Lieutenant admiral

Lieutenant admiral is a senior naval military rank in some countries of the world.

In the Royal Netherlands Navy the rank of lieutenant admiral (Dutch: luitenant-admiraal) is a four star rank, senior to vice admiral (Dutch: vice-admiraal) and equivalent to (full) admiral in most other navies. The rank of admiral is ceremonially reserved for a prince of the house of Oranje-Nassau or the king; but is usually no longer active. It is used whenever the Commandant der Strijdkrachten (Dutch for Commander of the Armed Forces) is a Navy-officer.

The rank was used in the Kingdom of England during the sixteenth century for the office of the Lieutenant of the Admiralty.

During the seventeenth century, the senior Dutch fleet commanders Michiel de Ruyter and Cornelis Tromp, had the rank of lieutenant admiral-general (Dutch: luitenant-admiraal-generaal) to distinguish them from other naval officers with the rank of lieutenant admiral.

The Swedish word for Lieutenant admiral is: amiralitetslöjtnant.

Other countries

Equivlent to OF-8

Equivalent to OF-9

  • Brazil (Almirante-de-Esquadra)
  • Italy (Ammiraglio de squadra con incarichi speciali)
Adriaen Banckert

Adriaen van Trappen Banckert (c.1615 – 22 April 1684) was a Dutch admiral. In English literature he is sometimes known as Banckers. His first name is often rendered in the modern spelling Adriaan. Van Trappen was the original family name, but the family was also and better known under the name of Banckert. In the 17th century Netherlands such a situation was solved by combining the two names.

He was born, probably in Vlissingen or Flushing, somewhere between 1615 and 1620 as the second and middle son of Rear-Admiral Joost van Trappen Banckert and Adriana Jansen. Both his brothers were navy captains, serving the Admiralty of Zealand also.

Adriaen started his career on the ship of his father, fighting the Dunkirkers. In 1639, at the Battle of the Downs, Adriaen was master on that ship. In 1642 he became a captain himself.

During the First Anglo-Dutch War Adriaen was flagcaptain of the Zealandic Vice-Admiral Johan Evertsen on the Hollandia. In the Battle of Portland in 1653 his elder brother Joost was killed; he himself was taken prisoner the same year when his ship foundered during the Battle of Scheveningen.

During the Northern Wars he fought in 1658 against the Swedish fleet in the Battle of the Sound as captain of the Seeridder and subcommander of the squadron of Vice-Admiral Witte de With. Though the battle was a Dutch victory, Adriaen because of adverse currents failed to assist De With when the Brederode was grounded and surrounded. De With was fatally wounded. During the winter campaign of 1659, the Seeridder lost all her anchors by a storm, grounded and then was frozen solid near Hven. The Swedish army tried to exploit this situation by sending a company of soldiers over the ice to destroy the ship, but Banckert beat off all attacks for three days, until he could work his ship free. Banckert was granted a special audience by Frederick III of Denmark who personally thanked him for the courage shown. The Admiralty of Zealand honoured him with a golden chain worth a hundred golden dollars.

When in 1664 the Second Anglo-Dutch War threatened, the five Dutch admiralties appointed many new flag officers. Banckert was made Rear-Admiral of the Zealandic admiralty on 16 December 1664 and soon after temporary Vice-Admiral. After the Battle of Lowestoft in which his younger brother Johan was killed, he was appointed Vice-Admiral on 15 July 1665. In 1666 he participated in the Four Days Battle; in the St James' Day Battle his ship the Thoolen sank and he was forced to move his flag to the Ter Veere. He managed to cover the retreat of the Dutch fleet on the second day of the battle. In that fight Zealandic Lieutenant-Admiral Johan Evertsen was killed and Banckert was appointed as Lieutenant-Admiral of Zealand on 5 September 1666, and thus held the highest navy rank of that province. In 1667 because of recruiting problems, Banckert was too late with his squadron to participate in the actual Raid on the Medway.

In the four naval battles of the Third Anglo-Dutch War Banckert played an important role, especially by fighting the French squadron within the combined Anglo-French fleet. At the Battle of Solebay Banckert managed to lure away the French fleet allowing the main Dutch force under Lieutenant-Admiral Michiel de Ruyter to attack the English fleet with some parity. In the first action of the double Battle of Schooneveld the French fleet broke formation to attack Banckert's squadron, which allowed Lieutenant-Admiral-General De Ruyter to split the French squadron and outmanoeuvre the allies. In the second action Banckert's attack drove the French away. In the Battle of Texel Banckert managed to prevent a joining of the French and English fleet, again allowing De Ruyter to fight the English with more equal forces. Because of the crucial part he played in these battles Banckert's fame among the French and English was assured; ironically in The Netherlands his importance wasn't understood by the larger part of the population, also because most writers were Hollandic and felt little inclination to honour a Zealandic hero.

In 1674, he joined with Hollandic Lieutenant-Admirals Cornelis Tromp and Aert Jansse van Nes in the expedition against the French coast, in which the island of Noirmoutier was taken and devastated. When Tromp took his squadron to join the Spanish, the command of the remainder of the Dutch fleet was given to Van Nes, although Banckert had seniority. Banckert didn't show his discontent with this situation to his friend Van Nes, but did express his offended feelings in a letter to the Zealandic admiralty. They shared his opinion and decided never again to send out their Lieutenant-Admiral in a confederate expedition, to make sure he wouldn't be humiliated by the Hollanders. This way Banckert left active service on 3 December 1674, though remaining commander of the Zealandic fleet. In 1678 he joined the admiralty council, which was exceptional for a navy officer. He died in Middelburg, where he was buried in St Peter's Church.

Bartholomeus van der Helst

Bartholomeus van der Helst (1613 – buried 16 December 1670) was a Dutch painter. Considered to be one of the leading portrait painters of the Dutch Golden Age, his elegant portraits gained him the patronage of Amsterdam's elite as well as the Stadtholder's circle. Besides portraits, van der Helst painted a few genre pictures as well as some biblical scenes and mythological subjects.

Battle of Augusta

The naval Battle of Augusta (also known as the Battle of Agosta) took place on 22 April 1676 during the Franco-Dutch War and was fought between a French fleet of 29 man-of-war, five frigates and eight fireships under Abraham Duquesne and a Dutch-Spanish fleet of 27 (17 Dutch, 10 Spanish) plus five fireships with Dutch Lieutenant-Admiral-General Michiel de Ruyter in command. The battle was a short but intense affair and ended abruptly when Duquesne, after hearing that De Ruyter had been mortally wounded, retreated. Neither side lost a ship, though there were many dead and wounded, especially among the Dutch.

Battle of Lowestoft

The Battle of Lowestoft took place on 13 June [O.S. 3 June] 1665 during the Second Anglo-Dutch War. A fleet of more than a hundred ships of the United Provinces commanded by Lieutenant-Admiral Jacob van Wassenaer Obdam attacked an English fleet of equal size commanded by James, Duke of York forty miles east of the port of Lowestoft in Suffolk.

Battle of the Sound

The naval Battle of the Sound took place on 8 November 1658 (29 October O.S.) during the Second Northern War, near the Sound or Øresund, just north of the Danish capital, Copenhagen. Sweden had invaded Denmark and an army under Charles X of Sweden had Copenhagen itself under siege. The Dutch fleet was sent to prevent Sweden from gaining control of both sides of the Sound and thereby controlling access to the Baltic Sea as well as of its trade.

The Dutch, under the command of Lieutenant-Admiral Jacob van Wassenaer Obdam with Egbert Bartholomeusz Kortenaer as his flag captain, who had sailed to the Baltic in support of Denmark, had 41 ships with 1413 guns while the Swedes, under Lord High Admiral Carl Gustaf Wrangel, had 45 ships with 1838 guns. The Dutch were grouped into three squadrons, while the Swedes separated their ships into four. The seven Danish ships with about 280 guns were unable to assist their Dutch allies because of adverse northern winds and could only watch. Obdam, who first received very complicated written instructions from the Grand Pensionary, Johan de Witt, and went so far as to request them again "in three words", summed up his mission in a single sentence: "Save Copenhagen and punch anyone in the face who tries to prevent it". This was a direct reference to the English, whose powerful fleet had recently defeated the Dutch in the First Anglo-Dutch War; in the event, however, the English did not intervene. The Swedes attacked aggressively, but failed to gain the upper hand, primarily because the approaching Dutch had the weather gage. The Dutch forced the Swedish fleet to end the blockade of the Danish capital, enabling its resupply by Dutch armed transport ships, which eventually forced Charles to abandon the siege entirely.

The Swedes lost five ships in the action compared to one Dutch ship, however, remaining allied ships were more damaged. Also, considering the slightly fewer losses of men in the Swedish navy; 1,200 compared to 1,400 (439 killed, 269 captured and slightly more than 650 wounded allies), the battle is considered a tactical draw. Strategically, however, it was a major allied victory.

Conrad Helfrich

Lieutenant Admiral Conrad Emil Lambert Helfrich (11 October 1886 – 20 September 1962) of the Royal Netherlands Navy was a leading Dutch naval figure of World War II. He was born in Semarang.

Cornelis Evertsen the Elder

Cornelis Evertsen the Elder (4 August 1610 – 11 June 1666) was a Dutch admiral.

Cornelis Evertsen the Elder was the son of Johan Evertsen and Maayken Jans; grandson of Evert Heindricxsen, a Watergeus, both commanders of men-of-war of the navy of Zealand.

When his father was killed in battle in 1617, the Admiralty of Zealand appointed all five of his sons as Lieutenant, including Cornelis (or Kees) and his oldest brother Johan, despite their young age. This exceptional favour was granted in recognition of the great merits of the father and of course prevented his family from becoming destitute.

In 1626 Cornelis is first mentioned as actually serving on sea, during a privateering raid. On 25 August 1636 he was appointed captain. In the Battle of the Downs in 1639 he captured a galleon.

During the First Anglo-Dutch War Cornelis functioned as a Vice-Commodore in the Zealandic navy; he was appointed on a confederate level to the equivalent rank of temporary Rear-Admiral on 1 May 1652. In the Battle of Scheveningen his ship sank and he, wounded, was prisoner of the English for three months.

On 14 March 1654 he was appointed Rear-Admiral. During the Northern Wars he was in 1659 subcommander of the fleet of Michiel de Ruyter and liberated Nyborg from the Swedish. In 1661 he was third in command of the Dutch Mediterranean fleet under De Ruyter, executing punitive actions against the corsairs of Algiers. He and De Ruyter were close personal friends.

When the Second Anglo-Dutch War threatened, he was made Vice-Admiral of Zealand, while his brother Johan Evertsen was promoted to the first Lieutenant-Admiral that province ever had. Cornelis Evertsen took part in the Battle of Lowestoft (13 June 1665); his elder brother was after the fight much criticised for his behaviour and had to resign as commander, though keeping his rank. Cornelis was now promoted to Lieutenant-Admiral also, so that for a time the Dutch navy had seven officers of this rank.

When the next major naval battle was fought with England in June 1666, the Four Days Battle, Cornelis the Elder was killed on the first day on the Walcheren, cut in two by the parting shot of the escaping Henry.

His brother Johan Evertsen decided first to stay ashore, but when Cornelis was killed, he joined as yet the fleet and took command of the vanguard of De Ruyter. He was killed on the first day of the St. James's Day Battle, in August 1666. Both brothers were, after much conflict between the Admiralty and the family over the costs, in 1681 buried in the Abbey of Middelburg, where their shared grave memorial is still to be seen.

Cornelis Evertsen the Elder got blessed with fourteen children from his first marriage in 1640 with Johanna van Gorcum, five of which died as infants. Two of them would become flag officers as well: his second child, named after him, Lieutenant-Admiral Cornelis Evertsen the Youngest (1642–1706) and the tenth son Lieutenant-Admiral Geleyn Evertsen (1655–1711). Both would be supreme commanders of the confederate Dutch fleet. All three men shared the same cantankerous character.

After the death of his first wife in 1657 Cornelis remarried in 1659; from this marriage another two children were born. On his death he left a heritage worth 45,000 guilders.

Cornelis Tromp

Cornelis Maartenszoon Tromp (3 September 1629 – 29 May 1691) was a Dutch naval officer who served as lieutenant-admiral general in the Dutch Navy, and briefly as a general admiral in the Royal Danish Navy. Tromp fought in the Anglo-Dutch Wars and the Scanian War. His father was Lieutenant Admiral Maarten Tromp.

Egbert Bartholomeusz Kortenaer

Egbert Bartholomeuszoon Kortenaer or Egbert Meussen Cortenaer (1604 – 13 June 1665) was an admiral of the United Provinces of the Netherlands who was killed in the Battle of Lowestoft.Kortenaer was born in 1604 in Groningen of humble origins. In 1626, he was made boatswain, in 1636, second mate. In the First Anglo-Dutch War, he served as first mate in 1652 on the Dutch flagship, Brederode. In the Battle of Dungeness, he lost his right hand and eye. On 10 April 1653, he was made commandeur to replace flag captain Abel Roelants when Lieutenant-Admiral Maarten Tromp used Brederode as his flagship. In the Battle of Scheveningen, Tromp was killed. Kortenaer kept Tromp's standard raised to keep up morale (this was habitual for the Dutch on such occasions) and took command of his squadron. On 21 October 1653, Kortenaer was promoted to captain. In the years after the war, he often commanded squadrons as commodore when flag officers were absent.

In the Battle of the Sound (8 November 1658), serving as flag captain on Eendragt, he beat off every Swedish attack while his commanding officer, Lieutenant-Admiral Jacob van Wassenaer Obdam, was debilitated by gout. After this heroic conduct against the Swedish, Kortenaer was promoted to vice-admiral on 8 May 1659 and knighted by Frederick III of Denmark in the Order of the Elephant. On 29 January 1665, shortly before the Second Anglo-Dutch War, he was made lieutenant-admiral of the Admiralty of de Maze. He wasn't given command of the confederate Dutch fleet because he was a supporter of the House of Orange. A British intelligence report stated, "He is the best man they have".

During the Battle of Lowestoft on 13 June 1665, Kortenaer commanded the van and was second in overall command behind Van Wassenaer. He was fatally wounded early in the battle on Groot Hollandia by a cannonball hitting his hip and buried in Rotterdam in a marble grave memorial engraved with a poem by Gerard Brandt:

The Hero of the Maas, bereft of eye

and his right hand

Yet of the Wheel the Eye, Fist of

the Fatherland

KORTENAER the Great, the terror

of foe's fleets

the forcer of the Sound by this grave

his country greets

English ship Prince Royal (1610)

Prince Royal was a 55-gun royal ship of the English Royal Navy, built by Phineas Pett I at Woolwich and launched in 1610. The ship's fittings were carved by Sebastian Vicars, and painted and gilded by Robert Peake and Paul Isackson between Easter and Michaelmas 1611.She was the first ship of the line with three complete gun decks, although when first completed the upper deck carried no guns in the waist, and was stepped down aft because of the large amount of sheer (the manner in which the decks rose towards the stern and bow). In 1621 a refit saw the removal of this step-down, with all three gun decks now being continuous.

From 1639 to 1641 she was rebuilt by Peter Pett at Woolwich as a 70-gun first-rate ship. During the time of the Commonwealth of England, she was named Resolution and fought in most battles of the First Anglo-Dutch War. By 1660 she was carrying 80 guns, and with the English Restoration of King Charles II she resumed the name Royal Prince. In 1663 she was rebuilt again at Woolwich Dockyard by Sir Phineas Pett II as a 92-gun first-rate ship of the line.

In 1665, during the Second Anglo-Dutch War, she served as the flagship of Edward Montagu, 1st Earl of Sandwich at the Battle of Lowestoft on 3 June. A year later in 1666, she was Vice-Admiral George Ayscue's flagship in the Four Days Battle, on the third day of which (3 June by the Julian calendar then used in England) she ran aground on the Galloper Sand. When Dutch fireships surrounded the stranded ship, the crew panicked and Ayscue was forced to surrender to Lieutenant-Admiral Cornelis Tromp who was aboard the Gouda. The Dutch managed to free the ship from the shoal, but found her steering to be irreparably damaged. In accordance with standing orders issued by the States-General of the Netherlands, Lieutenant-Admiral Michiel de Ruyter ordered the Prince Royal to be burned, to prevent her recapture.

Italian Navy ranks

The rank insignia of the Italian Navy are worn on epaulettes of shirts and white jackets, and on sleeves for navy jackets and mantels.

Maarten Tromp

Maarten Harpertszoon Tromp (also written as Maerten Tromp; 23 April 1598 – 10 August 1653) was a Dutch army general and admiral in the Dutch navy.

Michiel de Ruyter

Michiel Adriaenszoon de Ruyter (IPA: [mɪˈxil ˈaːdrijaːnˌsoːn də ˈrœytər]; 24 March 1607 – 29 April 1676) was a Dutch admiral. Widely celebrated and regarded as one of the most skilled admirals in Dutch history, De Ruyter is arguably most famous for his achievements with the Dutch Navy during the Anglo-Dutch Wars. He fought the English and French forces and scored several critical victories, with the Raid on the Medway being the most famous among them.

Often dubbed a Dutch folk hero, De Ruyter is one of a few select officers in the history of the Dutch navy to hold the title of the lieutenant admiral (Dutch: luitenant-admiraal). Reportedly beloved by his subordinates and seamen, De Ruyter was commonly nicknamed bestevaêr (Middle Dutch for "grandfather") during his service, a nickname that is sometimes still used to refer to him in Dutch media.

Philips van Almonde

Philips van Almonde (29 December 1644 – 6 January 1711) was a Dutch Lieutenant Admiral, who served in his nation’s maritime conflicts of the 17th and early 18th centuries.

Philips was born in Den Briel, the son of Pieter Jansz van Almonde, a wealthy burgher. Van Almonde learned the maritime profession under his uncle, the frigate commander Jacob Cleidijck, becoming a cadet on his ship the Wapen van Dordrecht in 1661. He was appointed lieutenant in 1664 by the Admiralty of the Maze. During the Battle of Lowestoft in the Second Anglo-Dutch War he in 1665 took over command from his incapacitated uncle and was on return confirmed in his command on 14 August. He distinguished himself in the Four Days Battle of 11–14 June 1666, where Lieutenant-Admiral Michiel de Ruyter defeated the British fleet under George Monck, 1st Duke of Albemarle. In 1667 he was made a full captain. In 1671 he was captain of the Harderwijk.

On 6 October 1673, during the Third Anglo-Dutch War, he was made a Rear-Admiral, after having distinguished himself as captain of the Wassenaer in the Battle of Solebay and captain of the Delft during the Battle of Schooneveld and the Battle of Texel.

In 1674 Van Almonde on the Ridderschap van Holland carried out actions against the French west coast. The following year, he accompanied Tromp's squadron in the Mediterranean. In late May and early June 1676 he commanded a squadron during the battles of Bornholm and Öland in the Baltic Sea as part of a Danish-Dutch fleet under Niels Juel and Cornelis Tromp. In the second battle the numerically superior Swedish navy was soundly defeated, granting naval supremacy to Denmark. In 1676, following De Ruyters' death, Van Almonde led the mediterranean fleet back to Holland. On 5 April 1684 he was appointed Vice-Admiral by the Admiralty of Amsterdam. During the Glorious Revolution he commanded the rear of stadtholder William III of Orange's invasion fleet.

He achieved his greatest fame, however, during the War of the Grand Alliance ("The War of the League of Augsburg"), in which the Netherlands and their allies ("The Grand Alliance") faced off against Louis XIV's France. On 28 March 1692 he was made Lieutenant-Admiral. Van Almonde on De Prins commanded a squadron in the battle at La Hougue (also known as the Battle of Barfleur) on 29 May 1692. There he actually decided Admiral Edward Russell’s victory over the French, who were under the command of Tourville, by launching his long boats against the trapped French, a favourite Dutch tactic.

In 1702, during the War of the Spanish Succession, Van Almonde was behind a plan to seize richly-laden Spanish treasure galleons arriving from the West Indies. On 23 October, he convinced British Admiral Sir George Rooke to attack the treasure ships despite the lateness of the year and the fact that the vessels were protected by French ships-of-the-line. The Dutch and English forces in the Battle of Vigo destroyed the enemy fleet in the harbor of Vigo. The English seized four ships-of-the-line and six galleons, while the Dutch took six warships and five galleons that had been treasure-laden but were unfortunately unloaded just before the attack. In 1706 he put down command of the Dutch fleet headed for Portugal on hearing that he would be subordinated to a British Vice-Admiral. On 20 December 1708 he was transferred to his old Admiralty of the Maze at Rotterdam; as this was seen as the most ancient Dutch admiralty, the most honourable function in the Dutch fleet was now his.

Van Almonde later moved back to his Haaswyk estate at Oegstgeest, near Leyden, where he died on 6 January 1711. His memorial stands in the Katherine Church at Briel, where he was buried on 30 December 1712.

Piet Pieterszoon Hein

Pieter Pietersen Heyn (Hein) (25 November 1577 – 18 June 1629) was a Dutch admiral and privateer for the Dutch Republic during the Eighty Years' War between the United Provinces and Spain. Hein was the first and the last to capture a large part of a Spanish "silver fleet" from America.

Squadron vice-admiral

Squadron vice-admiral (French: Vice-amiral d'escadre) is a naval rank found in navies of the world which follow the French tradition of naval ranks. The squadron vice-admiral leads a squadron and is typically senior to a vice-admiral and junior to an admiral. In that sense, it is close to Lieutenant admiral as a literal translation of the corresponding designation. 

This translation is not often used in practice, as the rank is usually kept in the original language or rendered as vice-admiral. The main navy to use the rank of squadron vice-admiral is the French Navy (vice-amiral d'escadre), where it is a three-star rank with a NATO code of OF-8, equivalent to corps general or lieutenant general in seniority. Officially, it is not a rank, but a style and position (rang et appelation in French) bestowed upon some vice-admiral (which is the highest actual substantive rank and is a three-star rank with NATO code OF-7 equivalent to rear admiral (upper half) or major general).

In other countries, this corresponds to Ammiraglio di squadra (equivalent to OF-8) such as the Italian Navy.

St. James's Day Battle

The naval St James' Day Battle (also known as the St James' Day Fight), the Battle of the North Foreland and the Battle of Orfordness) took place on 25 July 1666 — St James' day in the Julian calendar then in use in England (4 August 1666 in the Gregorian calendar), during the Second Anglo-Dutch War. It was fought between fleets of England, commanded jointly by Prince Rupert of the Rhine and George Monck, 1st Duke of Albemarle, and the United Provinces commanded by Lieutenant-Admiral Michiel de Ruyter. In the Netherlands, the battle is known as the Two Days' Battle.

Tjerk Hiddes de Vries

Tjerk Hiddes de Vries (Sexbierum, 6 August 1622 - Flushing, 6 August 1666) was a naval hero and Dutch admiral from the seventeenth century. The French, who could not pronounce his name, called him Kiërkides. His name was also given as Tsjerk, Tierck or Tjerck.

Willem Bastiaensz Schepers

Willem Bastiaensz Schepers (Haarlem, 8 October 1619 - Rotterdam 21 January 1704) was a seventeenth century Dutch admiral.

Schepers was the son of a sailmaker in Haarlem. On 28 May 1641, he is recorded in Rotterdam as a merchant marrying Bartha de Jong, the daughter of an owner of herring busses in Delfshaven. For the year 1659, Schepers was for the first time in Rotterdam appointed as treasurer of the "Great Fishery", or whalery, an office he would hold in several subsequent years. Schepers accumulated much wealth as a ship owner and gained political influence. During this period, in the Dutch Republic political power was contested between the ruling States faction and the Organgists who wanted to make William III of Orange stadtholder. In the rampjaar 1672, Louis XIV invaded the Republic. The crisis situation was exploited by William III to force the States of Holland to appoint him stadtholder. Schepers with several other Orangists on 25 Augustus 1672 took over the city council of Rotterdam. He would remain councillor until 1698. As such he had become a member of the Dutch ruling class, the regents. Between 1678 and 1696, he was repeatedly appointed burgomaster and held many other functions, as was usual among the regents.The new Orangist regime attempted to purify all offices from opponents. In the Dutch navy, this was a slow process, as its officers were very popular naval heroes, whose expertise was sorely needed in the fight against France. After the Battle of Texel in 1673 however, Schepers on 6 October was appointed Lieutenant-Admiral of the Admiralty of the Noorderkwartier succeeding the deceased Jan Meppel, despite never having served in the navy before. At the time, this was seen as a predominantly political appointment, rewarding Schepers for taking the initiative to order the Rotterdam delegate in the States of Holland to propose the revocation of the Perpetual Edict, forbidding the appointment of any member of the House of Orange in the office of stadtholder. However, Schepers was not merely an Orangist figurehead. He actually sailed on the fleet the next year, until December 1674. In 1676, he first commanded, with Vice-Admiral Jan Jansse van Nes, a flotilla blocking the French corsair base Dunkirk and then supported the Danes against Sweden with a squadron. In 1677 he fought the Swedish forces in the Baltic and was knighted by Christian V of Denmark in the Order of the Dannebrog. When Cornelis Tromp became Lieutenant-Admiral-General of the confederate Dutch fleet, Schepers on 25 February 1678 succeeded him as Lieutenant-Admiral of the important Admiralty of Amsterdam.In 1683, Schepers commanded a squadron observing French and Danish naval actions on the North Sea. Returning to the Texel, the squadron was on 11 November hit by a storm sinking eight vessels. The States General of the Netherlands appointed Schepers to head a commission, together with Cornelis Valckenier and Simon Velius, to formulate proposals for the improvement of the readiness of the Dutch fleet. Their recommendations would lay the foundation for the expansion of the Dutch fleet during the 1690s, reaching its largest size during the age of sail.

In 1688, William III called upon Schepers to organise the transport and landing vessels of the invasion fleet in the Glorious Revolution. Schepers personally contributed twelve vessels and hired ninety-three more. At first it was considered to let Schepers command a squadron but eventually it was decided that he should accompany William III on Den Briel, a frigate of thirty cannon under flag captain Joan van der Esch, together with Vice-Admiral Fredrik Willem van Bronckhorst Stirum.

On 28 March 1692, Schepers succeeded Lieutenant-Admiral Aert Jansse van Nes at the Admiralty of the Maze. In 1696, he hired fifteen ships to blockade Dunkirk, to prevent a return of James II of England.

Schepers was buried with great pomp on 25 January 1704 in the chapel of the Lords of Kralingen in the Sint-Laurenskerk at Rotterdam. The chapel, acquired by the admiral in 1695, would be destroyed during the bombardment of Rotterdam in May 1940.


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