Limyra (Ancient Greek: Λιμύρα) was a small city in ancient Lycia on the southern coast of Asia Minor, on the Limyrus River. Already flourishing in the second millennium BCE, the city was one of the oldest and most prosperous in Lycia; it gradually became one of the finest trade settlements in Greece.

In the 4th century BCE Pericles adopted it as the capital of the Lycian League; subsequently it came under control of the Persian Empire.[1][2][3] After Alexander the Great ended Persian rule, most of Lycia was ruled by Ptolemy I Soter; his son Ptolemy II Philadelphos supported the Limyrans against the invading Galatians and the inhabitants dedicated a monument, the Ptolemaion, to him in thanks.

The five necropolises from this period demonstrate the city's importance. The mausoleum of Pericles is particularly notable for its fine reliefs and exquisite sculptures such as Perseus slaying Medusa and one of her sisters.[3]

Limyra is mentioned by Strabo (XIV, 666), Ptolemy (V, 3, 6) and several Latin authors. Gaius Caesar, adopted son of Augustus, died there (Velleius Paterculus, II, 102).

The Romans cut a theater into the hill which held 8000 spectators. It was commissioned in the second century AD by important Lycian benefactor named Opramoas of Rhodiapolis. Also from this period are a bathhouse with a complex heating system and the colonnaded streets. The Roman Bridge at Limyra, east of the city, is one of the oldest segmental arch bridges in the world.[4]

Limyra Theater
Limyra Theater
Limyra is located in Turkey
Shown within Turkey
LocationAntalya Province, Turkey
Coordinates36°20′38″N 30°10′17″E / 36.343873°N 30.171289°E
Site notes
ConditionIn ruins

Ecclesiastical history

Limyra is mentioned as a bishopric in Notitiæ Episcopatuum down to the 12th and 13th centuries as a suffragan of the metropolitan of Myra.

Six bishops are known: Diotimus, mentioned by St. Basil (ep. CCXVIII); Lupicinus, present at the First Council of Constantinople, 381; Stephen, at the Council of Chalcedon (451); Theodore, at the Second Council of Constantinople in 553; Leo, at the Second Council of Nicaea in 787; Nicephorus, at the Council of Constantinople (879-880).[4]

In the Annuario Pontificio it is listed as a titular see of the Roman province of Lycia.[5]


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Limyra Theatre from uphill

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Limyra Theatre

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Limyra Theatre corridors

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Limyra Cenotaph of Gaius Caesar

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Limyra Cenotaph Gaius Caesar in Antalya Museum

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Limyra Ptolemaion

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Limyra Ptolemaion relief in Antalya Museum

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Limyra Bee keeping

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Limyra tomb of Tebursseli

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Limyra tomb of Tebursseli decoration

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Limyra Temple-type tomb

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Limyra Sarcophagus of Xñtabura

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Limyra Rock graves

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Limyra Heroon Pericles in Antalya Museum

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Limyra Roman Bridge


  1. ^ Cate, Philo Hendrik Jan Houwink Ten (1961). The Luwian Population Groups of Lycia and Cilicia Aspera During the Hellenistic Period. Brill Archive. p. 12–13.
  2. ^ Briant, Pierre (2002). From Cyrus to Alexander: A History of the Persian Empire. Eisenbrauns. p. 673. ISBN 9781575061207.
  3. ^ a b Bryce, Trevor (2009). The Routledge Handbook of the Peoples and Places of Ancient Western Asia: The Near East from the Early Bronze Age to the fall of the Persian Empire. Routledge. p. 419. ISBN 9781134159079.
  4. ^ a b Sopheone Pétridès, "Limyra" in Catholic Encyclopedia (New York 1910)
  5. ^ Annuario Pontificio 2013 (Libreria Editrice Vaticana 2013 ISBN 978-88-209-9070-1), p. 917

Coordinates: 36°20′34.19″N 30°10′13.87″E / 36.3428306°N 30.1705194°E

Ala Bridge

Ala Bridge (Turkish: Ala Köprü) is a historic bridge in Turkey. It is still in use.

Arapsu Bridge

The Arapsu Bridge is a Roman bridge in Antalya, Turkey. The well-preserved footbridge lies in the Arapsuyu district, 5–6 km west to the city center, at the foot of an ancient mound which is associated with the Greek colony of Olbia.Partly submerged by a modern weir about 100 m downstream, the exact form of its masonry arch is difficult to determine. According to George Bean, the slightly pointed arch indicates a post-ancient construction date. Colin O'Connor, however, classifies the bridge as a Roman segmental arch bridge, examples of which have survived in the neighbouring province Lycia (such as the Limyra Bridge).

Baç Bridge

Baç Bridge (Turkish: Baç Köprüsü also called Justinyen Köprüsü) is a bridge in Tarsus in Mersin Province, Turkey

Bridge near Kemer

The Bridge near Seydikemer was a Roman segmental arch bridge near the ancient city of Xanthos in Lycia, in modern-day southwestern Turkey. Its remains are located on the upper reaches of the Xanthos river (Koca Çayı), 4 km upstream from the town of Seydikemer, at a site where the gravel river bed reaches a width of 500 m. Only a 29 m long and 4.5 m wide section on the right river bank, outside the inundation zone, is left today, having once served as approach to the bridge proper. Despite its near-complete destruction, the bridge represents a noteworthy example of the early use of segmental arches and hollow chambers in bridge building.

Bridge near Limyra

The Bridge near Limyra (in Turkish: Kırkgöz Kemeri, "Bridge of the Forty Arches") is a late Roman bridge in Lycia, in modern south-west Turkey, and one of the oldest segmented arch bridges in the world. Located near the ancient city of Limyra, it is the largest civil engineering structure of antiquity in the region, spanning the Alakır Çayı river over a length of 360 m (1,181.1 ft) on 26 segmental arches. These arches, with a span-to-rise ratio of 5.3:1, give the bridge an unusually flat profile, and were unsurpassed as an architectural achievement until the late Middle Ages. Today, the structure is largely buried by river sediments and surrounded by greenhouses. Despite its unique features, the bridge remains relatively unknown, and only in the 1970s did researchers from the Istanbul branch of the German Archaeological Institute carry out field examinations on the site.

Demirköprü (bridge)

Demirköprü (literally iron bridge) is a railway bridge spanning the Seyhan River in Adana. Opened in 1912, it extends 530 meters between Reşatbey and Sinanpaşa neighborhoods. Demirköprü is a steel bridge constructed by German Engineers in part of the Berlin-Baghdad Railway project. It was last renovated in 2006.


Falsework consists of temporary structures used in construction to support a permanent structure until its construction is sufficiently advanced to support itself. For arches, this is specifically called centering. Falsework includes temporary support structures for formwork used to mold concrete in the construction of buildings, bridges, and elevated roadways.

The British Standards of practice for falsework, BS 5975:2008, defines falsework as "Any temporary structure used to support a permanent structure while it is not self-supporting."

Fil Bridge

The Fil Bridge (Turkish: Fil Köprüsü), also known as Silahtarağa Bridge (Turkish: Silahtarağa Köprüsü) is a 38 m (125 ft) long, concrete bowstring bridge that crosses the Alibeyköy Creek in Istanbul, Turkey. The bridge was completed in 1932 by the Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality.

The bridge is closed to automobile traffic, with the exception of motorcycles, and is a pedestrian bridge.


Finike, the ancient Phoenix or Phoinix (Ancient Greek: Φοῖνιξ), also formerly Phineka, is a district on the Mediterranean coast of Antalya Province in Turkey, to the west of the city of Antalya, along the Turkish Riviera. It is located on the southern shore of the Teke peninsula, and the coast here is a popular tourist destination. However, Finike is best known for its oranges, the symbol of the town.

Kravga Bridge

Kravga (or Gravga) Bridge is a historical bridge in Mersin Province, Turkey


Lycia (Lycian: 𐊗𐊕𐊐𐊎𐊆𐊖 Trm̃mis; Greek: Λυκία, Lykía; Turkish: Likya) was a geopolitical region in Anatolia in what are now the provinces of Antalya and Muğla on the southern coast of Turkey, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, and Burdur Province inland. Known to history since the records of ancient Egypt and the Hittite Empire in the Late Bronze Age, it was populated by speakers of the Luwian language group. Written records began to be inscribed in stone in the Lycian language (a later form of Luwian) after Lycia's involuntary incorporation into the Achaemenid Empire in the Iron Age. At that time (546 BC) the Luwian speakers were decimated, and Lycia received an influx of Persian speakers. Ancient sources seem to indicate that an older name of the region was Alope (Ancient Greek: Ἀλόπη, romanized: Alópē).Lycia fought for the Persians in the Persian Wars, but on the defeat of the Achaemenid Empire by the Greeks, it became intermittently a free agent. After a brief membership in the Athenian Empire, it seceded and became independent (its treaty with Athens had omitted the usual non-secession clause), was under the Persians again, revolted again, was conquered by Mausolus of Caria, returned to the Persians, and finally fell under Macedonian hegemony upon the defeat of the Persians by Alexander the Great. Due to the influx of Greek speakers and the sparsity of the remaining Lycian speakers, Lycia was rapidly Hellenized under the Macedonians, and the Lycian language disappeared from inscriptions and coinage.

On defeating Antiochus III in 188 BC the Romans gave Lycia to Rhodes for 20 years, taking it back in 168 BC. In these latter stages of the Roman republic Lycia came to enjoy freedom as a Roman protectorate. The Romans validated home rule officially under the Lycian League in 168 BC. This native government was an early federation with republican principles; these later came to the attention of the framers of the United States Constitution, influencing their thoughts.Despite home rule, Lycia was not a sovereign state and had not been since its defeat by the Carians. In 43 AD the Roman emperor Claudius dissolved the league, and Lycia was incorporated into the Roman Empire with provincial status. It became an eparchy of the Eastern, or Byzantine Empire, continuing to speak Greek even after being joined by communities of Turkish language speakers in the early 2nd millennium. After the fall of the Byzantine Empire in the 15th century, Lycia was under the Ottoman Empire, and was inherited by the Turkish Republic on the fall of that empire. The Greek and Turkish population was exchanged when the border between Greece and Turkey was negotiated in 1923.

Misis Bridge

Misis Bridge is a Roman bridge in Adana Province, Turkey. (Misis is the popular name of Yakapınar town, which is now included in Greater Adana)

Pericles, Dynast of Lycia

Perikles (Perikle in Lycian), was the last known dynast of Lycia. He ruled c. 380–360 BCE over eastern Lycia from Limyra, at a time when Western Lycia was directly under Persian domination.

Roman bridge

Roman bridges, built by ancient Romans, were the first large and lasting bridges built. Roman bridges were built with stone and had the arch as the basic structure (see arch bridge). Most utilized concrete as well, which the Romans were the first to use for bridges.

Taşgeçit Bridge

Taşgeçit Bridge (Turkish: Taşgeçit Köprüsü, literally Stone gate bridge) is a Roman bridge in Mersin Province, Turkey.

The bridge is about 3.5 kilometres (2.2 mi) south west of Yeniyurt village of Erdemli ilçe (district) at 36°36′45″N 34°06′13″E. Its distance to Erdemli is 29 kilometres (18 mi) and to Mersin is 65 kilometres (40 mi). It was over a now dried up creek, a tributary of Lamas River.There are a few written sources on the bridge. But according to Professor Serra Durugönül of Mersin University Archaeology department, the bridge was constructed in the 2nd century during the Roman rule in Anatolia. It is a stone bridge with two arches. Even today the bridge is quite usable. However the creek has dried up and the ancient road has already been wiped off . Thus the bridge is out of usage. Presently there are water pipes from a nearby water regulator to villages passing under the arches.

Taşköprü (Silifke)

Silifke Bridge is a historical bridge in Mersin Province, Turkey.


Turunçova is a town in Finike district of Antalya Province, Turkey. At 36°22′N 30°08′E it is situated on Turkish state highway D.635. Distance to Finike is 8 kilometres (5.0 mi). The population of Turunçova was 8237 as of 2012. The area around Turunçova was always inhabited during the historical ages and the ancient city Limyra is at the east of Turunçova. In 1956, two former villages named Çavdır and Bağyaka were merged to form the town of Turunçova. The town economy depends on citrus farming and industry.

Yeni Imaret Bridge

Yeni Imaret Bridge (Turkish: Yeni İmaret Köprüsü) is a historic Ottoman bridge in Edirne, Turkey. It crosses the Tunca.The bridge has six arches, and was constructed between 1484-88 by the architect Hayreddin while he was constructing the Bayezid II Complex for the Ottoman sultan Bayezid II (r. 1481–1512).

Şekerpınarı Bridge

Şekerpınarı Bridge (Turkish: Şekerpınarı Köprüsü), also called Akköprü, is a Roman bridge in the Taurus Mountains, southern Turkey.

Black Sea
Central Anatolia
Eastern Anatolia


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