Lingnan

Lingnan (simplified Chinese: 岭南; traditional Chinese: 嶺南; pinyin: lǐng nán; Jyutping: ling5 naam4; literally: 'South of the Nanling Mountains') is a geographic area referring to the lands in the south of the Nanling Mountains. The region covers the modern Chinese provinces of Guangdong, Guangxi, and Hainan as well as modern northern Vietnam.[1]

Lingnan

岭南
Maximum extent of the Nanyue kingdom
Maximum extent of the Nanyue kingdom
Modern day-locationGuangdong, Guangxi, and Hainan, modern northern Vietnam (Annam)

Background

The area was inhabited by the Baiyue and was the base of the ancient Nanyue. At that time, Lingnan was considered as a barbarian land and it had loose contact with the Zhongyuan, which was the cultural cradle of Chinese culture.

In the second century BCE, the Han–Nanyue War led to its absorption into Han dynasty during the Southward expansion of the Han dynasty, and its development was boosted once the Mei Pass was paved.[2]

Jiedushi

  • Song Jing 716
  • Zhen Dan 717
  • Pei Zhouxian 719-722
  • Li Ju 727-735
  • Li Shangyin 727
  • Li Chaoyin 733-735
  • Song Ding 739
  • Pei Dunfu 745
  • Peng Guo 745-747
  • Lu Huan 749-751
  • Zhang Jiugao 751-753
  • A Lüguang 754-756
  • Helan Jinming 756
  • Wei Lijian 757-758
  • Zhang Wanqing 758-760
  • Zhao Liangbi 760-761
  • Zhang Xiu 763
  • Yang Shenwei 764-767
  • Xu Hao 767-768
  • Li Mian 768-772
  • Li Chongben 772-773
  • Lu Sigong 773
  • Li Shu 775
  • Gao Yun 776-777
  • Zhang Boyi 777-782
  • Yuan Xiu 782-784
  • Du You 784-787
  • Li Fu 787-792
  • Xue Jue 792-795
  • Wang E 795-801
  • Zhao Zhi 801-802
  • Xu Shen 802-806
  • Zhao Chang 806-808
  • Yang Yuling 808-810
  • Zheng Yin 810-813
  • Ma Zong 813-816
  • Cui Yong 817
  • Kong Kui 817-820
  • Cui Neng 820-823
  • Zheng Quan 823-824
  • Cui Zhi 824-826
  • Hu Zheng 826-828
  • Li Xian 828-829
  • Cui Hu 829-830
  • Li Liang 831-833
  • Cui Gong 833
  • Wang Maoyuan 833-835
  • Li Congyi 835-836
  • Lu Jun 836-840
  • Cui Guicong 844-845
  • Lu Zhen 845-846
  • Li Pin 847-848
  • Li Xingxiu 848-849
  • Wei Zhengguan 849-851
  • Ge Ganzhong 851-854
  • Wei Shu 855-858
  • Yang Fa 858
  • Li Sui 858
  • Li Chengxun 858-859
  • Xiao Fang 859-860
  • Wei Zhou 861-868
  • Zheng Yu 868-871
  • Zheng Congdang 871-874
  • Wei He 874-876
  • Li Tiao 877-879
  • Zheng Xu 879-886
  • Lü Yongzhi 886
  • Pei Qu 887-889
  • Li Chonggui 890-895
  • Chen Pei 893
  • Cui Yin 896
  • Li Zhirou 896-900
  • Cui Yin 900
  • Xu Yanruo 900-901
  • Liu Yin 901-911
  • Pei Shu 903
  • Cui Yuan 904
  • Liu Yan 911-917

See also

References

  1. ^ History of Lingnan. Travel China. Accessed June 20, 2012.
  2. ^ Social and Clan Culture in the Lingnan Region. Shvoong.com. Accessed June 20, 2012. Archived October 6, 2008, at the Wayback Machine
Cantonese embroidery

Cantonese embroidery (Cantonese Jyutping: Jyut6 sau3; Traditional Chinese: 粵繡), or Yue embroidery, is a style of embroidery folk art of the Pearl River Delta region. It is one of the well-known "Four Great" embroideries of China.Cantonese embroidery is highly regarded for its full composition, vivid images, bright colors, multiple embroidery techniques, smoothness, and evenness. This style usually use nature or auspicious symbols as the subject matters. Located in a subtropical region with plenty of sunshine and rainfall, Cantonese have had access to a diverse set of flora and fauna, resulting nature being an important source of inspiration for Cantonese embroidery's aesthetics. Cantonese embroidery can be further divided into four styles: woolen needlepoint tapestry, bead embroidery, machine embroidery and "Ding Gum Sau" (the use of silver and gold threads). Cantonese embroidery can be founded on all kinds of objects: hanging screen, clothes, shoes, etc.

Cantonese folktales

Cantonese folktales are folktales associated with the Cantonese people, the dominant Han Chinese subgroup in the Southern Chinese twin provinces of Guangdong and Guangxi. This body of folktales have been influenced both by the culture of Han Chinese and that of Nanyue, the original Baiyue inhabitants of the region before sinicization occurred.

Cantonese poetry

Cantonese poetry (Cantonese Jyutping: Jyut6 si1; Traditional Chinese: 粵詩) is poetry performed and composed primarily by Cantonese people. Most of this body of poetry has used classical Chinese grammars, but composed with Cantonese phonology in mind and thus needs to be chanted using the Cantonese language in order to rhyme.

Chen Clan Ancestral Hall

The Chen Clan Ancestral Hall or Chen Clan Academy is an academic temple in Guangzhou, China, built by the 72 Chen clans for their juniors' accommodation and preparation for the imperial examinations in 1894 in Qing Dynasty. Later it was changed to be the Chen Clan's Industry College, and then middle schools afterward. Now it houses the Guangdong Folk Art Museum.

Located at Zhongshan 7th Road, the Chen Clan Ancestral Hall is a symmetric complex consist of 19 buildings with nine halls and six courtyards. Facing south, the complex forms around a north-south axis. A large collection of southern China art pieces, for example, wood carvings and pottery, can be found in the structure. The Chen Clan Ancestral Hall complex exemplifies traditional Chinese architecture and decoration style, and has influenced cultural and architectural developments worldwide. It was added in the list of "Cultural Relics of National Importance under the Protection of the State" in 1988.

Lingnan Confucianism

Lingnan Confucianism (Cantonese Jyutping: Ling5 naam4 jyu4 hok6; Traditional Chinese: 嶺南儒學) refers to the Confucian schools of thoughts in Lingnan - the Southern Chinese provinces of Guangdong and Guangxi. These schools are primarily formed by Cantonese people, who have traditionally been the dominant demographic in the region.

Lingnan Normal University

Lingnan Normal University (LNU; (simplified Chinese: 岭南师范学院; traditional Chinese: 嶺南師範學院; pinyin: Lǐngnán Shīfàn Xuéyuàn) formerly Zhanjiang Normal University (ZNU; 湛江师范学院; 湛江師範學院; Zhànjiāng Shīfàn Xuéyuàn) is an institution of higher learning in the Chikan District of Zhanjiang City, Guangdong Province, China.

The history of the university dates back to the "Leiyang Academy" (雷阳书院) founded in 1636. In 1904, it started its education training program. In 1978, it became Leizhou Normal College, and was elevated to Zhanjiang Normal University in 1991. Zhanjiang Normal University changed its name to Lingnan Normal University in 2014.

Lingnan School

The Lingnan School (Chinese: 嶺南畫派) of painting, also called the Cantonese School, is a style of painting from the Guangdong or Lingnan region of China.This school reflects a style of painting founded in the 19th century in Guangdong province by Two Gaos and one Chen - Gao Jianfu, Gao Qifeng and Chen Shuren, also known as "The three greats of Lingnan" (嶺南三傑).The Lingnan style of painting was revolutionary and innovative compared to traditional Chinese painting, influenced by Western European visual arts and by the early Qing painter, Yun Shouping (1633–1690).In the late 19th century, scholars in China broke through entrenched conservative thoughts and began to actively seek to create and promote new schools and styles of art. This not only cultivated a large amount of ideological progress among social elites but also gave birth to the "eclectic fusion of the Han Chinese and Western style, ancient and modern" Lingnan school. The Lingnan school advocates the introduction of Western painting styles with the integration of Han Chinese and Western paintings, in the spirit of revolution of Oriental arts, while maintaining traditional Han Chinese painting techniques.

This school of painting enjoys considerable fame among Han Chinese peoples. Along with Cantonese opera and Cantonese music, they are known as the "three fineries of Lingnan" (Jyutping: Ling5 Naam4 Saam1 Sau3; Traditional Chinese: 嶺南三秀). Meanwhile, the Lingnan school is listed along with Beijing and Tianjin painting school and Shanghai school as the three pillars of modern Chinese painting.

Lingnan University (Guangzhou)

Lingnan University (simplified Chinese: 岭南大学; traditional Chinese: 嶺南大學; pinyin: Lǐngnán Dàxué) in Guangzhou (Canton), China, was a private university established by a group of American missionaries in 1888. At its founding it was named Canton Christian College (格致書院).

When the Communist government reorganized China's higher education in the Soviet model in 1952, Lingnan University's engineering departments were incorporated into the newly established South China Institute of Technology (now South China University of Technology), and the rest of

the school was incorporated into Sun Yat-sen University. Lingnan College was reestablished in 1988 within Sun Yat-sen University.

Some members of the university moved to Hong Kong and founded the Lingnan School in Wan Chai in 1967, which was relocated to Tuen Mun in the mid-1990s and renamed Lingnan University in 1999.

Lingnan University (Hong Kong)

Lingnan University (LN/LU) (Chinese: 嶺南大學), formerly called Lingnan College (Chinese: 嶺南學院), is the only public liberal arts university in Hong Kong. It aims to provide students with an education in the liberal arts tradition and has joined the Global Liberal Arts Alliance since 2012. Lingnan University became the first university in Hong Kong to accomplish the goal of providing 4-year full residence for all undergraduates and currently, 80% Lingnan students are able to go on exchange for a term during their undergraduate study.In 2015, Lingnan University was selected as one of the "Top 10 Asian Liberal Arts Colleges" by Forbes.

Lingnan architecture

Lingnan architecture (Chinese: 嶺南建築; Jyutping: Ling5 naam4 gin3 zuk1), or Cantonese architecture, refers to the characteristic architectural style(s) of the Lingnan region - the Southern Chinese provinces of Guangdong and Guangxi. Usually, it is referring to the architecture associated with the Cantonese people - with other peoples in the area (such as the Hakka and the Teochew) having their own styles. This style began with the architecture of the ancient non-Han Nanyue people and absorbed certain architectural elements from the Tang Empire and Song Empire as the region sinicized in the later half of the first millennium AD.

Lingnan culture

Lingnan culture, or Cantonese culture, refers to the regional Chinese culture of the Southern Chinese/Lingnan twin provinces of Guangdong and Guangxi, the names of which mean "eastern expanse" and "western expanse" respectively.

Strictly speaking, the term "Lingnan culture" has two definitions:

In a purely geographical sense, the term includes not only Cantonese culture, but also the cultures of minority groups (such as the Hakkas, Teochews, Taishanese and the non-Chinese groups such as the Zhuangs) within the Lingnan region.

More typically, is only used in referring to Cantonese culture, the historically dominant culturo-linguistic force in Guangdong and Guangxi.This article uses the second definition of "Lingnan culture" - as the synonym of "Cantonese culture".

With the migration of the Cantonese people to nearby Hong Kong and Macau, as well as in many overseas communities, Lingnan/Cantonese culture has become an influential cultural force in the international community, and forms the basis of the cultures of Hong Kong and Macau.

Lingnan garden

Lingnan garden (Cantonese Jyutping: Ling5 naam4 jyun4 lam4; Traditional Chinese: 嶺南園林), also called Cantonese garden, is a style of garden design native to Lingnan - the traditionally Cantonese provinces of Gwongdung and Gwongsai in southern China. It, alongside the likes of Sichuanese garden and Jiangnan garden, is one of the major styles of Chinese garden.The Lingnan region is the south of the Ng Leng Mountains, spanning southern Fujian, Gwongdung, and Gwongsai, located in the Eurasian continent's southeastern edge. With such a natural barrier as the Ng Leng Mountains and extensive river network, the region has strong sunlight and receives regular monsoon. Plants are lush throughout the year, showing a subtropical natural landscape. With this rich natural scenery, people in Lingnan have been able to create a rich and colorful style of traditional gardens distinct from gardens in other Han Chinese regions.

Lingnan penjing

Lingnan penjing (Jyutping: Ling5 naam5 pun4 ging2; Traditional Chinese: 嶺南盆景), sometimes called Cantonese penjing (Jyutping: Jyut6 paai3 pun4 ging2; Traditional Chinese: 粵派盆景) is the style of penjing (called "Pun-ging" in Cantonese) of the Lingnan region - the mainly Cantonese-speaking Southern Chinese provinces of Guangdong and Guangxi. Despite being recognized only in early 20th century, this style can trace its roots to at least the 15th century.

List of universities and colleges in Guangdong

The following is List of Universities and Colleges in Guangdong.

Nanling Mountains

The Nanling (Chinese: 南岭; pinyin: Nánlǐng; literally: 'Southern Mountains'), also known as the Wuling (Chinese: 五岭; pinyin: Wǔlǐng; literally: 'Five Mountains'), is a major mountain range in Southern China that separates the Pearl River Basin from the Yangtze Valley and serves as the dividing line between south and central subtropical zones. The main range of Nanling Mountains stretch west to east about 600 kilometers (370 mi) from Guilin and Hezhou of the eastern Guangxi to Ganzhou of the southern Jiangxi, north to south about 200 kilometres (120 mi) from Yongzhou and Chenzhou of the southern Hunan to Qingyuan and Shaoguan of the northern Guangdong; With its branches, the whole mountains run west to east 1,400 kilometers (870 mi).There are trough basins in the Nanling, the most of the western basins in Nanling Mountains are composed of limestone, where karst regions are located. the most of the eastern basins are made up of red sandstone, where are danxia landform areas. The Nanling are boundaries between the four provinces of Guangdong, Guangxi, Hunan and Jiangxi, and also the cultural boundaries, on the south of the mountains are Lingnan culture area.The Nanling is a corridor where Chinese ethnic groups migrate and also the land of national amalgamation. In the Nanling, there form trough corridors, tectonic fault basins or watersheds, where are relatively low and not difficult to climb, between the natural gorge channels and the river systems in the north and south of the Nanling are natural channels, people-to-people exchanges are easy. Since the Qin dynasty, from the Central Plains into Lingnan (the south of the Nanling) there have been five ancient roads, which are YuechengLing Road(越城岭道), Mengzhuling Road (萌渚岭道), Qitianling Road (骑田岭道), Lingling-Guiyang Path (零陵桂阳峤道) and Dayuling Road (大庾岭道). At the same time, many tributaries of the Yangtze system and Pearl River system have also formed west to east passages.The mountains forming the ranges are generally of moderate altitude, the highest point being the summit of Kitten Mountain at 2,142 meters (7,028 ft).

Rong Baisheng

Rong Baisheng (Chinese: 容柏生; 27 August 1930 – 11 May 2019) was a Chinese architect and civil engineer. A pioneer in skyscraper design and construction in China, he was elected an inaugural member of the Chinese Academy of Engineering in 1995. His works include the Guangdong International Building, which was China's tallest building when completed in 1990, and the Shenzhen Shangri-La Hotel (1981).

Sun Yat-sen University

Sun Yat-sen University (Chinese: 中山大学; pinyin: Zhōngshān Dàxué), abbreviated SYSU and colloquially known in Chinese as Zhongda (Chinese: 中大; pinyin: Zhōngdà), also known as Zhongshan University, is a major Chinese public research university located in Guangzhou, Guangdong, China. It was founded in 1924 by and named after Dr. Sun Yat-sen, a revolutionary and the founding father of the Republic of China.

With an educational tradition spanning nearly 100 years, the University has always been a preeminent research, academic and cultural centre and the premier location for talent development in Southern China, and has developed into a modern comprehensive university that enjoys a reputation as a top-tier university nationally and a renowned university internationally. It is a Chinese Ministry of Education Class A Double First Class University.The school's main campus, commonly referred to as the South Campus, is located in Haizhu District, Guangzhou, inheriting the campus of the former Lingnan University. With its five campuses in the three cities of Guangzhou, Zhuhai and Shenzhen, and ten affiliated hospitals, the University is striving to become a world-class university and global centre of learning.

In ARWU World University Rankings 2018, Sun Yat-sen University ranks Top 6 among all universities in Greater China(including Hong Kong, Macau and Taiwan), and Top 121 among all universities in the world. Consistently ranked among the top-tier universities in mainland China, Sun Yat-sen University provides undergraduate and graduate instruction in the humanities, social sciences, natural sciences, technology, medical science, pharmacology and managerial science.

The university's assets include the world's second fastest supercomputer Tianhe-2, which is valued at 2.4 billion yuan (CNY)(US$390 million). The university also has the largest affiliated hospital system in mainland China. The university's Zhuhai Campus owns the largest teaching building in Asia measured by acreage.Two of the university's business education institutions, Sun Yat-sen Business School (SYSBS) and Lingnan (University) College are accredited by EQUIS, AACSB, and AMBA. Only 3 business schools in mainland China hold this triple accreditation.

White boiled shrimp

White boiled shrimp is a variety of night dish in Cantonese cuisine. The dish is made with shrimp in boiling (灼) hot water, and served with the shells. The shrimp is then eaten with soy sauce. When finished, people wash their hands in a bowl of warm tea and lemon.

Zhongjin Lingnan

Shenzhen Zhongjin Lingnan Nonfemet Co., Ltd. known as Zhongjin Lingnan in China or their English name Nonfemet (abbreviation of non-ferrous metal), is a China company engaged in the mining and processing of lead, zinc and other non-ferrous metals. In 2015 financial year, the company also had 0.49% revenue from real estate development.Lingnan is a word refer to southern China, including Guangdong province, while Zhongjin literally means China metal. As at 11 November 2016, Zhongjin Lingnan is a constituents of SZSE 100 Index and CSI 300 Index.

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