Lieutenant general (Australia)

Lieutenant general (abbreviated LTGEN and pronounced 'lef-tenant general') is the second-highest active rank of the Australian Army. It was created as a direct equivalent of the British military rank of lieutenant general, and is considered a three-star rank.

The rank of lieutenant general is held by the Chief of Army. The rank is also held when an army officer is the Vice Chief of the Defence Force, the Chief of Joint Operations, or the Chief of Joint Capabilities. The Chief of Capability Development Group, disestablished in 2016, also carried three-star rank.

Lieutenant general is a higher rank than major general, but lower than general. Lieutenant general is the equivalent of vice admiral in the Royal Australian Navy and air marshal in the Royal Australian Air Force. The insignia for a lieutenant general is the Crown of St Edward above a crossed sword and baton.[1][Note 1]

Lieutenant general
Australian Army OF-8
The LTGEN insignia of Crown of St Edward above a crossed sword and baton, with the word 'Australia' at the bottom.
CountryAustralia
Service branchAustralian Army
AbbreviationLTGEN
RankThree-star
NATO rankOF-8
Non-NATO rankO-9
Formation1917
Next higher rankGeneral
Next lower rankMajor general
Equivalent ranksVice admiral (RAN)
Air marshal (RAAF)

Australian Army lieutenant generals

The first Australian lieutenant general was Sir Harry Chauvel in 1917.

CGS/CA – Chief of the General Staff and Chief of Army

From 1 January 1909 to 18 February 1997, the most senior Australian Army position was named Chief of the General Staff. The first Australian to occupy this position was Colonel William Throsby Bridges. The first Australian lieutenant general to occupy this position was Sir Brudenell White, from 1 June 1920. Since August 1940, this position, and its successor (Chief of Army), have been held by Australian lieutenant generals.

Chairman, Chiefs of Staff Committee (1958–1965)

In March 1958, the role of Chairman, Chiefs of Staff Committee was created, but with no command authority. This was initially occupied by Lieutenant General Sir Henry Wells (March 1958 – March 1959), and was rotated through the three services, hence (briefly) providing a three-star position available to army officers. In 1968 this became a four-star position. It was replaced in February 1976 by a new position, Chief of Defence Force Staff, with command authority over the Australian Defence Force, and in October 1984 the position was renamed Chief of the Defence Force (CDF) to more clearly reflect the role and its authority.

Vice Chief of the Defence Force (since 1986)

In June 1986, the three-star position Vice Chief of the Defence Force (VCDF) was created. As with CDF, this position rotates between the forces. Lieutenant General John Baker was the first army officer to occupy the position (October 1992 – April 1995).

Chief of Capability Development Group (2003–2016)

A third three-star position, Chief of Capability Development Group (CCDG), which also rotates between the forces, was created in 2003. Lieutenant General John Caligari was the final officer of three-star rank to hold the position before it was disestablished in 2016

Chief of Joint Operations (since 2007)

In September 2007, a fourth three-star position, Chief of Joint Operations, was created.

Equivalents

There are two other permanent three-star positions in the Australian Defence Force, Chief of Navy and Chief of Air Force. There are also a number of other three-star-equivalent positions in the Australian Defence Organisation, but these are all held by civilians.

List of lieutenant generals

  This along with the * (asterisk) indicates that the officer was subsequently promoted to general.
  This along with the + (plus sign) indicates that the officer retired with the honorary rank of lieutenant general.
  This along with the ^ (arrowhead) indicates that the officer is a currently serving lieutenant general.

The following people have held the rank of lieutenant general in the Australian Army:

Name Year of promotion Senior command(s) or appointment(s) in rank Notes
Sir Harry Chauvel* 1917 Chief of the General Staff (1923–30),[Note 2] Inspector General of the Australian Army (1919–30), Desert Mounted Corps (1917–19) [2]
Sir John Monash* 1918 Director General of Repatriation (1918–19), Australian Corps (1918) [3]
Sir Brudenell White* 1918 Chief of the General Staff (1920–23, 1940) [4]
Sir Talbot Hobbs 1918 Australian Corps (1918–19) [5]
James Gordon Legge+ 1924 [6]
Sir James McCay+ 1926 [7]
Ernest Squires 1938 Chief of the General Staff (1939–40), Inspector General of the Australian Army (1938–39) [8]
Sir Thomas Blamey* 1939 I Corps (1940–41) [9]
Sir John Lavarack 1939 / 1941[Note 3] First Army (1942–44), I Corps (1941–42), Southern Command (1939–40) [10]
Sir Vernon Sturdee 1939 Chief of the General Staff (1940–42, 1946–50), First Army (1944–45) [10]
John Whitham+ 1940 Southern Command (1940) [11]
Charles Miles 1940 Eastern Command (1940–41) [12][13]
Edward Smart 1940 Southern Command (1940–42) [10]
Sir Iven Mackay 1941 New Guinea Force (1943–44), Second Army (1942–44) [10]
Henry Wynter 1941 Lieutenant General Administration at Allied Land Headquarters (1942–44), Eastern Command (1941–42) [14]
Sir Leslie Morshead 1942 I Corps (1944–45), Second Army (1944), New Guinea Force (1944), II Corps (1943) [10]
Gordon Bennett 1942 III Corps (1942–44)
Sir Edmund Herring 1942 I Corps (1942–44), New Guinea Force (1942–43), II Corps (1942) [15]
Sir Carl Jess 1942 Chairman of the Manpower Committee (1939–44) [16]
Sir John Northcott 1942 British Commonwealth Occupation Force (1946), Chief of the General Staff (1940, 1942–45) [10]
Sir Sydney Rowell 1942 / 1946[Note 4] Chief of the General Staff (1950–54), Vice Chief of the General Staff (1946–50), I Corps (1942) [17]
Sir Frank Berryman 1944 Eastern Command (1946–53), I Corps (1944), II Corps (1943–44) [10]
Sir Stanley Savige 1944 II Corps (1944–45), New Guinea Force (1944), I Corps (1944) [10]
Sir Horace Robertson 1945 Southern Command (1953–54), British Commonwealth Forces Korea (1951), British Commonwealth Occupation Force (1946–51), First Army (1945–46) [10]
Allan Boase 1949 Southern Command (1949–51) [18]
Cyril Clowes+ 1949 [19]
Sir William Bridgeford+ 1951 British Commonwealth Forces Korea (1951–53), Eastern Command (1951) [20]
Sir Henry Wells 1951 Chairman, Chiefs of Staff Committee (1958–59), Chief of the General Staff (1954–58), British Commonwealth Forces Korea (1953–54), Southern Command (1951–53) [21]
Victor Secombe+ 1951 Northern Command (1952–54), Eastern Command (1951–52) [22]
Sir Eric Woodward 1953 Eastern Command (1953–57) [23]
Rudolph Bierwirth 1954 British Commonwealth Forces Korea (1954–56)
Robert Nimmo 1954 United Nations Military Observer Group in India and Pakistan (1952–66) [24]
Sir Ragnar Garrett 1954 Chief of the General Staff (1958–60), Southern Command (1954–58) [25]
Hector Edgar 1958 Eastern Command (1960–63), Southern Command (1958–60) [26]
Sir Reginald Pollard 1960 Chief of the General Staff (1960–63), Eastern Command (1957–60) [27]
Sir John Wilton* 1963 Chairman, Chiefs of Staff Committee (1966–70),[Note 5] Chief of the General Staff (1963–66) [28]
Sir Thomas Daly 1966 Chief of the General Staff (1966–71) [29]
Sir Mervyn Brogan 1971 Chief of the General Staff (1971–73)
Sir Francis Hassett* 1973 Chief of the General Staff (1973–75) [30]
Sir Arthur MacDonald* 1975 Chief of the General Staff (1975–77) [31]
Sir Donald Dunstan 1977 Chief of the General Staff (1977–82) [32]
Sir Phillip Bennett* 1982 Chief of the General Staff (1982–84)
Peter Gration* 1984 Chief of the General Staff (1984–87) [33]
Lawrence O'Donnell 1987 Chief of the General Staff (1987–90)
John Coates 1990 Chief of the General Staff (1990–92) [34]
John Sanderson 1992 Chief of Army (1995–98),[Note 6] Commander Joint Forces Australia (1993–95), Commander United Nations Transitional Authority in Cambodia (1992–93) [35]
John Grey 1992 Chief of the General Staff (1992–95) [36]
John Baker* 1992 Vice Chief of the Defence Force (1992–95) [37]
Frank Hickling 1998 Chief of Army (1998–2000) [38]
Desmond Mueller 2000 Vice Chief of the Defence Force (2000–02) [39]
Peter Cosgrove* 2000 Chief of Army (2000–02) [40]
Peter Leahy 2002 Chief of Army (2002–08) [41]
David Hurley* 2003 Vice Chief of Defence Force (2008–11), Chief of Joint Operations (2007–08), Chief of Capability Development Group (2003–07) [42]
Ken Gillespie 2005 Chief of Army (2008–11), Vice Chief of the Defence Force (2005–08) [43]
Mark Evans 2008 Chief of Joint Operations (2008–11) [44]
Ash Power 2011 Chief of Joint Operations (2011–14)
David Morrison 2011 Chief of Army (2011–15) [45]
Angus Campbell* 2013 Chief of Army (2015–18), Commander Operation Sovereign Borders (2013–15) [46]
John Caligari 2014 Chief of Capability Development Group (2014–15) [47]
Richard Burr^ 2018 Chief of Army (2018–)
John Frewen^ 2018 Principal Deputy Director Australian Signals Directorate (2018–)
Greg Bilton^ 2019 Chief of Joint Operations (2019–)

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Australian Army officer rank insignia are identical to British Army officer rank insignia, with the difference that Australian insignia have the word "Australia" below them.
  2. ^ Chauvel was promoted to general in November 1929, the year prior to his retirement.
  3. ^ Lavarack accepted a demotion to major general in 1940 to assume command of the 7th Division.
  4. ^ Rowell was promoted lieutenant general on assuming command of I Corps in April 1942, but was dismissed from the command in September and subsequently reduced to major general. He was restored to lieutenant general in 1946 on appointment as Vice Chief of the General Staff.[17]
  5. ^ Wilton was promoted to general in September 1968, halfway through his term as Chairman, Chiefs of Staff Committee.
  6. ^ Sanderson was Chief of the General Staff until the position was re-titled as Chief of Army in February 1997.

References

  1. ^ "Chapter 4: Badges and Emblems" (PDF). Army Dress Manual. Canberra: Australian Army. 6 June 2014. p. 48. Archived from the original (PDF) on 3 April 2015.
  2. ^ Hill, Alec (1978), Chauvel of the Light Horse: A Biography of General Sir Harry Chauvel, G.C.M.G., K.C.B., Carlton, Victoria: Melbourne University Press, ISBN 0-522-84146-5, OCLC 5003626
  3. ^ Serle, Geoffrey (1986). "Monash, Sir John (1865–1931)". Australian Dictionary of Biography. Canberra: Australian National University. Retrieved 12 March 2011.
  4. ^ Grey, Jeffrey (1990). White, Sir Cyril Brudenell Bingham (1876–1940). Australian Dictionary of Biography. Vol. 12. Melbourne University Press. pp. 460–463. Retrieved 16 March 2010.
  5. ^ Hill, A. J. (1983). Hobbs, Sir Joseph John Talbot (1864–1938). Australian Dictionary of Biography. Vol. 9. Melbourne University Press. pp. 315–317. Retrieved 30 July 2009.
  6. ^ Coulthard-Clark, C. D. (1986). Legge, James Gordon (1863–1947)'. Australian Dictionary of Biography. Vol. 10. Melbourne University Press. pp. 63–65.
  7. ^ Serle, Geoffrey (1986). "McCay, Sir James Whiteside (1864–1930)". Australian Dictionary of Biography. Canberra: Australian National University. Retrieved 1 December 2009.
  8. ^ Lodge, A. B. (1990). Squires, Ernest Ker (1882–1940). Australian Dictionary of Biography. Vol. 12. Melbourne University Press. pp. 41–42.
  9. ^ Horner, David (1978). Crisis of Command: Australian Generalship and the Japanese Threat, 1941–1943. Canberra: Australian National University Press. ISBN 0-7081-1345-1.
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h i "The Army List of Officers of the Australian Military Forces". Melbourne: Australian Army. 1950. OCLC 220688670.
  11. ^ Burness, Peter (1990). Whitham, John Lawrence (1881–1952). Australian Dictionary of Biography. Vol. 12. Melbourne University Press. pp. 476–477.
  12. ^ "Australian Military Forces". Commonwealth of Australia Gazette. 4 July 1940. Retrieved 5 August 2019.
  13. ^ "Retired List". Commonwealth of Australia Gazette. 20 March 1947. Retrieved 5 August 2019.
  14. ^ Perry, Warren (2002). Wynter, Henry Douglas (1886–1945). Australian Dictionary of Biography. Vol. 16. Melbourne University Press. pp. 599–600.
  15. ^ Browne, Geoff. Herring, Sir Edmund Francis (Ned) (1892–1982). Australian Dictionary of Biography. Vol. 17. Melbourne University Press. pp. 520–523.
  16. ^ Coulthard-Clark, C. D. (1983). Jess, Sir Carl Herman (1884–1948)'. Australian Dictionary of Biography. Vol. 9. Melbourne University Press. pp. 485–487.
  17. ^ a b Hill, A. J. "Rowell, Sir Sydney Fairbairn (1894–1975)". Australian Dictionary of Biography. Canberra: Australian National University. Retrieved 31 January 2009.
  18. ^ Dicker, George (1993). Boase, Allan Joseph (1894–1964). Australian Dictionary of Biography. Vol. 13. Melbourne University Press. pp. 208–209.
  19. ^ Denholm, David (1993). Clowes, Cyril Albert (1892–1968). Australian Dictionary of Biography. Vol. 13. Melbourne University Press. pp. 446–447.
  20. ^ Grey, Jeffrey (1993). Bridgeford, Sir William (1894–1971). Australian Dictionary of Biography. Vol. 13. Melbourne University Press. pp. 255–257.
  21. ^ Andrews, E. M. (2002). Wells, Sir Henry (1898–1973). Australian Dictionary of Biography. Vol. 16. Melbourne University Press. p. 521.
  22. ^ Greville, P. J (2002). Secombe, Victor Clarence (1897–1962). Australian Dictionary of Biography. Vol. 16. Melbourne University Press. Retrieved 15 June 2013.
  23. ^ "Woodward, Sir Eric Winslow (1899–1967)". Australian Dictionary of Biography. Australian National University. Retrieved 20 July 2010.
  24. ^ James, Neil; Londey, Peter (2005). Nimmo, Robert Harold (1893–1966)]. Australian Dictionary of Biography. Supplementary volume. Melbourne University Press. pp. 303–304.
  25. ^ Grey, Jeffrey (1996). Garrett, Sir Alwyn Ragnar (1900–1977)'. Australian Dictionary of Biography. Vol. 14. Melbourne University Press. p. 252.
  26. ^ "Edgar, Hector Geoffrey". World War II Nominal Roll. Commonwealth of Australia. Retrieved 26 August 2009.
  27. ^ Clark, Chris. "Pollard, Sir Reginald George (1903–1978)". Australian Dictionary of Biography. Retrieved 2 May 2015.
  28. ^ Horner, David. "Wilton, Sir John Gordon Noel (1910–1981)". Australian Dictionary of Biography. Retrieved 28 April 2015.
  29. ^ Farquharson, John (9 January 2004). "Daly, Sir Thomas Joseph (Tom) (1913–2004)". Obituaries Australia. Australian National University. Retrieved 20 October 2013.
  30. ^ "Who's who in Australian Military History: General Francis George (Frank) Hassett, AC, KBE, CB, DSO". Australian War Memorial. Retrieved 29 August 2008.
  31. ^ "Previous Chiefs". Chief of the Defence Force. Australia: Department of Defence. Archived from the original on 30 January 2009. Retrieved 28 February 2009.
  32. ^ "In Memoriam: Lieutenant General Sir Donald Beaumont Dunstan, AC, KBE, CB (1923–2011)". Australian Army Journal. VIII (3): 187–189. 2011. ISSN 1448-2843.
  33. ^ "Peter Courtney Gration". Who's Who in Australia Online. Crown Content. Retrieved 17 February 2014.
  34. ^ "Lieutenant General Henry John Coates". Who's Who in Australia Online. ConnectWeb. Retrieved 17 August 2014.
  35. ^ "Lieutenant General John Murray Sanderson, AC". Australian War Museum.
  36. ^ "Lieutenant General John Cedric Grey". Who's Who in Australia Online. Connect Web. Retrieved 10 August 2014.
  37. ^ "Short biography (and service record) of General John Stuart Baker AC, DSM". MECC 200/07 (Press release). Department of Defence, Australian Government. 10 July 2007.
  38. ^ Singh, Shivani (2010). Who's Who in Australia 2010. Melbourne, Australia: Crown Content. ISBN 1-74095-172-7.
  39. ^ "LTGEN Desmond Mueller". Biography (Press release). Department of Defence. 2 May 2000.
  40. ^ "Biographies of Peter and Lynne Cosgrove". Governor-General of Australia. Australian Government. Retrieved 30 March 2014.
  41. ^ "Lieutenant General Professor Peter Francis Leahy". Who's Who in Australia Online. ConnectWeb. Retrieved 10 August 2014.
  42. ^ "General David Hurley, AC, DSC". Biography. Department of Defence, Australian Government.
  43. ^ "Biography: LTGEN Ken Gillespie". Department of Defence, Australian Government. Archived from the original on 9 October 2008. Retrieved 14 September 2008.
  44. ^ "Lt-Gen. (Rtd) Mark Evans". Who's Who in Australia Online. ConnectWeb. Retrieved 18 June 2014.
  45. ^ "Chief of Army – Lieutenant General David Morrison, AO". Australian Army. Archived from the original on 4 August 2013.
  46. ^ "Major General Angus Campbell promoted to Lieutenant General". Defence News. Department of Defence, Australian Government. 19 September 2013.
  47. ^ "Lieutenant General John Graham Caligari". Who's Who in Australia Online. ConnectWeb. Retrieved 11 October 2015.
Lieutenant general

Lieutenant general, lieutenant-general and similar (abbrev Lt Gen, LTG and similar) is a three-star military rank (NATO code OF-8) used in many countries. The rank traces its origins to the Middle Ages, where the title of lieutenant general was held by the second in command on the battlefield, who was normally subordinate to a captain general.

In modern armies, lieutenant general normally ranks immediately below general and above major general; it is equivalent to the navy rank of vice admiral, and in air forces with a separate rank structure, it is equivalent to air marshal. A lieutenant general commands an army corps, made up of typically three army divisions, and consisting of around 60,000–70,000 soldiers (U.S.).

The seeming incongruity that a lieutenant general outranks a major general (whereas a major outranks a lieutenant) is due to the derivation of the latter rank from sergeant major general, which was also subordinate to lieutenant general. In some countries (e.g. France and Italy), the ranks of corps general or lieutenant colonel general are used instead of lieutenant general, in an attempt to solve this apparent anomaly – these ranks are often translated into English as lieutenant general.However, some countries of Latin America such as Brazil and Chile use divisional general as the equivalent of lieutenant general. In addition, because no brigadier general rank is used in Japan, lieutenant general is the rank of divisional commander. Therefore, it corresponds to divisional general of these countries. In a number of smaller states which employ NATO and western style military organizational structures, because of the limited number of soldiers in their armies, the rank of lieutenant general is the highest army rank in use. In Latvia, Lithuania and Singapore, the chief of defence is a lieutenant general, and in the Irish Defence Forces and Israel Defense Forces, the Chief of Staff holds this rank.

Australia-United States Rank Code Officer Cadet O-1 O-2 O-3 O-4 O-5 O-6 O-7
*
O-8
**
O-9
***
O-10
****
O-11
*****
Royal Australian Navy MIDN ASLT SBLT LEUT LCDR CMDR CAPT CDRE RADM VADM ADML AF
Australian Army OCDT 2LT LT CAPT MAJ LTCOL COL BRIG MAJGEN LTGEN GEN FM
Royal Australian Air Force OFFCDT PLTOFF FLGOFF FLTLT SQNLDR WGCDR GPCAPT AIRCDRE AVM AIRMSHL ACM MRAAF

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