Lincoln, Massachusetts

Lincoln is a town in Middlesex County, Massachusetts, United States. The population was 6,400 according to 2010 estimates, including residents of Hanscom Air Force Base that live within town limits. Lincoln is among the wealthiest towns in the United States.

Lincoln, Massachusetts
Codman House
Codman House
Official seal of Lincoln, Massachusetts

Location in Middlesex County in Massachusetts
Location in Middlesex County in Massachusetts
Coordinates: 42°25′33″N 71°18′16″W / 42.42583°N 71.30444°WCoordinates: 42°25′33″N 71°18′16″W / 42.42583°N 71.30444°W
CountryUnited States
 • TypeOpen town meeting
 • Total15.0 sq mi (38.9 km2)
 • Land14.4 sq mi (37.2 km2)
 • Water0.6 sq mi (1.7 km2)
258 ft (79 m)
 • Total6,362
 • Density555.1/sq mi (214.9/km2)
Time zoneUTC-5 (Eastern)
 • Summer (DST)UTC-4 (Eastern)
ZIP code
Area code(s)339 / 781
FIPS code25-35425
GNIS feature ID0619402


Lincoln was settled by Europeans in 1654, as a part of Concord. The majority of Lincoln was formed by splitting off a substantial piece of southeast Concord, and incorporated as a separate town in 1754. Due to their "difficulties and inconveniences by reason of their distance from the places of Public Worship in their respective Towns," local inhabitants petitioned the General Court to be set apart as a separate town. Because the new town was composed of parts "nipped" off from the adjacent towns of Concord, Weston (which itself had been part of Watertown) and Lexington (which itself had been part of Cambridge), it was sometimes referred to as "Niptown."[1]

Chambers Russell, a Representative in the Court in Boston, was influential in the town's creation. In gratitude, Russell was asked to name the new town. He chose Lincoln, after his family home in Lincolnshire, England. His homestead in Lincoln was later known as the Codman House property, which was occupied after his death by his relatives, the Codman family.

Lincoln is reportedly the only town in America named after Lincoln, England (and not the Revolutionary War Major General, Benjamin Lincoln or President Abraham Lincoln),[2] although Lincoln, New Hampshire was named for the 9th Earl of Lincoln, an English nobleman and incorporated in 1764, 45 years before Abraham Lincoln's birth.

Paul Revere was captured by British soldiers in Lincoln on the night of April 18, 1775. Minutemen from Lincoln were the first to arrive to reinforce the colonists protecting American stores of ammunition and arms in Concord. Colonel Abijah Pierce of Lincoln led his troops, armed with a cane. He upgraded his weapon to a British musket after the battle. Five British soldiers who fell in Lincoln are buried in the town cemetery.

Reverend Charles Stearns (1753–1826), a Harvard-trained minister, served the Congregational Church in Lincoln from late 1781 until his death. Only a handful of his sermons were printed, most in the early 19th century. In addition, Stearns was principal of the Liberal School, a relatively progressive and coeducational institution that opened in early 1793. While at the school, Stearns wrote and published a number of education-related works, including Dramatic Dialogues for Use in Schools (1798), a collection of 30 original plays that were performed by the students. After the school closed in 1808, Stearns continued to tutor students privately. Among his pupils were Nathan Brooks, a Concord lawyer, and George Russell, a Lincoln physician. Stearns's published works can be accessed at Early American Imprints, a microform and digital collection produced by the American Antiquarian Society. A summary article that surveys Stearns as a producer of children's drama is The Dramatic Dialogues of Charles Stearns: An Appreciation by Jonathan Levy, in Spotlight on the Child: Studies in the History of American Children’s Theatre, ed. Roger L. Bedard and C. John Tolch (New York: Greenwood, 1989): 5-24.


Lincoln has a total area of 15.0 square miles (39 km2), of which 14.4 square miles (37 km2) is land and 0.6 square miles (1.6 km2) is water, representing 4.26% of the town's total area. (Source: United States Census Bureau).


Historical population
* = population estimate.
Source: United States Census records and Population Estimates Program data.[3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10][11][12]

At the 2000 census,[13] there were 8,056 people, 2,790 households and 2,254 families residing in the town. The population density was 560.7 per square mile (216.5/km²). There were 2,911 housing units at an average density of 202.6 per square mile (78.2/km²). The racial makeup of the town was 87.16% White, 4.84% African American, 0.38% Native American, 4.17% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 1.33% from other races, and 2.09% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.97% of the population. The 21.03% drop in population between the 2010 and 2000 censuses was the largest of any municipality in Massachusetts.

There were 2,790 households of which 45.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 73.4% were married couples living together, 5.4% had a female householder with no husband present, and 19.2% were non-families. 15.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 7.0% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.83 and the average family size was 3.18.

Age distribution was 30.7% under the age of 18, 5.4% from 18 to 24, 31.2% from 25 to 44, 21.7% from 45 to 64, and 11.0% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 35 years. For every 100 females, there were 94.5 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 90.7 males.

The median household income was $120,844, and median family income was $202,704. Males had a median income of $142,788 versus $61,786 for females. The per capita income for the town was $74,402. About 0.3% of families and 0.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 0.2% of those under age 18 and 2.4% of those age 65 or over.

The majority of the land in the town is zoned for residential and agricultural use.

Points of interest


Commuter rail service from Boston's North Station is provided by the MBTA with a stop in Lincoln on its Fitchburg Line.[14]

In popular culture

Lincoln is featured prominently in the 2013 video game The Last of Us, although in the game evacuation placards and signs indicate that Lincoln is part of Amherst County, which does not exist. Amherst is a city approximately 75 miles west of Lincoln.

The 1988 They Might Be Giants album Lincoln is named after the town, childhood home of band founders John Linnell and John Flansburgh.

Notable people

See also


  1. ^ p.27 (p.63 of the PDF)
  2. ^ "Town History". Lincoln Historical Society. Retrieved 22 June 2016.
  3. ^ "Total Population (P1), 2010 Census Summary File 1". American FactFinder, All County Subdivisions within Massachusetts. United States Census Bureau. 2010.
  4. ^ "Massachusetts by Place and County Subdivision - GCT-T1. Population Estimates". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved July 12, 2011.
  5. ^ "1990 Census of Population, General Population Characteristics: Massachusetts" (PDF). US Census Bureau. December 1990. Table 76: General Characteristics of Persons, Households, and Families: 1990. 1990 CP-1-23. Retrieved July 12, 2011.
  6. ^ "1980 Census of the Population, Number of Inhabitants: Massachusetts" (PDF). US Census Bureau. December 1981. Table 4. Populations of County Subdivisions: 1960 to 1980. PC80-1-A23. Retrieved July 12, 2011.
  7. ^ "1950 Census of Population" (PDF). Bureau of the Census. 1952. Section 6, Pages 21-10 and 21-11, Massachusetts Table 6. Population of Counties by Minor Civil Divisions: 1930 to 1950. Retrieved July 12, 2011.
  8. ^ "1920 Census of Population" (PDF). Bureau of the Census. Number of Inhabitants, by Counties and Minor Civil Divisions. Pages 21-5 through 21-7. Massachusetts Table 2. Population of Counties by Minor Civil Divisions: 1920, 1910, and 1920. Retrieved July 12, 2011.
  9. ^ "1890 Census of the Population" (PDF). Department of the Interior, Census Office. Pages 179 through 182. Massachusetts Table 5. Population of States and Territories by Minor Civil Divisions: 1880 and 1890. Retrieved July 12, 2011.
  10. ^ "1870 Census of the Population" (PDF). Department of the Interior, Census Office. 1872. Pages 217 through 220. Table IX. Population of Minor Civil Divisions, &c. Massachusetts. Retrieved July 12, 2011.
  11. ^ "1860 Census" (PDF). Department of the Interior, Census Office. 1864. Pages 220 through 226. State of Massachusetts Table No. 3. Populations of Cities, Towns, &c. Retrieved July 12, 2011.
  12. ^ "1850 Census" (PDF). Department of the Interior, Census Office. 1854. Pages 338 through 393. Populations of Cities, Towns, &c. Retrieved July 12, 2011.
  13. ^ "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2008-01-31.
  14. ^ MBTA Accessed August 31, 2007.

Further reading

External links

Camp Lincoln (Massachusetts)

Camp Lincoln was an American Civil War camp that existed in 1861 in Worcester, Massachusetts. It was located on the Agricultural Fairgrounds, around the Elm Park neighborhood. It was named after Levi Lincoln Jr., the 13th Governor of Massachusetts and 1st Mayor of Worcester. In 1862, the camp was renamed Camp Wool, in honor of John E. Wool, the oldest general in the regular army.

Codman House

The Codman House (also known as The Grange) is a historic house set on a 16-acre (6.5 ha) estate at 36 Codman Road, Lincoln, Massachusetts. Thanks to a gift by Dorothy Codman, it has been owned by Historic New England since 1969 and is open to the public June 1–October 15 on the second and fourth Saturdays of the month. An admission fee is charged.

The main house was originally Georgian in style and was built in approximately 1735 by Chambers Russell I, Esq., the de facto founder of Lincoln, Massachusetts.. It was enlarged in the 1790s to its current three-story Federal style by John Codman, brother-in-law of Chambers Russell III and executor of his estate. This was perhaps with some involvement of noted American architect Charles Bulfinch. The interior is extensively furnished with portraits, memorabilia, and art works collected in Europe. Various rooms preserve the decorative schemes of every era, including those of noted interior designer Ogden Codman, Jr.

The former carriage house, built c. 1870 to a design by Snell and Gregerson, is also located on the property. Until the 1980s, it was original to its use as a stable and an early auto garage and contained many artifacts of both. A few of those artifacts continue to be on display in the carriage house including an early gas pump and a large machine powered lathe.

The grounds have been farmed almost continuously since 1735 and now also include an Italian garden, circa 1899, with perennial beds, statuary, and a reflecting pool filled with waterlilies, as well as an English cottage garden, circa 1930.

The Codman Estate was added to the National Register of Historic Places as "The Grange" in 1974.

David Herbert Donald

David Herbert Donald (October 1, 1920 – May 17, 2009) was an American historian, best known for his 1995 biography of Abraham Lincoln. He twice won the Pulitzer Prize for Biography for earlier works; he published more than 30 books on United States political and literary figures and the history of the American South.

DeCordova Museum and Sculpture Park

DeCordova Sculpture Park and Museum is a 30-acre sculpture park and contemporary art museum on the shore of Flint's Pond in Lincoln, Massachusetts. Established in 1950, it is the largest park of its kind in New England encompassing 30 acres, 20 miles northwest of Boston. DeCordova's mission is to foster the creation, exhibition, and exploration of contemporary sculpture and art through exhibitions, learning opportunities, collection, and a unique park setting.

Providing a constantly changing landscape of large-scale, outdoor, modern and contemporary sculpture and site-specific installations, the Sculpture Park hosts more than 60 works, the majority of which are on loan to the Museum. Inside, the Museum features a robust slate of rotating exhibitions. DeCordova's permanent collection focuses on works in all media, with particular emphasis on photography and works by artists with connections to New England.

Erika deLone

Erika deLone (born October 14, 1972) is an American retired professional tennis player. She turned professional on June 9, 1992. She reached one WTA Tour singles final in her career, finishing runner-up to Åsa Svensson at the Wismilak International in 1999. In April 2000, she reached her career high singles rank of World No. 65.

DeLone won one WTA Tour doubles title in her career, winning the 2000 Heineken Trophy in 's-Hertogenbosch partnering Australian Nicole Pratt. She reached her career high doubles ranking of World No. 45 in December 2000. In 2003 she retired from professional tennis. Her sister Amy was a professional tennis player as well.

Greg Hawkes

Gregory A. "Greg" Hawkes (born October 22, 1952) is an American musician best known as the keyboardist for the rock band The Cars.

Hawkes, a native of Fulton, Maryland, attended Atholton High School where he played in a band called Teeth. He then attended Berklee College of Music for two years, majoring in composition and flute. He left to play in various bands, including Martin Mull and his Fabulous Furniture, where he played flute, saxophone, and clarinet. He also played in a band called Richard and the Rabbits, which included future Cars bandmates Ric Ocasek and Benjamin Orr. He was the last member to join the Cars. Hawkes was also in the New Cars with original Cars member Elliot Easton, along with vocalist/guitarist Todd Rundgren, bassist Kasim Sulton, and drummer Prairie Prince. In 2018, Hawkes was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame as a member of the Cars.

Gropius House

The Gropius House was the family residence of architect Walter Gropius at 68 Baker Bridge Road, Lincoln, Massachusetts. It is now a historic house museum, owned by Historic New England, and is open to the public. It was designated a National Historic Landmark in 2000 for its association with Gropius, an influential teacher and leader of Modernist philosophy of architecture. The house includes a collection of Bauhaus-related materials that is unparalleled outside Germany.

Hanscom Air Force Base

Hanscom Air Force Base (AFB) (IATA: BED, ICAO: KBED, FAA LID: BED) is a United States Air Force base located predominantly within Bedford, Massachusetts, with portions extending into the adjoining towns of Lincoln, Concord and Lexington. The facility is adjacent to Hanscom Field which provides general aviation and charter service.

Hanscom AFB is the part of the Air Force Life Cycle Management Center, one of six centers under Air Force Materiel Command (AFMC). The Air Force Life Cycle Management Center is the single center responsible for total life cycle management of Air Force weapon systems and is headquartered at Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio. The host unit at Hanscom is the 66th Air Base Group (66 ABG) assigned to AFMC.

J. Waldo Smith

Jonas Waldo Smith (March 9, 1861 – October 14, 1933) was an American civil engineer and chief engineer on the Board of Water Supply of New York from 1905 to 1922. He was awarded the 1918 John Fritz Medal.

John Flansburgh

John Conant Flansburgh (born May 6, 1960) is an American musician. He is half of the long-standing Brooklyn, New York-based alternative rock duo They Might Be Giants, for which he writes, sings, and plays rhythm guitar.

Commonly referred to by the nicknames Flans or Flansy, he is married to musician Robin Goldwasser, with whom he occasionally performs.

John Linnell

John Sidney Linnell (born June 12, 1959) is an American musician, known primarily as one half of the Brooklyn-based alternative rock band They Might Be Giants. In addition to singing and songwriting, he plays accordion, baritone and bass saxophone, clarinet, and keyboards for the group.

Linnell's lyrics include strange subject matter and word play. Persistent themes include aging, delusional behavior, bad relationships, death, and the personification of inanimate objects. Conversely, the accompanying melodies are usually cascading and upbeat.

Julia Glass

Julia Glass (born March 23, 1956) is an American novelist. Her debut novel, Three Junes, won the National Book Award for Fiction in 2002.Glass followed Three Junes with a second novel, The Whole World Over, in 2006, set in the same Bank Street–Greenwich Village universe, with three interwoven stories featuring several characters from Three Junes. Her third novel, I See You Everywhere, was published in 2008; her fourth, The Widower's Tale, in 2010; and her fifth, And the Dark Sacred Night, in 2014.

Glass was born in Boston, grew up in Belmont, Massachusetts and Lincoln, Massachusetts, and attended Concord Academy. She graduated from Yale in 1978. Intending to become a painter, she moved to New York City, where she lived for many years, painting in a small studio in Brooklyn and supporting herself as a freelance editor and copy editor, including several years in the copy department of Cosmopolitan magazine. She lives in Marblehead, Massachusetts, with her partner, the photographer Dennis Cowley, and their two children, and works as a freelance journalist and editor. She is a previous winner of the William Faulkner - William Wisdom Creative Writing Competition.

Maggie Hassan

Margaret C. Hassan (; née Wood; born February 27, 1958) is an American politician and junior United States Senator from New Hampshire. A Democrat, Hassan was elected to the Senate in the 2016 election. She was the 81st Governor of New Hampshire, from 2013 to 2017.Born in Boston, Massachusetts, Hassan is a graduate of Brown University and earned a J.D. from the Northeastern University School of Law. After graduating from law school in 1985, Hassan was a healthcare executive in Boston.

Hassan first ran for the New Hampshire Senate in 2002 after Democratic Party leaders recruited her. She lost to incumbent Senator Russell Prescott but ran against Prescott again in 2004 and won. Hassan was elected to a total of three two-year terms, representing New Hampshire's 23rd district from January 2005 to December 2010. Hassan became the Majority Leader in the State Senate in 2008 before losing re-election in a 2010 rematch with Prescott.Hassan declared her candidacy for governor in October 2011. Hassan defeated former State Senator Jacalyn Cilley in the Democratic primary and faced attorney and Republican nominee Ovide M. Lamontagne in the general election. Hassan won with 55% of the vote, becoming the state's second female governor. Hassan won re-election in 2014. Since becoming Governor of New Hampshire, Hassan was elected Vice Chair of the Democratic Governors Association and served as a superdelegate at the Democratic National Convention.In 2016, Hassan ran for the U.S. Senate and narrowly defeated Kelly Ayotte, the Republican incumbent, by approximately a thousand votes (about 0.1% of the vote). She is serving with Jeanne Shaheen, another former governor; New Hampshire's Senate delegation shares this distinction with that of Virginia (composed of former governors Mark Warner and Tim Kaine).

Massachusetts Route 126

Route 126 is a north–south state highway in Massachusetts.

Mount Lincoln (Massachusetts)

Mount Lincoln, 1,240 feet (380 m), is a high point on the Pelham Dome or Pelham Hills, an upland plateau overlooking the Connecticut River Valley in Pelham, Massachusetts (near Amherst, Massachusetts). The mountain is mostly wooded, but a fire tower located on the summit provides views of the Holyoke Range and the east-central Pioneer Valley. The summit, located within the University of Massachusetts Amherst's 1,200-acre (490 ha) Cadwell Memorial Forest, is traversed by the Metacomet-Monadnock Trail and is the home of the Five Colleges radio station beacon.

The west side of Mount Lincoln drains into Hop Brook and Amethyst Brook, thence into Fort River, the Connecticut River, and Long Island Sound. The east side drains into Jabish Brook, following its course into Belchertown, Massachusetts where the watershed splits into the Jabish Canal and Jabish Brook. The Jabish Canal flows into Broad Brook, thence into the Chicopee River, the Connecticut River, and Long Island Sound; Jabish Brook flows into the Swift River, the Ware River, thence the Chicopee River, Connecticut River, and Long Island Sound.

Sleepycat Software

Sleepycat Software, Inc. was the software company primarily responsible for maintaining the Berkeley DB packages from 1996 to 2006.

Berkeley DB is freely-licensed database software originally developed at the University of California, Berkeley for 4.4BSD Unix. Developers from that project founded Sleepycat in 1996 to provide commercial support after a request by Netscape to provide new features in the software. In February 2006, Sleepycat was acquired by Oracle Corporation, which has continued developing Berkeley DB.The founders of the company were spouses Margo Seltzer and Keith Bostic, who are also original authors of Berkeley DB. Another original author, Michael Olson, was the President and CEO of Sleepycat. They were all at University of California, Berkeley, where they developed the software that grew to become Berkeley DB. Sleepycat was originally based in Carlisle, Massachusetts and moved to Lincoln, Massachusetts.Sleepycat distributed Berkeley DB under a proprietary software license that included standard commercial features, and simultaneously under the newly created Sleepycat License, which allows open source use and distribution of Berkeley DB with a copyleft redistribution condition similar to the GNU General Public License.Sleepycat had offices in California, Massachusetts and the United Kingdom, and was profitable during its entire existence.


WYAJ (97.7 FM, "Over the Edge Radio") is a radio station licensed to serve Sudbury, Massachusetts. The station is owned by Lincoln-Sudbury Regional High School and licensed to the Sudbury Valley Broadcasting Foundation. It airs a high school radio format.Greg Hill, host of the Hill-man Morning Show on WAAF in Boston, got his start in radio on WYAJ when he was hired by student station manager Richard Lyons (host of the Megarock Show and one of the first on-air personalities in 1980). [1]

Geoff Scott, former WBZ-FM traffic reporter in Boston and 20-year Northwest radio icon (Afternoons, Rock 94.5 KHTQ & Evenings, Rock106 KEZE Spokane, Washington) also got his start in broadcasting on WYAJ as host of "The Brainmelter Show" (1982-1988).Other 1980s' alumni of WYAJ include American music industry executive Gerard Cosloy; future Hüsker Dü manager David Savoy; Vermont Public Radio reporter Amy Kolb Noyes; WENY sportscaster and Emmy award-winning Fox Sports producer Mike Isenberg.

Alumni from the 1990s include John Cavooto, well-known comic book writer; Jennifer Schandlemyer, fitness model; and Robert Marco Jr., Zoophilia legalization advocate.

The station was assigned the WYAJ call letters by the Federal Communications Commission.The station has a very small reach due to WKAF, a much stronger signal from Brockton, Massachusetts, interefering with WYAJ even in some parts of Sudbury.

Due to student disinterest in 2014 the station shut down and left the airwaves.

Walden Woods Project

The Walden Woods Project (WWP) is a nonprofit organization located in Lincoln, Massachusetts, devoted to the legacy of Henry David Thoreau and the preservation of Walden Woods, the forest around Walden Pond that spans Lincoln and Concord, Massachusetts. It was founded in 1990 by rock artist Don Henley to prevent two development projects in Walden Woods. Its mission has since expanded from conservation to research and education on the works of Henry David Thoreau. In 1998 the Thoreau Institute at Walden Woods was founded as part of the Project; today its library houses a collection of Thoreau-related resources.

Walter Gropius

Walter Adolph Georg Gropius (18 May 1883 – 5 July 1969) was a German architect and founder of the Bauhaus School, who, along with Alvar Aalto, Ludwig Mies van der Rohe, Le Corbusier and Frank Lloyd Wright, is widely regarded as one of the pioneering masters of modernist architecture. Gropius was also a leading architect of the International Style.

Municipalities and communities of Middlesex County, Massachusetts, United States


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