Life peer

In the United Kingdom, life peers are appointed members of the peerage whose titles cannot be inherited, in contrast to hereditary peers. In modern times, life peerages, always created at the rank of baron, are created under the Life Peerages Act 1958 and entitle the holders to seats in the House of Lords, presuming they meet qualifications such as age and citizenship. The legitimate children of a life peer are entitled to style themselves with the prefix "The Honourable", although they cannot inherit the peerage itself.

Before 1887

The Crown, as fount of honour, creates peerages of two types, being hereditary or for life. In the early days of the peerage, the Sovereign had the right to summon individuals to one Parliament without being bound to summon them again. Over time, it was established that once summoned, a peer would have to be summoned for the remainder of his life, and later, that the peer's heirs and successors would also be summoned, thereby firmly entrenching the hereditary principle.

Nevertheless, life peerages lingered. From the reign of James I to that of George II (between 1603–1760), 18 life peerages were created for women. Women, however, were excluded from sitting in the House of Lords, so it was unclear whether or not a life peerage would entitle a man to do the same. For over four centuries—if one excludes those who sat in Cromwell's House of Lords (or Other House) during the Interregnum—no man had claimed a seat in the Lords by virtue of a life peerage. In 1856, it was thought necessary to add a peer learned in law to the House of Lords (which was the final court of appeal), without allowing the peer's heirs to sit in the House and swell its numbers. Sir James Parke, a Baron (judge) of the Exchequer, was created Baron Wensleydale for life, but the House of Lords concluded that the peerage did not entitle him to sit in the House of Lords. Lord Wensleydale was therefore appointed a hereditary peer. (In the event, he had no sons, so his peerage did not pass to an heir.) (See also Wensleydale Peerage Case (1856).)

The Government introduced a bill to authorise the creation of two life peerages carrying seats in the House of Lords for judges who had held office for at least five years. The House of Lords passed it, but the bill was lost in the House of Commons. In 1869, a more comprehensive life peerages bill was brought forward by the Earl Russell. At any one time, 28 life peerages could be in existence; no more than four were to be created in any one year. Life peers were to be chosen from senior judges, civil servants, senior officers of the British Army or Royal Navy, members of the House of Commons who had served for at least ten years, scientists, writers, artists, peers of Scotland, and peers of Ireland. (Peers of Scotland and Ireland did not all have seats in the House of Lords, instead electing a number of representative peers.) The bill was rejected by the House of Lords at its third reading.

Finally, the Appellate Jurisdiction Act 1887 allowed senior judges to sit in the House of Lords as life peers, known as Lords of Appeal in Ordinary.[1] Those appointees who were not already members of the House of Lords were created life peers by the Appellate Jurisdiction Act 1876 (for their titles, see the list of law life peerages). Initially it was intended that peers created in this way would only sit in the House of Lords while serving their term as judges, but in 1887 (on the retirement of Lord Blackburn) the Appellate Jurisdiction Act 1887 provided that former judges would retain their seats for life. This ended with the creation of the Supreme Court of the United Kingdom in 2009.

Life Peerages Act 1958

The Life Peerages Act sanctions the regular granting of life peerages, but the power to appoint Lords of Appeal in Ordinary under the Appellate Jurisdiction Act was not derogated. No limits were placed on the number of peerages that the Sovereign may award, as was done by the Appellate Jurisdiction Act. A peer created under the Life Peerages Act has the right to sit in the House of Lords, provided he or she is at least 21 years of age, is not suffering punishment upon conviction for treason and is a citizen of the United Kingdom, or the Republic of Ireland or of a member of the Commonwealth of Nations, and is resident in the UK for tax purposes.

Life baronies under the Life Peerages Act are created by the Sovereign but, in practice, none are granted except upon the proposition of the Prime Minister.

Life peers created under the Life Peerages Act do not, unless they also hold ministerial positions, receive salaries. They are, however, entitled to a daily allowance of £300 for travel and accommodation on signing in each day, though there is no requirement to take part in the business of the House.

Life peerages may be awarded through a number of different routes.

"Working peers"

From time to time, lists of "working peers" are published.[2] They do not form a formal class, but represent the various political parties and are expected to regularly attend the House of Lords. Most new appointments of life peers fall into this category.

Normally, the Prime Minister chooses only peers for his or her own party, but permits the leaders of opposition parties to recommend peers from those parties. The Prime Minister may determine the number of peers each party may propose; he or she may also choose to amend these recommendations, but by convention does not do so.

"People's peers"

Peers may be created on a non-partisan basis. Formerly, nominations on merit alone were made by the Prime Minister, but this function was partially transferred to a new, non-statutory House of Lords Appointments Commission in 2000. Individuals recommended for the peerage by the Commission go on to become what have been described by some in the British media as "people's peers".[3] The Commission also scrutinises party recommendations for working peerages to ensure propriety. The Prime Minister may determine the number of peers the Commission may propose, and also may amend the recommendations. Again, by convention, no amendment is made to the recommendations of the Commission.


Individuals may be created peers in various honours lists as rewards for achievement; these peers are not expected to be regular attendees of the House of Lords, but are at liberty to do so if they please. The New Year Honours List, the Queen's Birthday Honours List (to mark the Sovereign's official birthday, the second Saturday in June), the Dissolution Honours List (to mark the dissolution of Parliament) and the Resignation Honours List (to mark the end of a Prime Minister's tenure) are all used to announce life peerage creations.

Public offices

Creations may be made for individuals on retirement from important public offices, such as Prime Minister, Speaker of the House of Commons or Archbishop of Canterbury or York.

Sir Alec Douglas-Home, who had renounced his hereditary title of the 14th Earl of Home on becoming Prime Minister, was the first former occupant of the office to receive a life barony. Harold Wilson, James Callaghan and Margaret Thatcher all took life peerages following their retirement from the House of Commons, although Thatcher's husband, Denis Thatcher, was made a baronet. Edward Heath and John Major[4] chose not to become a peer. Tony Blair, Gordon Brown and David Cameron have yet to take a peerage. Harold Macmillan declined a peerage on leaving office, but over 20 years after retiring accepted a second offer of the customary, hereditary earldom for retiring Prime Ministers, as Earl of Stockton; this was the last earldom to be offered outside the Royal Family. While David Lloyd George also waited a similar period for his earldom, most offers have been made and accepted shortly after retirement such as the Earls of Oxford and Asquith, Baldwin, Attlee and Avon.

Many Cabinet members, including Chancellors of the Exchequer, Home Secretaries, Foreign Secretaries and Defence Secretaries, retiring since 1958 have generally been created life peers. William Whitelaw was created a hereditary viscount on the recommendation of Margaret Thatcher. Viscount Whitelaw died without male issue.

Life peerages have been granted to Speakers of the House of Commons upon retirement. Speakers had previously been entitled by custom to an hereditary peerage as a viscount. George Thomas, the former Speaker and Secretary of State for Wales, was created Viscount Tonypandy but died without male issue.

The Prime Minister continues to recommend a small number of former public office-holders for peerages. This generally includes Chiefs of Defence Staff, Secretaries of the Cabinet, and Heads of the Diplomatic Service. Every Archbishop of Canterbury who has retired since 1958 has been created a life peer, as have most recent Archbishops of York on retirement. A small number of other bishops—such as David Sheppard of Liverpool and Richard Harries of Oxford—were ennobled on retiring. The Lord Chamberlain must be a member of the House of Lords and so is ennobled on appointment (if not already a peer), while most retiring Private Secretaries to the Queen and Governors of the Bank of England have also become peers.

High judicial officers have sometimes been created life peers upon taking office. All Lord Chief Justices of England and Wales have, since 1958, been created life peers under the Life Peerages Act, with the exception of Lord Woolf, who was already a Lord of Appeal in Ordinary before becoming Lord Chief Justice.

Life peerages may in certain cases be awarded to hereditary peers. After the House of Lords Act 1999 passed, several hereditary peers of the first creation, who had not inherited their titles but would still be excluded from the House of Lords by the Act, were created life peers: Toby Low, 1st Baron Aldington; Frederick James Erroll, 1st Baron Erroll of Hale; Frank Pakenham, 7th Earl of Longford and 1st Baron Pakenham; and Antony Armstrong-Jones, 1st Earl of Snowdon. None of the peers of the first creation who were members of the Royal Family was granted a life peerage, as they had all declined. Life peerages were also granted to former Leaders of the House of Lords, including John Julian Ganzoni, 2nd Baron Belstead; Peter Carington, 6th Baron Carrington; Robert Gascoyne-Cecil, 7th Marquess of Salisbury (better known as Viscount Cranborne and Lord Cecil of Essendon, having attended the Lords by virtue of a writ of acceleration); George Jellicoe, 2nd Earl Jellicoe; Malcolm Shepherd, 2nd Baron Shepherd; and David Hennessy, 3rd Baron Windlesham.

As part of the celebrations to mark the fiftieth anniversary of the Life Peerages Act, Gareth Williams, Baron Williams of Mostyn was voted by the current members of the House of Lords as the outstanding life peer since the creation of the life peerage.[5]

Number of life peers

Peerage dignities created under
the Life Peerages Act 1958[6]
Prime Minister Party Tenure Peers Per year
Harold Macmillan Conservative 1957–1963 46 9.2*
Alec Douglas-Home Conservative 1963–1964 16 16.0
Harold Wilson Labour 1964–1970 122 20.3**
Edward Heath Conservative 1970–1974 58 14.5
Harold Wilson Labour 1974–1976 80 40.0**
James Callaghan Labour 1976–1979 58 19.3
Margaret Thatcher Conservative 1979–1990 201 18.2
John Major Conservative 1990–1997 160 20.1
Tony Blair Labour 1997–2007 357 35.7
Gordon Brown Labour 2007–2010 34 11.3
David Cameron Conservative 2010–2016 242 40.3
Theresa May Conservative 2016–present 42 14
Total 1,416 22.8
* Macmillan's average calculated for the 5 years under the Act.
** Wilson's combined average is 25.4 life peerages per year.

Life peerages conferred on hereditary peers (from 1999 onwards) are not included in the numbers.

The Appellate Jurisdiction Act originally provided for the appointment of two Lords of Appeal in Ordinary, who would continue to serve while holding judicial office, though in 1887, they were permitted to continue to sit in the House of Lords for life, under the style and dignity of baron. The number of Lords of Appeal in Ordinary was increased from time to time – to three in 1882, to four in 1891, to six in 1913, to seven in 1919, to nine in 1947, to 11 in 1968 and to 12 in 1994. These provisions were repealed by the Constitutional Reform Act 2005 which created the Supreme Court of the United Kingdom.

The rate of creation of life peerages under the Life Peerages Act has not shown a consistent pattern. David Cameron and Tony Blair have created life peerages at the highest rate, at 41 and 36 peerages per year respectively. Conservative Prime Ministers have created on average 20 life peers per year in office, Labour Prime Ministers an average of 27.2 per year. In absolute terms, Labour (in 24 years) created 1.2 times the number of life peerages created by the Conservatives (in 29 years). On the other hand, Conservative Prime Ministers (especially Macmillan) created the vast majority of the about 50 hereditary peerages created since 1958.

In 1999, there were 172 Conservative and 160 Labour life peers in the House of Lords, and by 4 January 2010, there were 141 Conservative and 207 Labour life peers in the House of Lords. The hereditary element of the House of Lords, however, was much less balanced. In 1999, for example, immediately before most hereditary peers[7] were removed by the House of Lords Act, there were 350 Conservative hereditary peers, compared with 19 Labour peers and 23 Liberal Democrat peers.


The Peerage Act 1963 allows the holder of an hereditary peerage to disclaim their title for life. There is no such provision for life peers. The Coalition Government's draft proposal for Lords reform in 2011 "provides that a person who holds a life peerage may at any time disclaim that peerage by writing to the Lord Chancellor. The person [and their spouse and children] will be divested of all rights and interests attaching to [that] peerage."[8] This proposal did not become law. In 2014 under the House of Lords Reform Act it became possible for peers to resign from the House of Lords (without disclaiming the peerage).

Titles and forms of address

Most life peers take a title based on their surname, either alone (e.g. Baron Hattersley) or in combination with a placename to differentiate them from others of the same surname (e.g. Baroness Kennedy of The Shaws). Surnames need not be used at all if desired.[9] Ian Paisley, for example, opted for the title Lord Bannside, and John Gummer chose the title Lord Deben. There are also occasions when someone's surname is not appropriate as a title, such as Michael Lord (now Lord Framlingham) and Michael Bishop (now Lord Glendonbrook).[10]

The formal style for life peers is "The Rt Hon the Lord/Lady X" or "Firstname, Lord/Lady X" though women life peers often use "Firstname, Baroness X" to emphasise that they hold a peerage in their own right. In these examples, X is the title in one of the forms discussed above. Life peers who have achieved wide fame under their original name, such as the actor Laurence Olivier, are often incorrectly referred to as Lord/Lady Firstname Lastname after their ennoblement.[11]

See also


  1. ^ McKechnie, William Sharp, 1909: The reform of the House of Lords; with a criticism of the Report of the Select Committee of 2nd December, 1908, p.13
  2. ^ "Latest peerages announced - GOV.UK".
  3. ^ BBC (25 April 2002). "'People's peers' under scrutiny". Caltech. London. Retrieved 19 November 2006.
  4. ^ "Major to turn down peerage". BBC News. 8 October 2000. Retrieved 16 August 2013.
  5. ^ "Former Lords leader honoured with award". Yahoo/Epolitix. Retrieved 20 July 2008.
  6. ^ Beamish, David. "United Kingdom peerage creations 1801 to 2015". Retrieved 30 October 2015.
  7. ^ "Home Page".
  8. ^ House of Lords Reform Draft Bill (Clause 62)
  9. ^ News article from the BBC remarking on the custom, on the occasion of Tony Banks taking the title Baron Stratford instead of the more conventional Baron Banks
  10. ^ The Norton View — My Lord and Bishop (Accessed 22 May 2015)
  11. ^ Burke's Peerage; only the daughters of earls, marquesses and dukes, and the younger sons of marquesses and dukes are properly referred to by the courtesy title of Lord or Lady Firstname Lastname.


Anthony Young, Baron Young of Norwood Green

Anthony Ian Young, Baron Young of Norwood Green (born 14 April 1942) is a British politician and Labour Party life peer in the House of Lords. [1]

He had previously been General Secretary of the National Communications Union (1989–95), then joint General Secretary (1995–98), then Senior Deputy General Secretary (1998-2002) of the Communication Workers Union. He also served as a Governor of the BBC.

In the 2002 Birthday Honours Young was awarded a knighthood, having the honour conferred by The Prince of Wales on 13 December 2002. He was created a life peer on 25 June 2004 taking the title Baron Young of Norwood Green, of Norwood Green in the London Borough of Ealing.[2]

In October 2008 he was appointed as Parliamentary Under-Secretary of State for Skills and Apprenticeships in the Department for Innovation, Universities and Skills, being moved to the Department for Business, Innovation and Skills when it was created in the June 2009 reshuffle, continuing as a Parliamentary Under Secretary of State, but with responsibility for Employment Relations and Postal Affairs until 11 May 2010.

Celia Thomas, Baroness Thomas of Winchester

Celia Marjorie Thomas, Baroness Thomas of Winchester, (born 14 October 1945 in Winchester, Hants) was a founding member of the Liberal Party in Winchester in the 1960s.

Thomas was appointed a Member of the Order of the British Empire (MBE) in the 1985 Birthday Honours.On 26 May 2006, she was created a life peer with the title Baroness Thomas of Winchester, of Winchester in the County of Hampshire, and she sits as a Liberal Democrat.

Christopher Fox, Baron Fox

Christopher Francis Fox (Chris Fox) (born 27 September 1957) is a British politician (Liberal Democrat). He was made life peer as Baron Fox, of Leominster in the County of Herefordshire, on 11 September 2014.He graduated with a BSc in chemistry from Imperial College London. Fox spent a year as president of the Imperial College Student's Union.As of June 2017 he is Liberal Democrat Spokesperson on Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy in the House of Lords, and a member of the Lords Science and Technology Committee.

David Goddard, Baron Goddard of Stockport

David Goddard, Baron Goddard of Stockport (born 2 October 1952) is a British Liberal Democrat politician. He was made a life peer, as Baron Goddard of Stockport, of Stockport in the County of Greater Manchester, on 15 September 2014. A gas engineer by trade, he was an elected member of Stockport Metropolitan Borough Council from 1990 until 2012, and was elected again in 2014 before standing down in 2018. He was leader of the council between 2007 and 2012.

Earl of Oxford and Asquith

Earl of Oxford and Asquith is a title in the Peerage of the United Kingdom. It was created in 1925 for the Liberal politician H. H. Asquith. He was Home Secretary from 1892 to 1895, Chancellor of the Exchequer from 1905 to 1908, Leader of the Liberal Party from 1908 to 1926 and Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1908 to 1916. Asquith was made Viscount Asquith, of Morley in the West Riding of the County of York, at the same time, also in the Peerage of the United Kingdom. This title is used as a courtesy title by the heir apparent to the earldom.

Asquith had originally wanted to be created simply Earl of Oxford. However, this greatly offended the relatives of the dormant earldom of Oxford, held for many centuries by the de Vere family, and Earl of Oxford and Earl Mortimer, held by the Harley family in the second creation. In the face of opposition from them, another title had to be selected – the formal title 'Earl of Oxford and Asquith' was finally decided as a compromise, with it being abbreviated to 'Earl of Oxford' in everyday conversation and letters, which still irritated the other family members.The first Earl was succeeded in 1928 by his grandson, his eldest son Raymond Asquith having been killed in World War I. The second Earl was a diplomat and administrator and served as Governor of the Seychelles from 1962 to 1967. He died in 2011 and was succeeded by his son, the third Earl and current holder of the title. The current Lord Oxford and Asquith is a retired diplomat.

Several other members of the Asquith family have also gained distinction. Raymond Asquith, eldest son of the first Earl and father of the second, was a barrister and intellectual. The Hon. Herbert Asquith, second son of the first Earl, was a poet, novelist and lawyer. The Hon. Arthur Melland Asquith (1883–1939), third son of the first Earl, was a Brigadier-General in the Army. The Hon. Cyril Asquith, fourth son of the first Earl, was a Lord of Appeal in Ordinary and was created a life peer as Baron Asquith of Bishopstone in 1951. Violet Asquith, better known under her married name of Violet Bonham Carter, was a Liberal politician and was created a life peer as Baroness Asquith of Yarnbury in 1964. Her eldest son the Hon. Mark Bonham Carter was a publisher and politician and was created a life peer as Baron Bonham-Carter in 1986. His daughter is the life peer Jane Bonham Carter, Baroness Bonham-Carter of Yarnbury.

The Hon. Raymond Bonham Carter, second son of Baroness Asquith of Yarnbury, was a banker and the father of the noted actress Helena Bonham Carter and of Edward Bonham Carter. Elizabeth Asquith (better known by her married name of Elizabeth Bibesco), the only daughter from the second marriage of the first Earl, was a writer. She married the Romanian lawyer, diplomat and writer Prince Antoine Bibesco in 1919. The Hon. Anthony Asquith, only son from the second marriage of the first Earl, became a successful film director. The Hon. Dominic Asquith, second son of the second Earl, is a prominent diplomat and served as British Ambassador to Iraq from 2006 to 2007. Margot Asquith (née Tennant), second wife of the first Earl, a socialite, author and wit, became the Countess of Oxford and Asquith upon her husband's becoming the first Earl.

The family seat is Mells Manor, near Mells, Somerset.

Elizabeth Barker, Baroness Barker

Elizabeth Jean Barker, Baroness Barker (born 31 January 1961) is a Liberal Democrat member of the House of Lords.

Barker was educated at Dalziel High School, a secondary school in Motherwell, Scotland. She studied at the University of Southampton.Barker worked for Age Concern between 1983 and 2007. She was created a life peer as Baroness Barker, of Anagach in Highland, on 31 July 1999 and is a Liberal Democrat spokesperson on the Voluntary Sector and Social Enterprise.Barker revealed in a speech to the House of Lords that she was in a same-sex relationship during the passage of the Marriage (Same Sex Couples) Act 2013. She has since become Patron of Opening Doors London, a charity providing support for older LGBT people, and an Ambassador for the Albert Kennedy Trust.

Graham Tope, Baron Tope

Graham Norman Tope, Baron Tope (born 30 November 1943) is a Liberal Democrat politician in the United Kingdom. He was also a councillor in the London Borough of Sutton until 2014.

In 1972, Tope captured the seat of Sutton and Cheam at a parliamentary by-election from the Conservative for the Liberal Party. The Conservatives retook the seat at the February 1974 General Election.

Having been appointed a Commander of the Order of the British Empire (CBE) in the 1991 Birthday Honours, Tope was created a life peer as Baron Tope, of Sutton in the London Borough of Sutton on 4 October 1994. He is a member of the Committee of the Regions of the European Union and is the only person in the country to have served as a member of a European Institution, a member of the UK Parliament, a member of a regional government structure and as a borough councillor all at the same time.

At the London Assembly, he was leader of the Liberal Democrat Group until 2006, member of the Audit Panel, and member of the Transport Committee. He was also a member of the Metropolitan Police Authority, which oversees the Metropolitan Police.

John Sharkey, Baron Sharkey

John Kevin Sharkey, Baron Sharkey (born 24 September 1947) is a British Liberal Democratic politician. He was chairman of the Liberal Democratic General Election campaign during the United Kingdom general election, 2010 and director of the YES! To Fairer Votes campaign during the United Kingdom Alternative Vote referendum, 2011. He had previously been appointed as Nick Clegg's advisor on strategic communications in January 2008.He is also a former joint managing director of Saatchi & Saatchi UK, founder and director of Sharkey Associates Ltd. and a trustee and honorary treasurer of the Hansard Society. He was created a Life Peer as Baron Sharkey, of Niton Undercliff in the County of the Isle of Wight on 20 December 2010.

Jonathan Marks, Baron Marks of Henley-on-Thames

Jonathan Clive Marks, Baron Marks of Henley-on-Thames, (born 19 October 1952) is a British barrister and Liberal Democrat life peer in the House of Lords.

Kath Pinnock, Baroness Pinnock

Kathryn Mary Pinnock, Baroness Pinnock (born 25 September 1946) is a British Liberal Democrat politician, life peer, and former school teacher. Since 1987, she has been a member of Kirklees Metropolitan Borough Council. She was leader of the council's Lib Dem group from 1991 to 2014, and leader of the council from 2000 to 2006. She was created a life peer in 2014 and now sits in the House of Lords.

List of female members of the European Parliament for the United Kingdom

This is a list of women who are or have been Members of the European Parliament for constituencies in the United Kingdom.

Maeve Sherlock

Maeve Christina Mary Sherlock, Baroness Sherlock, (born 10 November 1960) is a Labour Party life peer.

Margaret Prosser, Baroness Prosser

Margaret Theresa Prosser, Baroness Prosser (born 22 August 1937) is a Labour life peer.

Prosser was born on 22 August 1937 in Tooting, London, the daughter of Frederick James and Lillian (née Barry) Prosser.She was educated at St Boniface Primary School, Tooting and St Philomena's School, Carshalton. She studied as a mature student at North East London Polytechnic, qualifying with a Post-graduate Diploma in Advice and Information Studies in 1977.Prosser became active in the Labour party and the trades union movement in the early 1970s, rising through the ranks of the Transport and General Workers' Union (T&G) to become Deputy General Secretary in 1998. She was President of the Trades Union Congress in 1996.

She was a member of the Equal Opportunities Commission 1985–92 and the Low Pay Commission 2000–05. She was appointed an Officer of the Order of the British Empire (OBE) in the 1997 Birthday Honours. From 1996 to 2001 she was Treasurer of the Labour Party.

From 2002 to 2006 she was Chair of the Women's National Commission.On 11 June 2004, she was created Baroness Prosser, of Battersea in the London Borough of Wandsworth. From 1 November 2004 to 31 October 2010 she was a Non-Executive Director of Royal Mail plc.From 2006–12 she served as Deputy Chair of the Commission for Equality and Human Rights. In 2012 she published her autobiography Your Seat is at the End, written with Greg Watts and with a foreword by Tony Blair. As of 2019, Prosser is a Chair of The Board of Trustees of the Industry and Parliament Trust, which works to promote an understanding of business amongst parliamentarians and policymakers.

Members of the House of Lords

This is a list of members of the House of Lords, the upper house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.

Murray Elder, Baron Elder

Lord Thomas Murray Elder, Baron Elder (born 9 May 1950), known as Murray Elder, is a British Labour politician and member of the House of Lords.

Robert Dixon-Smith, Baron Dixon-Smith

Robert William Dixon-Smith, Baron Dixon-Smith DL (born 30 September 1934), is a British farmer and Conservative Party politician. Lord Dixon-Smith is a former Shadow Minister at the Department for Communities and Local Government.

Sally Hamwee, Baroness Hamwee

Sally Rachel Hamwee, Baroness Hamwee (born 12 January 1947) is a Liberal Democrat politician and their Lead Home Affairs Spokesperson in the House of Lords. She is a Life Peer and former chair of the London Assembly.

Susan Garden, Baroness Garden of Frognal

Susan Elizabeth Garden, Baroness Garden of Frognal, PC (born 22 February 1944) is a British Liberal Democrat politician and member of the House of Lords. She is a former Government Whip and Spokesperson for the Department for Culture Media and Sport (Olympics, sport, lottery, tourism), Department for Business, Innovation and Skills (Higher Education) and the Department for Education.Educated at Westonbirt School.

She was the Liberal Democrat candidate for Finchley and Golders Green (London) in 2005. In September 2007 she was created a life peer as Baroness Garden of Frognal, of Hampstead in the London Borough of Camden.

Tongan nobles

There are 33 traditional noble titles in the modern Kingdom of Tonga. They all are estate holders. Twenty titles were established by Siaosi Tupou I with the Constitution of 1875. In 1880 he added 10 more. Tupou II created the titles Lasike in 1894 and Veikune in 1903. Sālote Tupou III made in 1921 the title of Tupoutoʻa. In the beginning it was forbidden for a noble to have more than one title. Later this was made possible.

Some of the great chiefs who missed out on a noble's title (in 1910) were among others: ʻAlipate Mafileʻo of Kolomotuʻa, SA Sipu of Kolomotuʻa, Iki Lolohea of Haʻapai (but later inherited the Fulivai), Tēvita Tapueluelu of Vavaʻu, SF Tafolo, Tēvita Ula Afuhaʻamango of Vavaʻu, Siosiua Niutupuʻivaha Kaho (but later inherited the Tuʻivakanō).

These unacknowledged chiefs were still lords in the traditional sense. However their influence slowly decreased with each passing generation. Queen Sālote acknowledged this in some of her public speeches by paying respect to the chiefs then a separate respect to the Nobles of the Crown as: «Highly respectful for the Chiefs is also Highly respectful for the nobles in this land».

In the 21st century King George Tupou V created eight new noble titles but with no hereditary lands. This title is to remain with them for their whole life known and is considered equivalent to the United Kingdom's practice of appointing Life Peers.

Ramsay Robertson Dalgety (July 2008)

Tevita Poasi Tupou (July 2008)

Matoto of Tuʻanekivale (30 December 2010)

Tangi of Vaonukonuka (30 December 2010)

Feleti Sevele ʻo Vailahi (30 December 2010)

Madraiwiwi Tangatatonga (4 January 2011)

Sonatane Tuʻa Taumoepeau-Tupou - (deceased)

Taniela Tufui (July 2008 - deceased)

Orders of chivalry
Civil bravery
Nursing service
Meritorious service

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