Limahong

Limahong, Lim Hong, or Lin Feng (Chinese: 林鳳), well known as Ah Hong (Chinese: 阿鳳) or Lim-A-Hong or Limahon (Chinese: 林阿鳳), was a Chinese pirate and warlord who invaded the northern Philippine Islands in 1574. He built up a reputation for his constant raids to ports in Guangdong, Fujian and southern China. He is noted to have twice attempted, and failed, to overthrow the Spanish city of Manila in 1574.

Limahong
Limahong Chinese pirate warlord in the Philippines
Portrait of Limahong from La Illustración Filipina, 1893
Native name
林鳳
BornUnknown
DiedUnknown
OccupationPirate, warlord
Opponent(s)Spanish Empire, Ming dynasty
Spouse(s)Nataracy
Limahong
Traditional Chinese林鳳
Simplified Chinese林凤

Origins

Wokou merchant-pirates became a serious problem along the China coast in the early 16th Century. Merchant-pirates such as Wang Zhi, Ye Zongman, Li Guangtou, and Xu Dong constructed large trading ships in Guangdong and Shuangyu, where they established clandestine trade relations between Japan and China. Aided by the Portuguese, pirate activities peaked between 1553 and 1561, and included a raid in 1556 consisting of more than 20,000. This clandestine trade extended to the Philippines, with Miguel López de Legazpi reporting in 1567, annual visits by Japanese and Chinese traders. Increased Chinese navy patrols forced pirates such as Lin Daoqian to escape to Luzon, although temporarily.[1]

Likewise, Limahon successfully attacked Shenquan in 1571, but was then defeated in 1572 at Chenghai, forcing him to flee to Luzon. The Chinese General Liu Yaohui sent a fleet that temporarily drove Limahon from his fortified trading base on Luzon, but by 1574, Limahon was pirating along the Chinese coast once again.[1]

Venturing once again back to Luzon, Limahon was able to capture a Chinese merchant ship engaged in trade with the Spanish. Robbing this merchant of his gold and silver, Limahon learned more gold and silver was to be gained from the Spanish further south, and in the words of Francisco de Sande, "there would be no one with whom to fight." Limahon's fleet of 62-70 ships, 3000 pirates, and 400 Japanese soldiers, set sail for Manila. Along the way, Limahon encountered a Spanish galiot, sent by Juan de Salcedo for provisions while his force of 100 men were in Vigan. The galiot was quickly overcome, the 22 Spanish aboard killed, and their falconet captured. Seeing Limahon's true intent, Salcedo sent an advance force onwards to Manila, warning of Limahon's approach, and assuring everyone that Salcedo was on his way to help.[2][1]

Attack on Manila

Invasion of limahong
Invasion of Limahong painting of Carlos "Botong" Francisco, 1956.

Arriving on Saint Andrew's Day eve, Limahon landed 700 of his men ashore the next day. Clad in cotton corselets with bamboo helmets, but armed with pikes, arquebusiers, battle axes, cutlasses and daggers, they proceeded barefoot towards the city, where they arrived by 10 AM. Fortunately for the defense of Manila, Limahon's men first had to deal with master of the camp Martin de Goiti, who gave his life defending his home. This delay allowed Captains Velasquez and Chacon to bring forward men with which to confront the pirates on the beach. After suffering 80 casualties to the Spanish 14, the Chinese retreated to their boats, making their way to Limahon who had set us base in the port of Cavite. Limahon decided to rest a day before proceeding with the attack.[2]

In the meantime, the Spanish were able to build a defensive palisade, and Salcedo arrived with 50 men. By day break on the third day, Limahon's entire fleet appeared offshore and fired three volleys before putting men ashore to attack the Spanish fort. About 80 chinese were able to enter the fort, but were immediately killed, forcing another Chinese retreat, but not before they were able to burn the San Agustin Church and a galley. The Spanish also had to deal with a Moro revolt at the same time, after two Moro leaders were killed while in a Spanish prison.[2]

Yet, Limahon's men retreated once again, and his fleet set sail for Ylocos, leaving behind more than 200 Chinese dead. Consequently, the Moro revolt quickly ended. The Spanish suffered 3 dead and several wounded.[2]

Limahong in Pangasinan

Limahon retreated to Pangasinan, where he decided to settle, building a fort and counter fort. The fort walls were made from palm logs, while the counter fort used palm planks. Limahon was able to seize several nearby village chiefs, forcing the villagers to provide him with provisions.[2]

Juan de Salcedo was made master of camp, a fort was built to better protect Manila, and plans were made to send an expedition against Limahon. Salcedo's expedition of 256 men, with 2500 native allies, set sail on 23 March 1575, with 59 vessels commanded by Captains Chacon, Chaves, Ribera, and Ramirez. They arrived Pangasinan on Holy Wednesday, 30 March/[2]

Salcedo set about blockading the Agno River, landing men and artillery. He then sent Captains Pedro de Chaves and Chacon up the river in 9 small boats, with 8 men each, to capture any Chinese boats. Salcedo also sent Capt. Riber and 28 men to assault Limahon's fort from the land side. At the same time, 35 Chinese vessels were departing in a search for provisions, and when Limahon's men caught sight of the Spanish, they panicked, and fled to their fort. Thus, the Chinese abandoned their vessels to the Spanish, who promptly burned them.[2]

In the meantime, Capt. Ribera succeeded in gaining entrance to Limahon's fort capturing 100 women and children. Yet, the approach of night forced the Spanish to retreat. The Chinese were able to regroup and a long 4 month siege ensued. Limahon made use of the time to build 30 ships within his fort. On 4 Aug., Limahon set sail and made good his escape.[2]

Shortly before the escape of Limahong, a Chinese fleet under Wang Wanggao (王望高; known in Spanish sources as Omocon), arrived to spy on Limahon. Once Wang saw that Limahon was besieged, Wang departed for China with the news, taking along some of the Spanish, including some friars.[2][1]

Aftermath

Limahong, and remnants of his forces, were able to join up with Li Mao and Chen Dele to pirate the South China coast in 1589. After which, no more was heard from him.[1]

Limahong's legacy to Pangasinan

Former Filipino President Ferdinand Marcos claimed to be a descendant of Limahong.[3][4]

References and further reading

  1. ^ a b c d e Kenji, Igawa (2010). Antony, Robert, ed. at the Crossroads: Limahon and Wako in Sixteenth-Century Philippines, in Elusive Pirates, Persavie Smugglers. Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press. pp. 78–82. ISBN 9789888028115.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i Sande, Francisco de (2004). Blair, E.H.; Robertson, J.A., eds. Relation of the Filipinas Islands: Manila, June 7, 1576. In The Philippine Islands 1493-1898, Vol. 4 of 55 1576-1582. Project Gutenberg EBook. Retrieved 19 January 2019.
  3. ^ White, Lynn (2014). Philippine Politics: Possibilities and Problems in a Localist Democracy.
  4. ^ Mijares (1976), p. 255.

Additional Reading

  • Gambe, Annabelle R., Overseas Chinese Entrepreneurship and Capitalist Development in Southeast Asia (Munster, Hamburg and London: Lit Verlag, 1999).
  • Stearn, Duncan, Chronology of South-East Asian History 1400-1996 (Dee Why, NSW: The Mitraphab Centre Pty Ltd., 1997).
  • “La Relación del suceso de la venida del tirano chino del gobernador Guido de Lavezares (1575): Épica española en Asia en el siglo XVI:” Edición, transcripción y notas (incluye facsimil del manuscrito original), Juan Francisco Maura. Lemir (Departamento de Filología Hispánica de la Universidad de Valencia), <http://parnaseo.uv.es/Lemir/Textos/Maura/Index.htm> 2004.
  • Morga, Antonio de. (2004). The Project Gutenberg Edition Book : History of the Philippine Islands - 1521 to the beginning of the XVII century. Volume 1 and 2.

External links

Battle of Manila (1574)

The Battle of Manila (1574) (Filipino: Labanan sa Maynila Spanish: Batallas de Manila) was a battle in the Manila area mainly in the location of what is now Parañaque between Chinese pirates, led by Limahong and the Spanish colonial forces and their native allies. The battle occurred on November 29, 1574 when Limahong's fleet landed in the town of Parañaque and from there, began to assault the fortifications of Intramuros. Initially, the inhabitants where disorganized and Limahong's forces routed them. Furthermore, the Chinese killed the Master-of-Camp of the Spanish, Martin de Goiti. This caused them to delay their assault on Manila as Martin de Goiti's house was an obstacle in their march.Limahong's forces laid siege to Manila until a force, led by Juan de Salcedo, of fifty Spanish musketeers broke the siege. Having been defeated at Manila, Limahong retreated abandoned his plans to invade Manila and instead settling in Pangasinan. A year later, forces again led by Salcedo defeated Limahong, leading to the Viceroy of Fukien to travel to the Philippines for the initial purpose of securing the release of Limahong, but ultimately establishing diplomatic relations between China and the Spanish Philippines.

Caboloan

Caboloan (also spelled Kaboloan; Pangasinan: Luyag na Caboloan), referred to Chinese records as Feng-chia-hsi-lan (Chinese: 馮嘉施蘭; pinyin: Féngjiāshīlán), was a sovereign pre-colonial Philippine polity located in the fertile Agno River basin and delta, with Binalatongan as the capital. It expanded its territory and influence from Pangasinan, to what are now the neighboring provinces of Tarlac, La Union, Benguet, Zambales, Nueva Ecija and Nueva Vizcaya, and had full independence until the Spanish conquest. It traded with the Kingdom of Ryukyu, Ashikaga shogunate and for trading with and sending gifts to Ming dynasty. The polity of Pangasinan sent emissaries to China in 1406–1411.The Chinese records of this kingdom began when King (Chinese: 王, pinyin: Wáng, Wade–Giles: Huang2), Kamayin, sent an envoy bringing gifts to the Chinese Emperor.Around the same period, the Srivijaya and Majapahit empires rose in Indonesia and Malaysia, and extended their influence over much of Southeast Asia. Urduja, a mythical warrior princess, is believed to have ruled in Pangasinan around the 14th century.In the 16th century, the port settlement of Agoo in Pangasinan was called the "Port of Japan" by the Spanish. The locals wore apparel typical of other maritime Southeast Asian ethnic groups in addition to Japanese and Chinese silks. Even common people were clad in Chinese and Japanese cotton garments. They also blackened their teeth and were disgusted by the white teeth of foreigners, which were likened to that of animals. They used porcelain jars typical of Japanese and Chinese households. Japanese-style gunpowder weapons were also encountered in naval battles in the area. In exchange for these goods, traders from all over Asia would come to trade primarily for gold and slaves, but also for deerskins, civet and other local products. Other than a notably more extensive trade network with Japan and China, they were culturally similar to other Luzon groups to the south, especially the Kapampangans.

Limahong, a Chinese corsair and warlord, briefly invaded the polity after his failure in the Battle of Manila (1574). He then set up an enclave of wokou (Japanese and Chinese pirates) in Pangasinan. Nevertheless, the Mexico-born Juan de Salcedo and his force of Tagalog, Visayan and Latino soldiers then assaulted and destroyed the pirate-kingdom, liberated the Pangasinan people and then incorporated their polity into the Spanish East Indies of the Spanish Empire.

China–Spain relations

China–Spain relations have existed since the 16th century. Relations between Spain and the People's Republic of China were established in 1973.

Don Galo

Don Galo, also historically known as Dongalo (and erroneously as Tungalo), is an administrative division in southern Metro Manila, the Philippines. It is a barangay in the city of Parañaque along the north bank of the Parañaque River by its mouth on the Manila Bay. It is located directly west of the village of Santo Niño (former Ibayo), separated from it by the Estero de Tripa de Gallina stream, and between Tambo to the north and the Parañaque poblacion of La Huerta to the south. The barangay also includes the southernmost section of Bay City, including portions of the Asia World subdistrict such as Entertainment City and Marina Bay.

Don Galo is home to the Parañaque Fisherman's Wharf, also known as the Bulungan Market, a wholesale coastal fish market where fish catch are sold to the highest bidder by "whispering" of prices. It is also the location of a Taoist temple known as the Kiu Pat Liong Shiao Temple, a prominent landmark along the Manila–Cavite Expressway. As of the 2015 census, it had a population of 11,645.

Eli Boggs

Eli Boggs (fl. mid 19th century) was an American pirate, one of the last active ocean-going pirates operating off the coast of China during the 1850s. Based near Hong Kong, Boggs constantly raided outgoing clipper ships carrying highly valuable cargo of opium throughout the decade. He is most particularly known for his cruelty, as in one recorded incident he had the body of a captured Chinese merchant cut into small pieces and had them delivered to shore in small buckets as a warning against interference in his criminal activities. In 1857, after a violent and bloody siege, Boggs was forced to swim ashore after his junk was destroyed by rival pirates. However, after holding his captors at bay with a knife, Boggs was finally apprehended and imprisoned in a Hong Kong jail for three years, eventually being tried for murder before his deportation to the United States.

Emanuel Wynn

Emanuel Wynn (1650 in France – 1750 in the Caribbean) was a French pirate of the 17th century, and is often considered the first pirate to fly the Jolly Roger.

Fancy (ship)

Fancy was Henry Every's ship, and was commanded by him between May 1694 to late 1695, when he retired from piracy and the fate of Fancy becomes unknown.

George Lowther (pirate)

George Lowther (died 1723) was an 18th-century English pirate who, although little is known of his life, was active in the Caribbean and Atlantic. One of his lieutenants was Edward Low.

Hendrick Lucifer

Hendrick Jacobszoon Lucifer (1583–1627) was a Dutch-born pirate.Hendrick's last name, Lucifer, referred to a lighting stick, not to the fallen angel Lucifer, and was most likely used as a nickname due to his use of fire and smoke to surprise enemies.

Juan de Salcedo

Juan de Salcedo (Spanish pronunciation: [ˈxwan de salˈθeðo]; 1549 – March 11, 1576) was a Spanish conquistador. He was born in Mexico in 1549 and he was the grandson of Miguel López de Legazpi and brother of Felipe de Salcedo. Salcedo was one of the soldiers who accompanied the Spanish colonization of the Philippines in 1565. He joined the Spanish military in 1564 for their exploration of the East Indies and the Pacific, at the age of 15. In 1567, Salcedo led an army of about 300 Spanish and Mexican soldiers and 600 Visayan (Filipino) allies along with Martín de Goiti for their conquest of Islamic Manila (then under occupation by the Sultanate of Brunei). There they fought a number of battles against the Muslim leaders, mainly against Tarik Sulayman (ironically named from the Arabic طارق بن زياد Tāriq, Islamic conqueror of Spain before the Christian Spanish expelled the Muslims during the Reconquista). The Spanish officers, Mexican recruits and Filipino warriors coalesced in 1570 and 1571 to attack the Islamised areas of Luzon, for control of lands and settlements.

William Scott called Salcedo, "the last of the Conquistadores." In May 1572, Salcedo led an exploration expedition of 45 Spaniards northward. Leaving 30 of his men at Vigan, Salcedo proceeded to sail around the northern coast, and down the eastern shore, with 15 men in 2 open boats. He returned to Manila 3 months later with 50 pounds of gold.In 1574, Salcedo hurried back to Manila, when that city was threatened by Limahong and he fought with his 600 warriors (300 Mexicans and Spaniards plus 300 local Filipino Militia) against 6,500 Chinese pirates and Japanese Ronins. After the Spanish success in the Battle of Manila (1574), Salcedo pursued Limahong to Pangasinan in 1575. There the Spaniards besieged the pirates for four months, before Limahong made good his escape.Salcedo died in March 1576, probably of dysentery, at the age of 27.His body is interred at the San Agustin Church in Intramuros.

Lakandula

Lakan Dula (Baybayin: ᜎᜃᜈ᜔ ᜇᜓᜎ, Abecedario: Lácandólá) was the regnal name of the last Lakan (paramount ruler or paramount datu) of the pre-colonial Tondo when the Spaniards first conquered the lands of the Pasig River delta in the Philippines in the 1570s.The firsthand account of Spanish Royal Notary Hernando Riquel says that he introduced himself to the Spanish as "Bunao Lakandula", indicating that his given name was "Bunao". However, the word Lakan which in current Tagalog form means gentleman, was a title equivalent to prince meaning he was Prince Dula. He later converted to Christianity and was baptised Carlos Lakandula. Another common variation of the name is Gat Dula (alternatively spelled as a single word, Gatdula). He is sometimes erroneously referred to as Rajah Lakandula, but the terms "Rajah" and "Lakan" have the same meaning, and in this domain the native Lakan title was used, making the use of both "Rajah" and "Lakandula" at the same time redundant and erroneous.Along with Rajah Matanda and Rajah Sulayman, he was one of three rajahs who played significant roles in the Spanish conquest of the Pasig River delta polities during the earliest days of the Philippines' Spanish colonial period.While it is unclear whether the entire name "Lakandula" represented a single titular name during his own lifetime, a few of his descendants in the first few generations after his death came to refer to themselves as the "Lakandula of Tondo", taking that name on as a noble title.

Martín de Goiti

Martín de Goiti (c. 1534 - 1575) was one of the soldiers who accompanied the Spanish colonization of the East Indies and the Pacific, in 1565. From his main base in Mexico City, he was the leader of the expedition to Manila, ordered by Miguel López de Legazpi in 1569. There, he fought a number of battles against the Muslim, Tariq Suleiman/Soliman (Arabic سليمان), the Hindu Rajah Matanda (Hindi ऋअज ंअतन्द), and the Taoist Lakandula (trad. Chinese 王 杜拉) of the kingdoms in Luzon; for control of the lands and its settlements. He is also known for his statesmanship by betrothing his sister to Batang Dula, the eldest son and successor apparent of Lakan Dula of Tondo (trad. Chinese"東都" pronounced Dongdu), the paramount ruler of Manila. Eventually their descendants unified the 3 royal houses of Tariq Suleiman, Rajah Matanda and Lakan Dula with the Basque Goiti family. The Dula y Goiti family eventually married with the Mendoza family who came over from Latin-America, who were Sephardic Hebrews that were practicing Catholics. Afterwards, the Dula y Goiti surname was shortened to Dulay. However, during the Spanish era, some descendants changed their surnames even further in order to avoid persecution and among which; the Salonga and Macapagal families are known descendants of these royal houses albeit only through a different family name.

Military history of the Philippines

The military history of the Philippines is characterized by wars between Philippine kingdoms and its neighbors in the precolonial era and then a period of struggle against colonial powers such as Spain and the United States, occupation by the Empire of Japan during World War II and participation in Asian conflicts post-World War II such as the Korean War and the Vietnam War. The Philippines has also battled a communist insurgency and a secessionist movement by Muslims in the southern portion of the country.

No purchase, no pay

"No purchase, no pay" (or "no prey, no pay") was a phrase used by pirates and privateers, of the 17th century in particular, to describe the conditions under which participants were expected to join expeditions or raids. The phrase describes a remuneration arrangement similar to a commission.

Silver (Andrew Motion novel)

Silver: Return to Treasure Island, is a novel by former British Poet Laureate Andrew Motion, published by Jonathan Cape on 15 March 2012. The book follows Jim Hawkins, son of the character of the same name in Robert Louis Stevenson's 1883 novel Treasure Island, as he and Nat, daughter of Long John Silver, also a character in Treasure Island, return to the island visited by their fathers to claim abandoned bar silver.

Space pirate

Space pirates are a type of stock character from science fiction.

Timber pirate

In the United States, a timber pirate is a pirate engaged in the illegal logging industry.

Timeline of piracy

This is a timeline of the history of piracy.

1600s: 1600 - 1601 - 1602 - 1603 - 1604 - 1605 - 1606 - 1607 - 1608 - 1609

1610s: 1610 - 1611 - 1612 - 1613 - 1614 - 1615 - 1616 - 1617 - 1618 - 1619

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1640s: 1640 - 1641 - 1642 - 1643 - 1644 - 1645 - 1646 - 1647 - 1648 - 1649

1650s: 1650 - 1651 - 1652 - 1653 - 1654 - 1655 - 1656 - 1657 - 1658 - 1659

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1910s: 1910 - 1911 - 1912 - 1913 - 1914 - 1915 - 1916 - 1917 - 1918 - 1919

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1980s: 1980 - 1981 - 1982 - 1983 - 1984 - 1985 - 1986 - 1987 - 1988 - 1989

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2000s: 2000 - 2001 - 2002 - 2003 - 2004 - 2005 - 2006 - 2007 - 2008 - 2009

2010s: 2010 - 2011 - 2012 - 2013 - 2014 - 2015 - 2016 - 2017

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