It has an area of 4,467 km2 (1,725 sq mi) and a total population of 1.99 million. Its built-up area is home to 1,290,170 inhabitants spread between three urban districts. The name of the city literally means "silver river".

Facing the Yellow River in the east, Yinchuan enjoys beautiful natural scenery and favorable conditions for agriculture and has long earned the fame of a "River Side City in the Northwest" and "Home to Fishes and Rice". Yinchuan is now the permanent site for China-Arab Expo which is an international platform for cultural and economic exchanges between China and Arab countries.

Yinchuan Hedong International Airport

Yinchuan Hedong International Airport (IATA: INC, ICAO: ZLIC) is the primary airport serving Yinchuan, the capital of Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region, People's Republic of China. It is located 25 kilometres (16 mi) southeast of downtown Yinchuan in the town of Linghe of Lingwu City. A relatively small airport compared to many airports in China, it nevertheless is the autonomous region's main aviation gateway. Its name "Hedong" literally means "East of the River" and derives from the airport's location east of the Yellow River. It is connected to over 20 cities by either direct flights, or transferring in Xi'an and Beijing. The terminal building covers a total area of 15,000 square metres (160,000 sq ft). In 2013, the airport handled 4,247,843 passengers, making it the 39th-busiest airport in China.

Yuwen Jie

Yuwen Jie (宇文節), courtesy name Dali (大禮), was an official of the Chinese Tang dynasty, serving as chancellor during the reign of Emperor Gaozong.

Yuwen Jie's grandfather Yuwen Bi (宇文弼) was a major general during Northern Zhou and Sui Dynasty. Not much is known about Yuwen Jie's own early career. At one point during the reign of Emperor Taizong of Tang, he served as a secretary general of the executive bureau of government (尚書省, Shangshu Sheng). He was said to be well-studied in laws and capable in his duties. One time, Emperor Taizong's cousin, the well-known general Li Daozong, had made a private request of him and Yuwen Jie, rather than acquiescing, reported it to Emperor Taizong, who rewarded him with silk.

Emperor Taizong died in 649 and was succeeded by his son Emperor Gaozong. As of 651, Yuwen Jie was Huangmen Shilang (黃門侍郎), the deputy head of the examination bureau of government (門下省, Menxia Sheng), when Emperor Gaozong gave him the designation Tong Zhongshu Menxia Sanpin (同中書門下三品), making him a chancellor de facto. In 652, he became Shizhong, the head of the examination bureau and post considered one for a chancellor.

In winter 652, a plot was discovered centering Emperor Gaozong's sister Princess Gaoyang and her husband Fang Yi'ai (房遺愛). Along with another brother-in-law of Emperor Gaozong's, Chai Lingwu (柴令武), the general Xue Wanche (薛萬徹), and Emperor Gaozong's brother Li Ke, they were accused of plotting to overthrow Emperor Gaozong and replacing him with his uncle Li Yuanjing (李元景) the Prince of Jing. Yuwen Jie was friendly with Fang and tried to assist him, but eventually, all of the major alleged coconspirators were either executed or forced to commit suicide. On account of Yuwen's attempt to help Fang, Yuwen was exiled to Gui Prefecture (桂州, roughly modern Guilin, Guangxi), where he died in exile. His grandson Yuwen Rong eventually served as a chancellor under Emperor Xuanzong.

Zhongning County

Zhongning County is a county under the administration of Zhongwei city in west-central Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region of the People's Republic of China, bordering Inner Mongolia to the northwest. It is the point at which the northern twist of the Yellow River begins, creating the Ordos Loop. It has a total area of 2,841 square kilometers (1,097 sq mi), and a population of approximately 410,000 people.

Zhongning County is an agricultural county. In addition to traditional agricultural products, Wolfberries have begun to be cultivated in recent years. However, due to a drought, the growing range for the berries has not significantly increased. The county government is located in the town of Ningan and the county's postal code is 755100.

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