Lieutenant general (abbreviated LTGEN and pronounced 'lef-tenant general') is the second-highest active rank of the Australian Army. It was created as a direct equivalent of the British military rank of lieutenant general, and is considered a three-star rank.
The rank of lieutenant general is held by the Chief of Army. The rank is also held when an army officer is the Vice Chief of the Defence Force, the Chief of Joint Operations, or the Chief of Joint Capabilities. The Chief of Capability Development Group, disestablished in 2016, also carried three-star rank.
Lieutenant general is a higher rank than major general, but lower than general. Lieutenant general is the equivalent of vice admiral in the Royal Australian Navy and air marshal in the Royal Australian Air Force. The insignia for a lieutenant general is the Crown of St Edward above a crossed sword and baton.[Note 1]
The LTGEN insignia of Crown of St Edward above a crossed sword and baton, with the word 'Australia' at the bottom.
|Service branch||Australian Army|
|Next higher rank||General|
|Next lower rank||Major general|
|Equivalent ranks||Vice admiral (RAN)|
Air marshal (RAAF)
The first Australian lieutenant general was Sir Harry Chauvel in 1917.
From 1 January 1909 to 18 February 1997, the most senior Australian Army position was named Chief of the General Staff. The first Australian to occupy this position was Colonel William Throsby Bridges. The first Australian lieutenant general to occupy this position was Sir Brudenell White, from 1 June 1920. Since August 1940, this position, and its successor (Chief of Army), have been held by Australian lieutenant generals.
In March 1958, the role of Chairman, Chiefs of Staff Committee was created, but with no command authority. This was initially occupied by Lieutenant General Sir Henry Wells (March 1958 – March 1959), and was rotated through the three services, hence (briefly) providing a three-star position available to army officers. In 1968 this became a four-star position. It was replaced in February 1976 by a new position, Chief of Defence Force Staff, with command authority over the Australian Defence Force, and in October 1984 the position was renamed Chief of the Defence Force (CDF) to more clearly reflect the role and its authority.
In June 1986, the three-star position Vice Chief of the Defence Force (VCDF) was created. As with CDF, this position rotates between the forces. Lieutenant General John Baker was the first army officer to occupy the position (October 1992 – April 1995).
A third three-star position, Chief of Capability Development Group (CCDG), which also rotates between the forces, was created in 2003. Lieutenant General John Caligari was the final officer of three-star rank to hold the position before it was disestablished in 2016
In September 2007, a fourth three-star position, Chief of Joint Operations, was created.
There are two other permanent three-star positions in the Australian Defence Force, Chief of Navy and Chief of Air Force. There are also a number of other three-star-equivalent positions in the Australian Defence Organisation, but these are all held by civilians.
general. This along with the * (asterisk) indicates that the officer was subsequently promoted to
This along with the + (plus sign) indicates that the officer retired with the honorary rank of lieutenant general.
This along with the ^ (arrowhead) indicates that the officer is a currently serving lieutenant general.
The following people have held the rank of lieutenant general in the Australian Army:
|Name||Year of promotion||Senior command(s) or appointment(s) in rank||Notes|
|Sir Harry Chauvel*||1917||Chief of the General Staff (1923–30),[Note 2] Inspector General of the Australian Army (1919–30), Desert Mounted Corps (1917–19)|||
|Sir John Monash*||1918||Director General of Repatriation (1918–19), Australian Corps (1918)|||
|Sir Brudenell White*||1918||Chief of the General Staff (1920–23, 1940)|||
|Sir Talbot Hobbs||1918||Australian Corps (1918–19)|||
|James Gordon Legge+||1924|||
|Sir James McCay+||1926|||
|Ernest Squires||1938||Chief of the General Staff (1939–40), Inspector General of the Australian Army (1938–39)|||
|Sir Thomas Blamey*||1939||I Corps (1940–41)|||
|Sir John Lavarack||1939 / 1941[Note 3]||First Army (1942–44), I Corps (1941–42), Southern Command (1939–40)|||
|Sir Vernon Sturdee||1939||Chief of the General Staff (1940–42, 1946–50), First Army (1944–45)|||
|John Whitham+||1940||Southern Command (1940)|||
|Charles Miles||1940||Eastern Command (1940–41)|||
|Edward Smart||1940||Southern Command (1940–42)|||
|Sir Iven Mackay||1941||New Guinea Force (1943–44), Second Army (1942–44)|||
|Henry Wynter||1941||Lieutenant General Administration at Allied Land Headquarters (1942–44), Eastern Command (1941–42)|||
|Sir Leslie Morshead||1942||I Corps (1944–45), Second Army (1944), New Guinea Force (1944), II Corps (1943)|||
|Gordon Bennett||1942||III Corps (1942–44)|
|Sir Edmund Herring||1942||I Corps (1942–44), New Guinea Force (1942–43), II Corps (1942)|||
|Sir Carl Jess||1942||Chairman of the Manpower Committee (1939–44)|||
|Sir John Northcott||1942||British Commonwealth Occupation Force (1946), Chief of the General Staff (1940, 1942–45)|||
|Sir Sydney Rowell||1942 / 1946[Note 4]||Chief of the General Staff (1950–54), Vice Chief of the General Staff (1946–50), I Corps (1942)|||
|Sir Frank Berryman||1944||Eastern Command (1946–53), I Corps (1944), II Corps (1943–44)|||
|Sir Stanley Savige||1944||II Corps (1944–45), New Guinea Force (1944), I Corps (1944)|||
|Sir Horace Robertson||1945||Southern Command (1953–54), British Commonwealth Forces Korea (1951), British Commonwealth Occupation Force (1946–51), First Army (1945–46)|||
|Allan Boase||1949||Southern Command (1949–51)|||
|Sir William Bridgeford+||1951||British Commonwealth Forces Korea (1951–53), Eastern Command (1951)|||
|Sir Henry Wells||1951||Chairman, Chiefs of Staff Committee (1958–59), Chief of the General Staff (1954–58), British Commonwealth Forces Korea (1953–54), Southern Command (1951–53)|||
|Victor Secombe+||1951||Northern Command (1952–54), Eastern Command (1951–52)|||
|Sir Eric Woodward||1953||Eastern Command (1953–57)|||
|Rudolph Bierwirth||1954||British Commonwealth Forces Korea (1954–56)|
|Robert Nimmo||1954||United Nations Military Observer Group in India and Pakistan (1952–66)|||
|Sir Ragnar Garrett||1954||Chief of the General Staff (1958–60), Southern Command (1954–58)|||
|Hector Edgar||1958||Eastern Command (1960–63), Southern Command (1958–60)|||
|Sir Reginald Pollard||1960||Chief of the General Staff (1960–63), Eastern Command (1957–60)|||
|Sir John Wilton*||1963||Chairman, Chiefs of Staff Committee (1966–70),[Note 5] Chief of the General Staff (1963–66)|||
|Sir Thomas Daly||1966||Chief of the General Staff (1966–71)|||
|Sir Mervyn Brogan||1971||Chief of the General Staff (1971–73)|
|Sir Francis Hassett*||1973||Chief of the General Staff (1973–75)|||
|Sir Arthur MacDonald*||1975||Chief of the General Staff (1975–77)|||
|Sir Donald Dunstan||1977||Chief of the General Staff (1977–82)|||
|Sir Phillip Bennett*||1982||Chief of the General Staff (1982–84)|
|Peter Gration*||1984||Chief of the General Staff (1984–87)|||
|Lawrence O'Donnell||1987||Chief of the General Staff (1987–90)|
|John Coates||1990||Chief of the General Staff (1990–92)|||
|John Sanderson||1992||Chief of Army (1995–98),[Note 6] Commander Joint Forces Australia (1993–95), Commander United Nations Transitional Authority in Cambodia (1992–93)|||
|John Grey||1992||Chief of the General Staff (1992–95)|||
|John Baker*||1992||Vice Chief of the Defence Force (1992–95)|||
|Frank Hickling||1998||Chief of Army (1998–2000)|||
|Desmond Mueller||2000||Vice Chief of the Defence Force (2000–02)|||
|Peter Cosgrove*||2000||Chief of Army (2000–02)|||
|Peter Leahy||2002||Chief of Army (2002–08)|||
|David Hurley*||2003||Vice Chief of Defence Force (2008–11), Chief of Joint Operations (2007–08), Chief of Capability Development Group (2003–07)|||
|Ken Gillespie||2005||Chief of Army (2008–11), Vice Chief of the Defence Force (2005–08)|||
|Mark Evans||2008||Chief of Joint Operations (2008–11)|||
|Ash Power||2011||Chief of Joint Operations (2011–14)|
|David Morrison||2011||Chief of Army (2011–15)|||
|Angus Campbell*||2013||Chief of Army (2015–18), Commander Operation Sovereign Borders (2013–15)|||
|John Caligari||2014||Chief of Capability Development Group (2014–15)|||
|Richard Burr^||2018||Chief of Army (2018–)|
|John Frewen^||2018||Principal Deputy Director Australian Signals Directorate (2018–)|
|Greg Bilton^||2019||Chief of Joint Operations (2019–)|
Lieutenant general, lieutenant-general and similar (abbrev Lt Gen, LTG and similar) is a three-star military rank (NATO code OF-8) used in many countries. The rank traces its origins to the Middle Ages, where the title of lieutenant general was held by the second in command on the battlefield, who was normally subordinate to a captain general.
In modern armies, lieutenant general normally ranks immediately below general and above major general; it is equivalent to the navy rank of vice admiral, and in air forces with a separate rank structure, it is equivalent to air marshal. A lieutenant general commands an army corps, made up of typically three army divisions, and consisting of around 60,000–70,000 soldiers (U.S.).
The seeming incongruity that a lieutenant general outranks a major general (whereas a major outranks a lieutenant) is due to the derivation of the latter rank from sergeant major general, which was also subordinate to lieutenant general. In some countries (e.g. France and Italy), the ranks of corps general or lieutenant colonel general are used instead of lieutenant general, in an attempt to solve this apparent anomaly – these ranks are often translated into English as lieutenant general.However, some countries of Latin America such as Brazil and Chile use divisional general as the equivalent of lieutenant general. In addition, because no brigadier general rank is used in Japan, lieutenant general is the rank of divisional commander. Therefore, it corresponds to divisional general of these countries. In a number of smaller states which employ NATO and western style military organizational structures, because of the limited number of soldiers in their armies, the rank of lieutenant general is the highest army rank in use. In Latvia, Lithuania and Singapore, the chief of defence is a lieutenant general, and in the Irish Defence Forces and Israel Defense Forces, the Chief of Staff holds this rank.
|Australia-United States Rank Code||Officer Cadet||O-1||O-2||O-3||O-4||O-5||O-6||O-7
|Royal Australian Navy||MIDN||ASLT||SBLT||LEUT||LCDR||CMDR||CAPT||CDRE||RADM||VADM||ADML||AF|
|Royal Australian Air Force||OFFCDT||PLTOFF||FLGOFF||FLTLT||SQNLDR||WGCDR||GPCAPT||AIRCDRE||AVM||AIRMSHL||ACM||MRAAF|