Lillie P. Bliss

Lizzie Plummer Bliss (April 11, 1864 in Boston – March 12, 1931 in New York City), known as Lillie P. Bliss, was an American art collector and patron. At the beginning of the 20th century, she was one of the leading collectors of modern art in New York. One of the lenders to the landmark Armory Show in 1913, she also contributed to other exhibitions concerned with raising public awareness of modern art. In 1929, she played an essential role in the founding of the Museum of Modern Art. After her death, 150 works of art from her collection served as a foundation to the museum and formed the basis of the in-house collection. These included works by artists such as Paul Cézanne, Georges Seurat, Paul Gauguin, Henri Matisse, Pablo Picasso and Amedeo Modigliani.

Lillie P. Bliss
Lillie P. Bliss
BornApril 11, 1864
DiedMarch 12, 1931 (aged 66)
NationalityAmerican
Known for• Art collector and patron
Museum of Modern Art
• Lillie P. Bliss Bequest
• Lillie P. Bliss International Study Center
Paul Cézanne 014
Paul Cézanne: The Bather, 1885–1887, Museum of Modern Art, formerly collection Lillie P. Bliss. Oil on canvas, 97 × 127 cm (38.19 × 50.00 in)

Family and youth

Lizzie Plummer Bliss was born in 1864 in Boston as a daughter of textile merchant Cornelius Newton Bliss (1833–1911) and his wife, Mary Elizabeth Bliss, born Plummer (1836–1923). Since childhood, her family and friends called her Lillie P. Bliss. Of her three siblings, only her brother, Cornelius Newton Bliss, Jr., born in 1874, reached adulthood. When she was two years old, her family moved to New York City. Lillie P. Bliss did not go to school but was taught by private tutors. Her father held the office of United States Secretary of the Interior under President William McKinley from 1897 to 1899. As his wife was often ill and indisposed, his daughter frequently accompanied him to official events in Washington, DC. during this time.

At receptions at the home of her parents, artistically inclined Lillie P. Bliss met actors like Walter Hampden, Ruth Draper and Ethel Barrymore. In her youth, her main artistic interests were of both classical and contemporary music. In her thirties, she began to promote financially young pianists and opera singers. She also supported the string quartet led by Franz Kneisel (1885–1917) (Kneisel Quartet) and promoted the Juilliard Foundation devoted to musical training. Among her friends were the music critic Richard Aldrich and the musician Charles Martin Loeffler.

One of her earliest encounters with modern art were exhibition visits at the Union League Club of New York. Her father was a member of this club and its president from 1902 to 1906. The club exhibited regularly works of living artists. For example, thirty-four paintings by Claude Monet were shown there in 1891. After her father's death in 1911, Bliss, who never married, lived with her mother in an apartment on 37th Street in Manhattan.

Building the art collection

One of her earliest purchases of art works was a painting by American painter Arthur B. Davies. She met the artist in his studio and visited art exhibitions with him and the art teacher Mary Quinn Sullivan. In subsequent years, Bliss built the largest private collection of works by Davies in the United States.

Her friend, physician Christian Archibald Herter, accompanied her piano playing occasionally as a recreational cellist. Through him she met his sister-in-law, the painter Adele Herter who founded the Women's Cosmopolitan Club in New York City together with Abby Aldrich Rockefeller and five other women in March 1911. Lillie P. Bliss joined this union a few months later. She became a lifelong friend of Abby Aldrich Rockefeller. Their common interests later led to the founding of the Museum of Modern Art. In the same year, the Association of American Painters and Sculptors was constituted; among its co-founders were Arthur B. Davies, the artist Walt Kuhn and the critic Walter Pach. Over the years, Bliss acquired numerous paintings by Kuhn and all three played a significant role in the preparation of the Armory Show in 1913, whose aim was to bring the latest trends in art before the American public. Other venues, such as the conservative dominated National Academy of Design, at this time refused to support current artistic trends.[1]

Six weeks before the Armory Show, Bliss acquired two landscapes by Pierre-Auguste Renoir and Edgar Degas a painting and a pastel, at the New York branch of the gallery Durand Ruel. She lent these works to the Armory Show and also helped with funds to enable the exhibition. From the exhibition, she bought a large number of works of art, including Silence and Roger and Angelica by Odilon Redon. From personal encounters with artists in the exhibition, she developed some long-lasting friendships. This was the case with artists like Charles Sheeler, Charles and Maurice Prendergast, whose works she bought as well.

Works by Paul Cézanne form one focal point of her collection. Bliss acquired her first Cézanne (The Street, 1875) soon after the closure of the Armory Show from the collection of her friend Arthur B. Davies. Unaffected by negative reviews, Bliss acquired the painting Fruits and Wine and eight watercolors by Cézanne from the exhibition compiled by Félix Fénéon at the Montross Gallery in New York in 1916.

Arthur B Davies - Italian Hill Town

Arthur B. Davies:
Italian Hill Town, ca. 1925,
donation to the Metropolitan Museum of Art. Oil on canvas, 65.7 × 101.3 cm

Pierre-Auguste Renoir - Brouillard à Guernsey

Pierre-Auguste Renoir:
Brouillard à Guernsey, 1883,
today Cincinnati Art Museum. Oil on canvas, 54 × 65 cm

Paul Gauguin 031

Paul Gauguin:
Hina Te Fatu, 1893,
donation to the Museum of Modern Art. Oil on burlap, 114.3 × 62.6 cm (45.00 × 24.65 in)

Honoré Daumier - The Laundress

Honoré Daumier:
The Laundress, ca. 1863,
today Metropolitan Museum of Art. Oil on wood, 48.9 × 33 cm

Brooklyn Museum - The Dawning - Arthur B. Davies - overall

Arthur B. Davies, The Dawning, 1915. Donated to the Brooklyn Museum

Together with her friends, art collectors Louisine Havemeyer and John Quinn, she persuaded the curator of painting, Bryson Burroughs, to host the Loan Exhibition of Impressionist and Post-Impressionist Art in the Metropolitan Museum of Art in 1921. Quinn lent 26, Bliss twelve (including five Cézannes and her Degas painting) and Havemeyer two works (both women were anonymous). The press complained about Quinn as a secret leader of this issue, criticized the self-appointed citizens committee and described the exhibition as "dangerous". The painting Quinn Hina Te Fatou (The Moon and the Earth) by Paul Gauguin from his collection was described by the newspaper New York World as typical for the odious Bolshevik work which were on display in the exhibition. Undeterred by such criticism, a little later Bliss acquired this painting for her collection.[2]

From 1924 to 1929, Bliss traveled to Europe once per year to discuss the latest artistic developments - especially in France. Purchases for her collection, however, were made almost invariably at New York art dealers or the New York branch of European galleries. In these years, in addition to current paintings, she bought some older works of art as well. For example, in 1927 she bought a work by the Post-Impressionist Georges Seurat (Port-en-Bessin, Harbor Entrance) and a work of the realist Honoré Daumier (The Laundress).

The foundation of the Museum of Modern Art

After the death of Arthur B. Davies in October 1928, several exhibitions were held to preserve his memory; Bliss borrowed many works of art for them. In the auction of his art collection, Bliss and Abby Aldrich Rockefeller were among the buyers and both developed a plan to form an institution devoted to organize exhibitions of modern art in New York. The steadfast refusal of the Metropolitan Museum of Art to exhibit art of the late 19th century and works by contemporary artists played a decisive role.

At the end of May 1929, Abby Aldrich Rockefeller invited Bliss and Mary Quinn Sullivan for lunch in order to discuss the establishment of a museum of modern art. Another invited guest was art collector A. Conger Goodyear, who had previously served as a board member of the Albright Art Gallery in Buffalo, and who also participated in the meeting. Goodyear agreed to chair this circle as president, Bliss became his deputy and Rockefeller was given the role of treasurer. A short time later they were joined by art historian and collector Paul J. Sachs, a friend of Rockefeller, publisher Frank Crowninshield, a friend of Bliss, and Josephine Porter Boardman, a friend both to Bliss and Rockefeller, who hosted a literary salon in New York. On November 7, the first exhibition of the Museum of Modern Art opened in rented spaces in the Heckscher Building at 730 Fifth Avenue at the corner of Fifth Avenue and 57th Street in Manhattan. Bliss contributed some paintings from her collection to the first exhibition, entitled Cézanne, Gauguin, Seurat, Van Gogh, .[3]

Last years and testament

Although Lillie P. Bliss was weakened by cancer the last months of her life, she participated actively in the formation of the Museum of Modern Art until shortly before her death. For example, March 2, 1931, she visited the exhibition Toulouse-Lautrec/Redon to which she had contributed three works by Odilon Redon and her paintings of Toulouse-Lautrec. On March 12, 1931 Lillie P. Bliss died in New York. She found her final resting place on the Woodlawn Cemetery. Two months after her death, the Museum of Modern Art presented in its 12th exhibition Works by 24 Artists from the Collection of Lillie P. Bliss, in memory of the Museum co-founder.

In her will, Lillie P. Bliss endowed charities like the New York Hospital or the New York Association for Improving the Conditions of the Poor, (an organization for relief for the poor), with financial contributions. She bequeathed part of her art collection to the Metropolitan Museum of Art, including works by Arthur B. Davies and Claude Monet's painting The Rocky Cliffs at Étretat.

To the surprise of her friends from the Museum of Modern Art, she donated most of her art collection, 150 works of art, to this institution. The museum, was at first thought of only for exhibition purposes and without its own permanent collection, was thus given the foundation of a proper permanent collection. The conditions attached to this legacy in the testament included a secure financial basis to be provided by the museum within three years. This condition should permanently secure the collection.

One clause stipulated in her will proved to be proactive and helpful for the future museum collection: her collection of works of art could be sold or exchanged for other works of art. Only three pictures, the two Cézanne paintings Still Life with Apples and Still Life with Ginger Container, Sugar and Oranges and the Laundress by Daumier were excluded from this stipulation. These works should never be sold, only to be given to the Metropolitan Museum if not suitable for the Museum of Modern Art. The two Cézanne paintings are still in the Museum of Modern Art, the Daumier painting was transferred to the collection of the Metropolitan Museum in 1947.

Cezanne - Stilleben mit Äpfeln

Paul Cézanne:
Still life with apples, 1895–98,
donation to the Museum of Modern Art. Oil on canvas, 27 × 36​12" (68.6 × 92.7 cm).

Anna Zborowska 1917 Amedeo Modigliani

Amedeo Modigliani:
Portrait Anna Zborowska, 1917,
donation to the Museum of Modern Art. Oil on canvas, 51​14 × 32" (130.2 × 81.3 cm).

Georges Seurat - Port-en-Bessin - Entrance to the Harbor

Georges Seurat:
Port-en-Bessin, Entrance to the Harbor, 1888,
donation to the Museum of Modern Art. Oil on canvas, 21​58 × 25​58" (54.9 × 65.1 cm)

Redon - Tystnad

Odilon Redon:
Silence, 1911,
donation to the Museum of Modern Art. Oil on prepared paper, 21​12 × 21​14" (54.6 × 54 cm)

Among the most important works from the Bliss collection in the Museum of Modern Art today are Cézanne's The Bathers and his still-life painting, Portrait of Anna Zborowska by Amedeo Modigliani, Still Life in Green by Pablo Picasso, Hina Te Fatou by Paul Gauguin, Port-en-Bessin, Harbor Entrance by Georges Seurat, Interior with Violin Case] by Henri Matisse and Silence and Roger and Angelica by Odilon Redon.

The first director of the Museum of Modern Art, Alfred H. Barr, characterized the importance of this collection saying: "With the Bliss Collection, New York can now look London, Paris, Berlin, Munich, Moscow and Chicago in the face so far as public collections of modern art are concerned. Without it we would still have had to hang our heads as a backward community."[4]

The Lillie P. Bliss Bequest

Edgar Degas - Jockeys on Horseback before Distant Hills
Edgar Degas: Jockeys on Horseback before Distant Hills, 1884, today Detroit Institute of Arts. Oil on canvas, 17​1116 × 21​58 in. (44.9 × 54.9 cm)
La noche estrellada1
Vincent van Gogh: The Starry Night, 1889, Museum of Modern Art. Saint Rémy. Oil on canvas, 29 × 36​14" (73.7 × 92.1 cm). Acquired through the Lillie P. Bliss Bequest

The vaguely defined "firm financial basis" in the testament, a sort of endowment to maintain and expand the collection, led to protracted negotiations between the brother of the deceased, employed as testamentary executor, and the board of the Museum of Modern Art. Basis for the assessment of the foundation sum should be the value of the collection donated to the museum. An expert opinion of the New York gallery Ferargil estimated the collection at $1,139,036.00 with Cézanne's three masterpieces The Bathers, Still Life with Apples and Pine and Rocks at $150,000 and Degas' Rider before Hills being valued at $40,000. Following this estimate, Cornelius Newton Bliss and the Museum Board initially agreed to raising a sum of $1,000,000.

Due to the impact of the Great Depression at the beginning of the 1930s, raising the sum demanded by the donation proved to be extremely difficult. The Museum of Modern Art managed to negotiate the amount required to be lowered to $750,000 initially and eventually to $600,000. This amount could indeed be raised, not the least by a few large donations. Abby Aldrich Rockefeller alone contributed $200,000, her son Nelson A. Rockefeller and the Carnegie Foundation each had $100,000 available. In March 1934, the amount agreed upon was allocatable and the collection of Bliss was legally handed over to the stock of the museum. It forms the basis of the museum collection and the proceeds of the applied amount of money serve to expand the collection since then as Lillie P. Bliss Bequest.

According to the scheme in the will, the museum sold off the Bliss art collection pieces one by one. For example, Degas' Jockeys on Horseback before Distant Hills was sold in the late 1930s for $18,000, in order to purchase Picasso's Les Demoiselles d'Avignon with the proceeds and an additional $10,000. By the sale of three other works from the Bliss collection, the acquisition of Vincent van Gogh's The Starry Night was achieved in 1941.

In 1951, three more works from the Bliss collection were sold to the Metropolitan Museum: Odilon Redon's Etruscan Vase with Flowers, Paul Cézanne's Portrait of Antoine Dominique Sauveur Aubert and Pablo Picasso's Woman in White. Henri Rousseau's Lion in the Jungle and Camille Pissarro's Riverside (both now in private collections) and Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec's May Belfort (now Cleveland Museum of Art) and Pierre-Auguste Renoir's Brouillard à Guernsey (now Cincinnati Art Museum) were sold as well.

In turn, the Museum of Modern Art acquired through the Lillie P. Bliss Bequest paintings by Henri Matisse, André Derain, Georges Braque, Amedeo Modigliani, Alexej von Jawlensky, Alberto Giacometti, Balthus, Alexander Archipenko, Juan Gris, Pablo Picasso, Fernand Léger, Theo van Doesburg, Marc Chagall, Piet Mondrian, Lyonel Feininger, Arshile Gorky, as well as sculptures by Umberto Boccioni, Henri Matisse, Henry Moore, Constantin Brâncuși, Joseph Cornell, and numerous other works of art.[5]

In addition to the Lillie P. Bliss Bequest, the Lillie P. Bliss International Study Center is reminiscent of the Museum co-founder. This study center of art historical research in the field of modern art is located at the Museum of Modern Art.

Literature

  • Barr, Jr., Alfred. The Lillie P. Bliss Collection. New York: Plantin Press, 1934.
  • Brown, Milton. The Story of the Armory Show. New York: Abbeville Press, 1988, ISBN 0-89659-795-4:
  • James, Edward T., Janet Wilson James and Paul Boyer (ed.): Notable American Women, 1607–1950: A Biographical Dictionary. Cambridge: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1971, ISBN 0-674-62734-2.
  • Kantor, Sybil Gordon. Alfred H. Barr, Jr. and the Intellectual Origins of the Museum of Modern Art. Cambridge: MIT Press, 2003.
  • Roob, Rona. "A Noble Legacy." Art in America, (November 2003) Vol. 91, No. 11, p. 73–83.

References

  1. ^ Money, Power and Modern Art Henry Liu 2004, Asia Times Retrieved September 2, 2010
  2. ^ Rona Roob: A Noble Legacy, Art in America, November 2003.
  3. ^ Bliss Collection Time Magazine, May 25, 1931 Retrieved September 2, 2010
  4. ^ Museum of Modern Art: Endowment Fund raised to secure Bliss Collection for MOMA. Archived 2011-07-27 at the Wayback Machine Press release, 1933-34.]
  5. ^ Painting and sculpture acquisitions at MoMA, 1948–1950 Alfred Barr jstor.org Retrieved September 2, 2010

External links

Abby Aldrich Rockefeller

Abigail Greene "Abby" Aldrich Rockefeller (October 26, 1874 – April 5, 1948) was an American socialite and philanthropist. Through her marriage to financier and philanthropist John D. Rockefeller Jr., she was a prominent member of the Rockefeller family. Referred to as the "woman in the family", she was known for being the driving force behind the establishment of the Museum of Modern Art, on 53rd Street in New York, in November 1929.

Anson Goodyear

Anson Conger Goodyear (June 20, 1877 – April 24, 1964) was an American manufacturer, businessman, author, and philanthropist and member of the Goodyear family. He is best known as a founder and first president of the Museum of Modern Art in New York.

Arthur Bowen Davies

Arthur Bowen Davies (September 26, 1862 – October 24, 1928) was an avant-garde American artist and influential advocate of modern art in the United States c. 1910–1928.

Bliss (surname)

Bliss is a surname. Notable people with the name include:

Aaron T. Bliss (1837–1906), U.S. Representative and Governor of Michigan

A. J. Bliss (1862–1931), British iris breeder

Alexa Bliss (born 1991), ring name of American professional wrestler Alexis Kaufman

Arthur Bliss (1891–1975), British composer

Atlanta Bliss (born c. 1952), American jazz trumpeter

Baron Bliss (1869–1926), British philanthropist in British Honduras

Benjamin Bliss (born c. 1997), American wrestler

Bliss Carman (1861–1929), Canadian poet

Brian Bliss (born 1965), American soccer defender and coach

C. D. Bliss (1870–1948), American football player and coach

Caroline Bliss (born 1961), British actress

Charles K. Bliss (1897–1985), inventor of Blissymbols

Chester Ittner Bliss (1899–1979), biologist known for his contributions to statistics

Cornelius Newton Bliss (1833–1911), American merchant and politician

Daniel Bliss (1823–1916), American founder of the American University of Beirut

Dave Bliss (born 1943), American college basketball coach

Diana Bliss (1954–2012), Australian theatre producer

Doctor Willard Bliss (1825–1889), American physician

Dorothy Bliss (1916–1987), American carcinologist

Douglas Bliss (1900–1984), Scottish painter

Duane Leroy Bliss (1835–1910), American industrialist

Ed Bliss (1912-2002), American journalist

Edward Bliss (1865-1960), American missionary to China

Eleanor Albert Bliss (1899–1987), American bacteriologist

Frank Bliss (1852-1929), American baseball player

Franklyn Bliss Snyder (1884-1958), American educator and academic

Frederick J. Bliss (1857–1939), American archaeologist

George Bliss (disambiguation), multiple people

Gilbert Ames Bliss (1876–1951), American mathematician

Harry Bliss, American cartoonist

Henry E. Bliss (1870–1955), American librarian and inventor of the Bliss classification

Henry H. Bliss (1830–1899), first person killed in a motor vehicle accident in the United States

Ian Bliss, Australian actor

James Blish (1921–1975), American author of fantasy and science fiction

Johnny Bliss (1922–1974), Australian rugby league footballer

Karen Bliss (born 1963), American cyclist

Laurie Bliss (1872–1942), American football player and coach in the United States

Lillie P. Bliss (1864–1931), American art collector and patron, founder of Metropolitan Museum of Art

Lucille Bliss (1916-2012), American actress and voice artist

Michael Bliss (born 1941), Canadian historian and award-winning author

Mike Bliss (born 1965), American NASCAR driver

Nathaniel Bliss (1700–1764), English astronomer

Philemon Bliss (1813–1889), U.S. Congressman and jurist

Philip Bliss (1838–1876), American hymn lyricist and composer

Philip Bliss (academic) (1787–1857), Registrar of the University of Oxford, etc.

Ray C. Bliss (1907–1981), one of the important national U.S

Richard Bliss, American telecommunications technician arrested in Russia on charges of espionage.

Ryan Bliss (born 1971), American digital artist

Sister Bliss (born 1970), British keyboardist, record producer, DJ, composer and songwriter

Stephen Bliss (1787–1847), American minister and politician

Sylvester Bliss (1814–1863), Millerite minister and editor

Timothy Vivian Pelham Bliss (born 1940), British neuroscientist

Thomas Bliss (born 1952), motion picture producer and executive producer

Tasker H. Bliss (1853–1930), U.S. Army officer

William Dwight Porter Bliss (1856–1926), American religious leader and activist

William Henry Bliss (1835–1911), English scholar

William Wallace Smith Bliss (1815–1853), U.S. Army Officer

Zenas Bliss (1835–1900), U.S. Army General and Medal of Honor recipient

Boy Leading a Horse

Jeune garçon au cheval (English: Boy Leading a Horse) is an early painting by Pablo Picasso. It is a work from Picasso's Rose Period, having been painted in 1905-06 in Paris.

The painting was first owned by Ambroise Vollard. It then passed through the hands of numerous people through the years:

Gertrude and Leo Stein, c. 1907-c. 1913

Paul von Mendelssohn-Bartholdy, c. 1934-1935. Mendelssohn-Bartholdy sold the work before his death from a heart attack in 1935 to the Jewish art gallery of Thannhauser. There is debate as to whether this sale was done out of duress. The family at the time had assets worth 170,000 Reichsmark, equivalent to $5 to 10 million 2009 dollars. Following the enactment of a treaty between Germany and the USA that clarified certain property rights of victims of Nazi persecution, descendants of von Mendelssohn-Bartholdy filed suit against the Museum of Modern Art in New York in an effort to recover the work. See description of Schoeps lawsuit below.

Justin K. Thannhauser, 1935–1936; he sold it through Siegfried Rosengart.

Albert Skira, 1936.

William S. Paley, 1936-1964.

Paley gifted the work to the Museum of Modern Art.Julius Schoeps, director of the Moses Mendelssohn institute for European Jewish studies on the University of Potsdam near Berlin, as speaker of the Mendelssohn-Bartholdy heirs, sued the Museum in 2007 for the painting, and Jed S. Rakoff ruled that Mendelssohn-Bartholdy had been forced to sell the painting by the Nazi Party. The Museum of Modern Art and the Solomon R. Guggenheim Foundation then sued the heir, Julius Schoeps. The dispute, however, ended up being settled out of court in 2009, with the museum retaining the work.

In Vladimir Nabokov's novel Pale Fire, Professor Kinbote says he placed in his lodging-house "the reproduction of a beloved early Picasso: earth boy leading raincloud horse".

Campbell's Soup Cans

Campbell's Soup Cans, which is sometimes referred to as 32 Campbell's Soup Cans, is a work of art produced between November 1961 and March or April 1962 by Andy Warhol. It consists of thirty-two canvases, each measuring 20 inches (51 cm) in height × 16 inches (41 cm) in width and each consisting of a painting of a Campbell's Soup can—one of each of the canned soup varieties the company offered at the time. The individual paintings were produced by a printmaking method—the semi-mechanized screen printing process, using a non-painterly style. Campbell's Soup Cans' reliance on themes from popular culture helped to usher in pop art as a major art movement in the United States.

Warhol, a commercial illustrator who became a successful author, publisher, painter, and film director, showed the work on July 9, 1962, in his first one-man gallery exhibition as a fine artist in the Ferus Gallery of Los Angeles, California curated by Irving Blum. The exhibition marked the West Coast debut of pop art. The combination of the semi-mechanized process, the non-painterly style, and the commercial subject initially caused offense, as the work's blatantly mundane commercialism represented a direct affront to the technique and philosophy of abstract expressionism. In the United States the abstract expressionism art movement was dominant during the post-war period, and it held not only to "fine art" values and aesthetics but also to a mystical inclination. This controversy led to a great deal of debate about the merits and ethics of such work. Warhol's motives as an artist were questioned, and they continue to be topical to this day. The large public commotion helped transform Warhol from being an accomplished 1950s commercial illustrator to a notable fine artist, and it helped distinguish him from other rising pop artists. Although commercial demand for his paintings was not immediate, Warhol's association with the subject led to his name becoming synonymous with the Campbell's Soup Can paintings.

Warhol subsequently produced a wide variety of art works depicting Campbell's Soup cans during three distinct phases of his career, and he produced other works using a variety of images from the world of commerce and mass media. Today, the Campbell's Soup cans theme is generally used in reference to the original set of paintings as well as the later Warhol drawings and paintings depicting Campbell's Soup cans. Because of the eventual popularity of the entire series of similarly themed works, Warhol's reputation grew to the point where he was not only the most-renowned American pop art artist, but also the highest-priced living American artist.

Cornelius Newton Bliss Jr.

Cornelius Newton Bliss Jr. (April 15, 1875 – April 5, 1949) was an American merchant, political organizer, and philanthropist.

Gargoyle Club

The Gargoyle was a private members' club (dodging alcohol laws that pubs had to observe) on the upper floors of 69 Dean Street, Soho, London (at the corner with Meard Street), founded on 16 January 1925 by the aristocratic socialite David Tennant, son of the Scottish 1st Baron Glenconner. David was the brother of Stephen Tennant who was called "the brightest" of the "Bright Young People" and of Edward Wyndham Tennant, the poet who was killed in action in World War I.

L'Atelier Rouge

L'Atelier Rouge, also known as The Red Studio, is a painting by Henri Matisse from 1911, in the collection of The Museum of Modern Art, New York City.In 2004, L'Atelier Rouge came in at No. 5 in a poll of 500 art experts voting for the most influential of all works of modern art, along with works by Pablo Picasso, Marcel Duchamp and Andy Warhol.

Les Demoiselles d'Avignon

Les Demoiselles d'Avignon (The Young Ladies of Avignon, originally titled The Brothel of Avignon) is a large oil painting created in 1907 by the Spanish artist Pablo Picasso. The work, part of the permanent collection of the Museum of Modern Art, portrays five nude female prostitutes in a brothel on Carrer d'Avinyó (translated into Spanish: Calle de Avinyó), a street in Barcelona. Each figure is depicted in a disconcerting confrontational manner and none is conventionally feminine. The women appear slightly menacing and are rendered with angular and disjointed body shapes. The three figures on the left exhibit facial features in the Iberian style of Picasso's native Spain, while the two on the right are shown with African mask-like features. The racial primitivism evoked in these masks, according to Picasso, moved him to "liberate an utterly original artistic style of compelling, even savage force."In this adaptation of primitivism and abandonment of perspective in favor of a flat, two-dimensional picture plane, Picasso makes a radical departure from traditional European painting. This proto-cubist work is widely considered to be seminal in the early development of both cubism and modern art.

Les Demoiselles was revolutionary and controversial and led to widespread anger and disagreement, even amongst the painter's closest associates and friends. Matisse considered the work something of a bad joke yet indirectly reacted to it in his 1908 Bathers with a Turtle. Georges Braque too initially disliked the painting yet perhaps more than anyone else, studied the work in great detail. And in fact, his subsequent friendship and collaboration with Picasso led to the cubist revolution. Its resemblance to Cézanne's The Bathers, Paul Gauguin's statue Oviri and El Greco's Opening of the Fifth Seal has been widely discussed by later critics.

At the time of its first exhibition in 1916, the painting was deemed immoral. The work, painted in Picasso's studio in the Bateau-Lavoir in Montmartre, Paris, was seen publicly for the first time at the Salon d'Antin in July 1916, at an exhibition organized by the poet André Salmon. It was at this exhibition that Salmon (who had already mentioned the painting in 1912 under the title Le Bordel philosophique) gave the work its current, less scandalous title, Les Demoiselles d'Avignon, instead of the title originally chosen by Picasso, Le Bordel d'Avignon. Picasso, who always referred to it as mon bordel ("my brothel"), or Le Bordel d'Avignon, never liked Salmon's title and would have instead preferred the bowdlerization Las chicas de Avignon ("The Girls of Avignon").

Lillie (name)

Lillie is both a surname and a given name. Notable people with the name include:

Surname:

Arthur Lillie (1831–1911), British soldier, Buddhist and author

Axel Lillie (1603–1662), Swedish soldier and politician

Beatrice Lillie (1894–1989), Canadian-born comic actress

Denis G. Lillie (1884–1963), British biologist and Antarctic explorer

Dennis Lillie (born 1945), Australian cricketer

Ella Fillmore Lillie (1884–1972), American artist

Frank Rattray Lillie (1870–1947), American zoologist

Jim Lillie (1861–1890), American baseball player

John Lillie (minister) (1806–1866), Presbyterian minister in Australia

John Lillie (politician) (1847–1921), American representative from Washington State

John Scott Lillie (1790–1868), British Army officer

Joseph Christian Lillie (1760–1827), Danish architect

Leighton Lillie (born 1983), American motocross rider

Ludolph Henrich Lillie (Latin: Ludolphus Henricus Lillie; fl. 1750s), Danish printer

May Lillie (1869–1936), American Wild West entertainer

Mildred Lillie (1915–2002), American judgeGiven name:

Lillie Berg (1845–1896), American musician, musical educator

Lillie P. Bliss (1864–1931), American art collector and historian

Lillie Burke (died 1949), American educator

Lillie Hayward (1891–1977), American actress

Lillie Langtry, 18th-19th century British actress

Lillie Leatherwood (born 1964), American sprinter

Lillie McCloud (born 1958), American singer

Lillie Marino (born 2002), American homemaker, writer, and prolific counselorFictional characters:

Lillie, a character from the video game Pokémon Sun and Moon

Lillie: A Lightship from the children's television series TUGS.

Museum of Modern Art

The Museum of Modern Art (MoMA) is an art museum located in Midtown Manhattan, New York City, on 53rd Street between Fifth and Sixth Avenues.

MoMA plays a major role in developing and collecting modernist art, and is often identified as one of the largest and most influential museums of modern art in the world. MoMA's collection offers an overview of modern and contemporary art, including works of architecture and design, drawing, painting, sculpture, photography, prints, illustrated books and artist's books, film, and electronic media.The MoMA Library includes approximately 300,000 books and exhibition catalogs, over 1,000 periodical titles, and over 40,000 files of ephemera about individual artists and groups. The archives holds primary source material related to the history of modern and contemporary art.

The Starry Night

The Starry Night is an oil on canvas by the Dutch post-impressionist painter Vincent van Gogh. Painted in June 1889, it depicts the view from the east-facing window of his asylum room at Saint-Rémy-de-Provence, just before sunrise, with the addition of an idealized village. It has been in the permanent collection of the Museum of Modern Art in New York City since 1941, acquired through the Lillie P. Bliss Bequest. Regarded as among Van Gogh's finest works, The Starry Night is one of the most recognized paintings in the history of Western culture.

Three Musicians

Three Musicians is the title of two similar collage and oil paintings by Spanish artist Pablo Picasso. They were both completed in 1921 in Fontainebleau near Paris, France, and exemplify the Synthetic Cubist style; the flat planes of color and "intricate puzzle-like composition" echoing the arrangements of cutout paper with which the style originated. These paintings each colorfully represent three musicians wearing masks in the tradition of the popular Italian theater Commedia dell'arte.Each painting features a Harlequin, a Pierrot, and a monk, who are generally believed to represent Picasso, Guillaume Apollinaire, and Max Jacob, respectively. Apollinaire and Jacob, both poets, had been close friends of Picasso during the 1910s. However, Apollinaire died of the Spanish flu in 1918, while Jacob decided to enter a monastery in 1921.One version is in the permanent collection of the Museum of Modern Art (MoMA) in New York City; the other version is in the Philadelphia Museum of Art.

View of Notre-Dame

View of Notre-Dame (French: Une vue de Notre-Dame) is an oil painting by Henri Matisse from 1914.

Women's rights historic sites in New York City

Women's rights historic sites in New York City are locales with historical connections to the women's rights movement. In March, 2008, the Government of New York City published an official map of one hundred and twenty historical sites and monuments in the borough of Manhattan.

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