Linderhof Palace (German: Schloss Linderhof) is a Schloss in Germany, in southwest Bavaria near Ettal Abbey. It is the smallest of the three palaces built by King Ludwig II of Bavaria and the only one which he lived to see completed.
Ludwig already knew the area around Linderhof from his youth when he had accompanied his father King Maximilian II of Bavaria on his hunting trips in the Bavarian Alps. When Ludwig II became King in 1864, he inherited the so-called Königshäuschen from his father, and in 1869 began enlarging the building. In 1874, he decided to tear down the Königshäuschen and rebuild it on its present-day location in the park. At the same time three new rooms and the staircase were added to the remaining U-shaped complex, and the previous wooden exterior was clad with stone façades. The building was designed in the style of the second rococo-period. Between 1863 and 1886, a total of 8,460,937 marks was spent constructing Linderhof.
Although Linderhof is much smaller than Versailles, it is evident that the palace of the French Sun-King Louis XIV (who was an idol for Ludwig) was its inspiration. The staircase, for example, is a reduction of the famous Ambassador's staircase in Versailles, which would be copied in full in Herrenchiemsee. Stylistically, however, the building and its decor take their cues from the mid-18th century Rococo of Louis XV, and the small palace in the Graswang was more directly based on that king's Petit Trianon on the Versailles grounds. The symbol of the sun that can be found everywhere in the decoration of the rooms represents the French notion of absolutism that, for Ludwig, was the perfect incorporation of his ideal of a God-given monarchy with total royal power. Such a monarchy could no longer be realised in Europe in the second half of the nineteenth century. The bedroom was important to the ceremonial life of an absolute monarch; Louis XIV of France used to give his first (lever) and last audience (coucher) of the day in his bedchamber. In imitation of Versailles, the bedroom is the largest chamber of Linderhof Palace. By facing north, however, the Linderhof bedroom inverts the symbolism of its Versailles counterpart, showing Ludwig's self-image as a "Night-King."
The location of the palace near Ettal Abbey again presents another interesting point. Because of its architecture Ludwig saw the church of the monastery as the room where the holy grail was preserved. This fact connects the idea of a baroque palace to the one of a "medieval" castle such as Neuschwanstein and reminds of the operas of Richard Wagner whose patron Ludwig was.
Linderhof, in comparison to other palaces, has a rather private atmosphere. In fact, there are only four rooms that have a real function.
This room was used by the king as some kind of living room. He enjoyed sitting in the niche, sometimes reading there the whole night. Because Ludwig II used to sleep in the daytime and stay awake in the night, the mirrors created an unimaginable effect for him when they reflected the light of the candles a thousand times. The parallel placement of some mirrors evoke the illusion of a never ending avenue.
A carpet made of ostrich plumes.
An ivory candelabra in the alcove with 16 branches.
Two mantelpieces clad with lapis-lazuli and decorated with gilded bronze ornaments.
The two tapestry chambers are almost identical and have no specific function. The western one is sometimes called "Music Room" because of the aeolodion (an instrument combining piano and harmonium) in it. Only the curtains and the coverings on the furniture are real products of the Parisian Gobelin Manufactory. The scenes on the walls are painted on rough canvas in order to imitate real tapestries.
The audience chamber is located to the west of the palace and is flanked by the yellow and lilac cabinets. The cabinets were only used as antechambers to the larger rooms. Ludwig II never used this room to hold an audience. This would have been against the private character of Linderhof and the chamber would have been much too small for it. He rather used it as a study where he thought about new building projects. That there is an audience chamber in Linderhof, however, reminds us of the demand of the king on an absolute monarchy.
Throne baldachin with ostrich feather bunches (as an oriental symbol of royal power).
This room is located to the east and is flanked by the pink and blue cabinets. The pink cabinet, unlike the other cabinets, had a real function. The king used it as a robing room. The dining room is famous for its disappearing dumb-waiter called "Tischlein deck dich". This table was installed so that Ludwig could dine alone here. Yet the staff had to lay the table for at least four persons because it is said that the king used to talk to imaginary people like Louis XV, Mme de Pompadour or Marie Antoinette while he was eating. For Ludwig II enjoyed the company of those people and admired them. You can find portraits of them in the cabinets, and scenes of their lives everywhere in the palace's rooms.
Meissen porcelain centrepiece with china flowers.
The model for this room was not Louis XIV's bedchamber in Versailles but the bedroom of the Rich Rooms in Munich Residence. This room was completely rebuilt in 1884 and could not be totally finished until the king's death two years later. The position of the bed itself on steps in the alcove that is closed off by a gilded balustrade gives it the appearance of an altar and thereby glorifies Ludwig II as he slept during the day.
A glass candelabra with 108 candles.
Two console tables of Meissen porcelain (which was the king's favorite china)
The gardens surrounding Linderhof Palace are considered one of the most beautiful creations of historicist garden design, designed by Court Garden Director Carl von Effner. The park combines formal elements of Baroque style or Italian Renaissance gardens with landscaped sections that are similar to the English garden.
Deriving from the romantic image of animated nature Ludwig was fascinated by trees. For this reason a tall, 300-year-old linden tree was allowed to remain in the formal gardens although disturbing its symmetry. Historic pictures show a seat in it, where Ludwig used to take his "breakfast" at sunset hidden from view amongst the branches. Contrary to common understanding the tree did not give the palace its name. It came from a family called "Linder" that used to cultivate the farm (in German "Hof" = farm) that over centuries had been in the place where now Linderhof palace is.
The palace is surrounded by formal gardens that are subdivided into five sections that are decorated with allegoric sculptures of the continents, the seasons and the elements:
The northern part is characterized by a cascade of thirty marble steps. The bottom end of the cascade is formed by the Neptune fountain and at the top there is a Music Pavilion.
The centre of the western parterre is formed by basin with the gilt figure of "Fama". In the west there is a pavilion with the bust of Louis XIV. In front of it you see a fountain with the gilt sculpture "Amor with dolphins". The garden is decorated with four majolica vases.
The crowning of the eastern parterre is a wooden pavilion containing the bust of Louis XVI. Twenty-four steps below it there is a fountain basin with a gilt sculpture "Amor shooting an arrow". A sculpture of "Venus and Adonis" is placed between the basin and the palace.
The terrace gardens form the southern part of the park and correspond to the cascade in the north. On the landing of the first flight there is the "Naiad fountain" consisting of three basins and the sculptures of water nymphs. In the middle arch of the niche you see the bust of Marie Antoinette of France. These gardens are crowned by a round temple with a statue of Venus formed after a painting by Antoine Watteau (The Embarkation for Cythera).
The landscape garden covers an area of about 50 hectares (125 acres) and is perfectly integrated in the surrounding natural alpine landscape. There are several buildings of different appearance located in the park.
The building is wholly artificial and was built for the king as an illustration of the First Act of Wagner's Tannhäuser. Ludwig liked to be rowed over the lake in his golden swan-boat but at the same time he wanted his own blue grotto of Capri. Therefore, 24 dynamos had been installed and so already in the time of Ludwig II it was possible to illuminate the grotto in changing colours.
This hut was inspired by Richard Wagner's directions for the First Act of the Die Walküre. Ludwig used to celebrate Germanic feasts in this house.
Ludwig came here for contemplation every year on Good Friday. For this day he wanted a flowering meadow. If there was no such meadow because there was still snow lying, the garden director had to plant one for the king.
These three structures, the "Venus Grotto", "Hunding's Hut" and "Gurnemanz Hermitage" remind us another time of the operas of Richard Wagner. But besides that and the baroque architecture Ludwig was also interested in the oriental world.
This building was designed by the Berliner architect Karl von Diebitsch for the International Exhibition in Paris 1867. Ludwig II wanted to buy it but was forestalled by the railroad king Bethel Henry Strousberg. Ludwig bought the pavilion after the bankruptcy of Strousberg. The most notable piece of furniture of this building is the peacock throne.
This house was actually built in Morocco for the International Exhibition in Vienna 1873. The king bought it in 1878 and redecorated it in a more royal way.
The year 1879 in architecture involved some significant events.Albert Gräfle
Albert Gräfle (1809–1889) was a German historical, genre, and portrait painter.Bavarian Administration of State-Owned Palaces, Gardens and Lakes
The Bavarian Administration of State-Owned Palaces, Gardens and Lakes (German: Bayerische Verwaltung der staatlichen Schlösser, Gärten und Seen), also known as the Bavarian Palace Department (German: Bayerische Schlösserverwaltung), is a department of the finance ministry of the German state of Bavaria. Tracing its roots back into the 18th century, the administration is now best known for being in charge of Neuschwanstein Castle and the other 19th-century palaces built by Ludwig II of Bavaria.
The department is responsible for 45 historical monuments and ensembles. This number includes:
9 residences such as Munich Residence and Würzburg Residence
14 villas and palaces including Neuschwanstein Castle, Linderhof Palace, Herrenchiemsee
10 fortified sites including medieval Nuremberg Castle
memorials such as the Befreiungshalle in Kelheim and the Ruhmeshalle and Feldherrnhalle in Munich
the Roman Catholic pilgrimage church St. Bartholomew's in Berchtesgaden)It is also responsible for 27 historical gardens and 21 lakes, most notably Chiemsee, Lake Starnberg, Ammersee and the Bavarian part of Lake Constance.Bundesstraße 23
Bundesstraße 23 (abbreviated to B 23) is a German federal highway (German: Bundesstraße) in Bavaria that runs from Peiting to the Austrian border near Garmisch-Partenkirchen. The road is partially a part of the “German Alpine Road” (German: Deutsche Alpenstraße). The B 23 which together with the Bundesstraße 17 and Bundesstraße 472 the quickest way from Augsburg to Garmisch-Partenkirchen, continue along the Bundesstraße 2 to Mittenwald, Innsbruck and the Brenner Pass.Christian Jank
Christian Jank (15 July 1833 – 25 November 1888) was a scenic painter and stage designer.
Jank was born in Munich, the Bavarian capital. Here he originally worked as a scenic painter. Among other things he was involved in the scenery for Richard Wagner's opera Lohengrin.
His work piqued the interest of Ludwig II, who commissioned him to create concepts for his architectural projects inspired by Wagner. Jank's historistic drafts were the basis for Neuschwanstein Castle, which was built starting in 1869 by Eduard Riedel and later Georg von Dollmann. Jank was also involved in the interior of Linderhof Palace. His concepts for Falkenstein Castle could not be realized, as the project was abandoned after the king's death in 1886.
Jank himself died in Munich on 25 November 1888.Ettal
Ettal is a German municipality in the district of Garmisch-Partenkirchen, in Bavaria.Francophile
A Francophile (Gallophile) is a person who has a strong affinity towards any or all of the French language, French history, French culture or French people. That affinity may include France itself or its history, language, cuisine, literature, etc. The term "Francophile" can be contrasted with Francophobe (or Gallophobe), someone who dislikes all that is French.
Francophilia often arises in former French colonies, where the elite spoke French and adopted many French habits. In other European countries such as Romania and Russia, French culture has also long been popular among the upper class.
Historically, Francophilia has been associated with supporters of the philosophy of Enlightenment during and after the French Revolution, where democratic uprisings challenged the autocratic regimes of Europe.Georg von Dollmann
Georg von Dollmann (1830–1895) was a German architect and Bavarian government building officer.
Georg von Dollmann was born on 21 October 1830 in Ansbach as Georg Carl Heinrich Dollmann. The son of a government officer, he attended the Gymnasium in Ansbach. In 1846 he moved to Munich and received his technical and artistic education at the Polytechnical Institute and the Academy of Fine Arts.
In 1854 he entered the service of the Royal Bavarian State Railways, where he was concerned with building construction such as the modification of the station in Gemünden am Main.
Leo von Klenze made him his assistant, and he worked in Klenze's office up to Klenze's death in 1864.
Dollmann completed the Befreiungshalle and expanded the Assyrian Hall in the Glyptothek courtyard. His first significant independent work was the neo-Gothic Church of the Holy Cross in Giesing (now part of Munich), which was built 1866–1883.
The concept of a magnificent building commissioned by King Maximilian II of Bavaria was not realized, but in 1868 he entered the service of his son King Ludwig II as an architect and saw a rapid career.
In 1869/1870, in five separate planning phases he designed the project of a Byzantine palace; however it was never realized.
Between 1870 and 1872 he expanded the hunting house in Linderhof by a U-shaped building complex, whose centre was the stately bedroom.
But this construction had to make place for a new Linderhof Palace, built 1874–1879.
From 1868 Ludwig II commissioned a project for a new Versailles Palace in Linderhof Valley. From December 1868 till September 1873, Dollmann presented seventeen different floor plans and numerous front elevations as well as many drawings of the bedroom. In 1873 the project was transferred to the Herreninsel in Chiemsee. As Herrenchiemsee Palace it remains uncompleted.
The King's House on Schachen, a wooden post-and-beam construction, was built 1869–1872. In 1874, Dollmann took over the direction of the building activities at Neuschwanstein Castle (started in 1869) from Eduard Riedel.
In 1884 Dollmann fell from the king's favour. He had to make place for his colleague Julius Hofmann and retired. His wife Eugenie Félicité Sophie Dollmann, a granddaughter of Klenze, died in 1894. On 31 March 1895 Georg von Dollmann himself died in Munich.Herrenchiemsee
Herrenchiemsee is a complex of royal buildings on Herreninsel, the largest island in the Chiemsee lake, in southern Bavaria, Germany. Together with the neighbouring isle of Frauenchiemsee and the uninhabited Krautinsel, it forms the municipality of Chiemsee, located about 60 kilometres (37 mi) southeast of Munich.
The island, formerly the site of an Augustinian monastery, was purchased by King Ludwig II of Bavaria in 1873. The king had the premises converted into a residence, known as the Old Palace (Altes Schloss). From 1878 onwards, he had the New Herrenchiemsee Palace (Neues Schloss) erected, based on the model of Versailles. It was the largest, but also the last of his building projects, and remained incomplete. Today maintained by the Bavarian Administration of State-Owned Palaces, Gardens and Lakes, Herrenchiemsee is accessible to the public and a major tourist attraction.House of Wittelsbach
The House of Wittelsbach (German pronunciation: [ˈvɪtəlsbax]) is a European royal family and a German dynasty from Bavaria.
Members of the family reigned as Dukes of Merania (1153–1180/82), Dukes, Electors and Kings of Bavaria (1180–1918), Counts Palatine of the Rhine (1214–1803 and 1816–1918), Margraves of Brandenburg (1323–1373), Counts of Holland, Hainaut and Zeeland (1345–1432), Elector-Archbishops of Cologne (1583–1761), Dukes of Jülich and Berg (1614–1794/1806), Kings of Sweden (1441–1448 and 1654–1720) and Dukes of Bremen-Verden (1654–1719).
The family also provided two Holy Roman Emperors (1328–1347/1742–1745), one King of the Romans (1400–1410), two Anti-Kings of Bohemia (1619–20/1742–43), one King of Hungary (1305–1309), one King of Denmark and Norway (1440–1447) and one King of Greece (1832–1862).
The family's head, since 1996, is Franz, Duke of Bavaria.Johann Sigmund Schuckert
Johann Sigmund Schuckert (October 18, 1846 in Nuremberg - September 17, 1895 in Wiesbaden) was an electrical engineer and the founder of Schuckert & Co. (after 1903 Siemens-Schuckert). He was a pioneer of industrialization in Nuremberg and for the electrical industry a pioneer of international status.List of castles in Bavaria
Numerous castles are found in the German state of Bavaria. These buildings, some of which have a history of over 1,000 years, were the setting of historical events, domains of famous personalities and are still imposing buildings to this day.
This list encompasses castles described in German as Burg (castle), Festung (fort/fortress), Schloss (manor house) and Palais/Palast (palace). Many German castles after the middle ages were mainly built as royal or ducal palaces rather than as a fortified building.List of rulers of Bavaria
The following is a list of rulers during the history of Bavaria. Bavaria was ruled by several dukes and kings, partitioned and reunited, under several dynasties. Since 1949, Bavaria has been a democratic state in the Federal Republic of Germany.Ludwig (film)
Ludwig is a 1973 film directed by Italian director Luchino Visconti about the life and death of King Ludwig II of Bavaria. Helmut Berger stars as Ludwig, Romy Schneider reprises her role as Empress Elisabeth of Austria (from the 1955 film Sissi and its two sequels).
The film was made in Munich and other parts of Bavaria at these locations: Roseninsel, Berg Castle, Lake Starnberg, Castle Herrenchiemsee, Castle Hohenschwangau, Linderhof Palace, Cuvilliés Theatre, Nymphenburg Palace, Ettal, Kaiservilla and Neuschwanstein Castle. Visconti suffered a stroke during filming.Ludwig II (sculpture)
Ludwig II is a sculpture of King Ludwig II of Bavaria by sculptor Elisabet Ney. Completed in 1870, the piece is a portrait statue rendered in plaster. The statue was modeled and carved in Germany, but it is now held by the Elisabet Ney Museum in Austin, Texas; a marble version, completed by another sculptor, is installed in the Herrenchiemsee Palace in Bavaria.Monopteros
A monopteros (Ancient Greek:ὁ μονόπτερος from the Polytonic: μόνος, only, single, alone, and τὸ πτερόν, wing) is a circular colonnade supporting a roof but without any walls. Unlike a tholos (in its wider sense as a circular building), it does not have walls making a cella or room inside. In Greek and especially Roman antiquity the term could also be used for a tholos. In ancient times monopteroi (Ancient Greek: οἱ μονόπτεροι) served inter alia as a form of baldachin for a cult image. An example of this is the Monument of Lysicrates in Athens, albeit the spaces between the columns were walled in, even in ancient times. The Temple of Rome and Augustus on the Athenian Acropolis is a monopteros from Roman times with open spaces between the columns. Cyriacus von Ancona, a 15th-century traveller, handed down his architrave inscription: Ad praefatae Palladis Templi vestibulum.
In baroque and classicist architecture, a monopteros as a pavilion, often given a classical name such as a "muses' temple" is a popular garden feature in English and French gardens. The monopteros also occurs in German parks, as in the English Garden in Munich and in Hayns Park in Hamburg-Eppendorf. Many wells in parks and spa centres have the appearance of a monopteros. Many monopteroi have staffage structures like a porticus, placed in front of the monopteros. These also have only a decorative function, because they are not needed in order to provide an entrance to a temple that is open on all sides.
Many monopteroi are described as rotundas due to their circular floor plan. The tholos also goes by that name. However, many monopteroi have square or polygonal plans, that would not be described as rotundas. An example is the Muses' Temple with the muse, Polyhymnia, in the grounds of Tiefurt House, that has a hexagonal floor plan.Neuschwanstein Castle
Neuschwanstein Castle (German: Schloss Neuschwanstein, pronounced [nɔʏˈʃvaːnʃtaɪn], Southern Bavarian: Schloss Neischwanstoa) is a 19th-century Romanesque Revival palace on a rugged hill above the village of Hohenschwangau near Füssen in southwest Bavaria, Germany. The palace was commissioned by Ludwig II of Bavaria as a retreat and in honour of Richard Wagner. Ludwig paid for the palace out of his personal fortune and by means of extensive borrowing, rather than Bavarian public funds.
The castle was intended as a home for the king, until he died in 1886. It was open to the public shortly after his death. Since then more than 61 million people have visited Neuschwanstein Castle. More than 1.3 million people visit annually, with as many as 6,000 per day in the summer.Palace
A palace is a grand residence, especially a royal residence, or the home of a head of state or some other high-ranking dignitary, such as a bishop or archbishop.The word is derived from the Latin name Palātium, for Palatine Hill in Rome which housed the Imperial residences. Most European languages have a version of the term (palais, palazzo, palacio etc.), and many use it for a wider range of buildings than English. In many parts of Europe, the equivalent term is also applied to large private houses in cities, especially of the aristocracy; often the term for a large country house is different. Many historic palaces are now put to other uses such as parliaments, museums, hotels, or office buildings. The word is also sometimes used to describe a lavishly ornate building used for public entertainment or exhibitions, such as a movie palace.The Bird Seller (1962 film)
The Bird Seller (German: Der Vogelhändler) is a 1962 West German musical comedy film directed by Géza von Cziffra and starring Cornelia Froboess, Peter Weck and Albert Rueprecht.It is an operetta film, based on the stage work of the same title by Carl Zeller. Several other film adaptations have also been made.
It was shot at the CCC Studios in Berlin and at Linderhof Palace in Bavaria. The film's sets were designed by the art director Rolf Zehetbauer.
Buildings associated with Ludwig II of Bavaria