Lincoln Borglum

James Lincoln de la Mothe Borglum (April 9, 1912 – January 27, 1986) was an American sculptor, photographer, author and engineer; he was best known for overseeing the completion of the Mount Rushmore National Memorial after the death in 1941 of the project's leader, his father, Gutzon Borglum. One of his best-known works, a bust of his father, is on display outside the Lincoln Borglum Visitors Center at Mount Rushmore.[1][2]

Lincoln Borglum
James Lincoln de la Mothe Borglum

April 9, 1912
DiedJanuary 27, 1986 (aged 73)
Known forSculpture, photography

Life and career

Named after his father's favorite president, Abraham Lincoln, and called by his middle name, Lincoln Borglum was the first child of Gutzon Borglum and his second wife, Mary Montgomery Williams (1874-1955). During his youth, Lincoln accompanied his father to the Black Hills of South Dakota and was present when the site for the Mount Rushmore monument was selected. Although he had originally planned to study engineering at the University of Virginia, Lincoln Borglum began work on the monument in 1933 at the age of 21 as an unpaid pointer. Lincoln Borglum quickly moved into a series of more important jobs: He was put on the payroll in 1934, promoted to assistant sculptor in 1937, and promoted to superintendent in 1938 with an annual salary of $4,800.[1] [3]

Gutzon Borglum had nearly completed the 60-foot heads of the four presidents (Washington, Jefferson, Lincoln and T. Roosevelt) when he died [4] on March 6, 1941. Lincoln Borglum had to abandon his father's ambitious plans to carry the work down to include the torsos of the presidents and an entablature due to a lack of funding; he left the monument largely in the state of completion it had reached under his father's direction.[1]

Borglum was appointed Mount Rushmore National Memorial's first superintendent and began serving on October 1, 1941. The work on the monument officially stopped on October 31, 1941. He served in that capacity until May 15, 1944.[1]

Borglum continued to work as a sculptor after leaving Mount Rushmore. He created several religious works for churches in Texas, including the well-known shrine Our Lady of Loreto in Goliad. Borglum also wrote three books about the sculpting of Mount Rushmore.[1]

Lincoln Borglum was a member of Battle River Masonic Lodge No. 92 in Hermosa, South Dakota.[5] Like many of the men who worked on the Rushmore project, Borglum's lungs were permanently scarred from breathing in granite dust associated with the blasting. Borglum died in Corpus Christi, Texas, at the age of 73.[6]

Selected works

  • My Father's Mountain (1965)
  • Borglum's Unfinished Dream (Co-written with June Culp Zeitner, 1976)
  • Mount Rushmore: The Story Behind the Scenery (1977)

Notes and references

  1. ^ a b c d e "People & Events: Lincoln Borglum (1912-1986)". Retrieved 2007-09-16.
  2. ^ "Sculptor Gutzon Borglum" (PDF). Retrieved March 10, 2016.
  3. ^ "Biography: Lincoln Borglum". American Experience Online. Retrieved March 10, 2016.
  4. ^ "Gutzon Borglum". Retrieved 2007-09-16.
  5. ^ Famous Masons of the 20th Century
  6. ^ "James Lincoln de la Mothe Borglum Passes Away". masonrytoday. Retrieved March 10, 2016.

External links

1941 in art

The year 1941 in art involved some significant events and new works.

Arthur C. Morgan

Arthur C. Morgan (1904–1994) was an American sculptor, mostly of Louisiana political and business figures. Morgan's work can be seen across his home state of Louisiana and in the Capitol Visitor Center, Washington, DC. He and his wife Gladys B. Morgan ran an art school, the Southwestern Institute of Arts, in their Shreveport home for over forty years.


Borglum can refer to:

Børglum, Danish village in Northern Jutland, formerly the location of a Catholic bishopric

Børglum Abbey

Ancient See of Børglum

Gutzon Borglum (1867 – 1941), American sculptor, famous for creating the monumental presidents' heads at Mount Rushmore

Lincoln Borglum (1912 – 1986), American sculptor, son of Gutzon and first superintendent of Mount Rushmore National Memorial

Solon Borglum (1868 – 1922), American sculptor most noted for his depiction of frontier life, brother of Gutzon and uncle of Lincoln

Lene Børglum (born 1961), Danish film producer

The Bishop of Börglum and his Men (Bispen på Børglum og hans frænde), a short story, see Hans Christian Andersen bibliography

Crazy Horse Memorial

The Crazy Horse Memorial is a mountain monument under construction on privately held land in the Black Hills, in Custer County, South Dakota, United States. It will depict the Oglala Lakota warrior, Crazy Horse, riding a horse and pointing into the distance. The memorial was commissioned by Henry Standing Bear, a Lakota elder, to be sculpted by Korczak Ziolkowski. It is operated by the Crazy Horse Memorial Foundation, a nonprofit organization.

The memorial master plan includes the mountain carving monument, an Indian Museum of North America, and a Native American Cultural Center. The monument is being carved out of Thunderhead Mountain, on land considered sacred by some Oglala Lakota, between Custer and Hill City, roughly 17 miles (27 km) from Mount Rushmore. The sculpture's final dimensions are planned to be 641 feet (195 m) long and 563 feet (172 m) high. The arm of Crazy Horse will be 263 feet (80 m) long and the head 87 feet (27 m) high; by comparison, the heads of the four U.S. Presidents at Mount Rushmore are each 60 feet (18 m) high.

The monument has been in progress since 1948 and is far from completion. If completed as designed, it would become the world's second tallest statue, after the Statue of Unity.

Gutzon Borglum

John Gutzon de la Mothe Borglum (March 25, 1867 – March 6, 1941) was an American artist and sculptor. He is most associated with his creation of the Mount Rushmore National Memorial in Keystone, South Dakota. He was associated with other public works of art, including a bust of Abraham Lincoln exhibited in the White House by Theodore Roosevelt and now held in the United States Capitol Crypt in Washington, D.C..

Harvey W. Scott (sculpture)

Harvey W. Scott, or simply Harvey Scott, is a 1933 bronze sculpture by Gutzon Borglum depicting American pioneer, newspaper editor and historian Harvey W. Scott, located at Mount Tabor Park in the Mount Tabor neighborhood of Portland, Oregon.

Hermosa Masonic Lodge

Hermosa Masonic Lodge is an historic Masonic building located in Hermosa, South Dakota, United States. In 1926 Battle River Lodge No. 92 of Hermosa bought the 1889 Hermosa School, stripped it of its brick veneer, belfry and end gable and moved it to what is now 33 North 2nd Street where the remaining wooden shell was converted into a lodge hall. The exterior walls were stuccoed and a false front was added.Lincoln Borglum, who became the first superintendent of Mount Rushmore after the death of his father in 1941, was a member of Battle River Masonic Lodge No. 92.The building was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 2009.

Indian and the Puritan

Indian and the Puritan is a historic monument by Gutzon Borglum opposite 5 Washington Street at Washington Park in Newark, Essex County, New Jersey, United States.

It was constructed in 1916 and added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1994.

Korczak Ziolkowski

Korczak Ziolkowski (Polish: Korczak Ziółkowski; September 6, 1908 – October 20, 1982) was the Polish-American designer and sculptor of the Crazy Horse Memorial.

Lincoln Borglum Museum

The Lincoln Borglum Museum is located in the Mount Rushmore National Memorial near Keystone, South Dakota. It features two 125-seat theaters that show a 13-minute movie about Mount Rushmore. One of the best viewpoints is located at Grandview Terrace, above the Museum. The Presidential Trail, a walking trail and boardwalk, starts at Grandview Terrace and winds through the Ponderosa pine forests to the Sculptor's Studio, providing close-up views of the memorial. The Sculptor's studio was built by Gutzon Borglum, and features discussion about the construction of the monument as well as the tools used. The amphitheater also has a 30-minute program at dusk that describes the construction of the memorial. Following that, the mountain is illuminated for two hours.

List of artworks on stamps of the United States

This article lists people whose artwork has been featured on stamps of the United States. For this purpose "featured" is not limited to complete works but includes any identifiable representation of their works. Thus the "Geophysical Year" stamp of 1958 is considered to feature the work of Michelangelo because it shows two hands from his The Creation of Adam. The "issue year" refers to the year when that person's work listed appeared on a stamp of the United States. Many artists have had the same work appear on different U.S. postages stamps and many artists have had multiple works appear on U.S. postage stamps.

The list does not include artists who were commissioned by the U.S. Post Office Department (or its successor, the United States Postal Service) to specifically create artwork for a postage stamp. Scenes from American history, famous Americans, and traditional Christmas images are postage stamp themes frequently employing original artwork.

The main references for the list are: National Postal Museum online database "Arago: Philately", the Colnect Worldwide Stamp Catalog, and the US Stamp Gallery.

List of museums in South Dakota

This list of museums in South Dakota encompasses museums defined for this context as institutions (including nonprofit organizations, government entities, and private businesses) that collect and care for objects of cultural, artistic, scientific, or historical interest and make their collections or related exhibits available for public viewing. Museums that exist only in cyberspace (i.e., virtual museums) are not included.

To use the sortable table, click on the icons at the top of each column to sort that column in alphabetical order; click again for reverse alphabetical order.

Mount Rushmore

Mount Rushmore National Memorial is centered around a sculpture carved into the granite face of Mount Rushmore in the Black Hills in Keystone, South Dakota. Sculptor Gutzon Borglum created the sculpture's design and oversaw the project's execution from 1927 to 1941 with the help of his son Lincoln Borglum. The sculpture features the 60-foot (18 m) heads of Presidents George Washington (1732–1799), Thomas Jefferson (1743–1826), Theodore Roosevelt (1858–1919), and Abraham Lincoln (1809–1865). The four presidents were chosen, respectively, to represent the birth, the growth, the development, and the preservation of the United States. The memorial park covers 1,278.45 acres (2.00 sq mi; 5.17 km2) and is 5,725 feet (1,745 m) above sea level.South Dakota historian Doane Robinson is credited with conceiving the idea of carving the likenesses of famous people into the Black Hills region of South Dakota in order to promote tourism in the region. His initial idea was to sculpt the Needles; however, Gutzon Borglum rejected the Needles because of the poor quality of the granite and strong opposition from Native American groups. They settled on Mount Rushmore, which also has the advantage of facing southeast for maximum sun exposure. Robinson wanted it to feature American West heroes such as Lewis and Clark, Red Cloud, and Buffalo Bill Cody, but Borglum decided that the sculpture should have broader appeal and chose the four presidents.

US Senator for South Dakota Peter Norbeck sponsored the project and secured federal funding; construction began in 1927, and the presidents' faces were completed between 1934 and 1939. Gutzon Borglum died in March 1941, and his son Lincoln took over as leader of the construction project. Each president was originally to be depicted from head to waist, but lack of funding forced construction to end on October 31, 1941.Sometimes referred to as the "Shrine of Democracy", Mount Rushmore attracts more than two million visitors annually.

Norbeck-Williamson Act of 1929

Norbeck-Williamson Act of 1929 established the Mount Rushmore National Memorial Commission defining the powers and purpose of the twelve member committee. The Act of Congress authorized the Mount Harney Memorial Association of South Dakota to stone carve models of George Washington, Thomas Jefferson, Abraham Lincoln, and Theodore Roosevelt in the Harney National Forest. The granite sculpture was to be created in accordance with the rock relief designs by Gutzon Borglum.

The Senate legislation was passed by the 70th United States Congressional session and enacted into law by the 30th President of the United States Calvin Coolidge on February 29, 1929.

Sculpture of the United States

The history of sculpture in the United States begins in the 1600s "with the modest efforts of craftsmen who adorned gravestones, Bible boxes, and various utilitarian objects with simple low-relief decorations." American sculpture in its many forms, genres and guises has continuously contributed to the cultural landscape of world art into the 21st century.

Seated Lincoln (Borglum)

Seated Lincoln is a memorial sculpture by Gutzon Borglum located next to the Essex County Courthouse in Newark, Essex County, New Jersey, United States. The bronze sculpture of Abraham Lincoln seated at one end of a bench was dedicated by President Theodore Roosevelt on Memorial Day 1911.The work was funded by a $25,000 bequest by Newark businessman Amos Hoagland Van Horn, who also funded Borglum's Wars of America monument, also located in Newark. It was added to the National Register of Historic Places on March 30, 1995.

Solon Borglum

Solon Hannibal de la Mothe Borglum (December 22, 1868 – January 31, 1922) was an American sculptor. He is most noted for his depiction of frontier life, and especially his experience with cowboys and native Americans.

He was awarded the Croix de Guerre by France for his work with Les Foyers du Soldat service clubs during World War I.

The Aviator (Charlottesville, Virginia)

The Aviator is a historic sculpture located on the University of Virginia campus near Charlottesville, Albemarle County, Virginia.

Timeline of South Dakota

This timeline of South Dakota is a list of events in the history of South Dakota by year.

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