The Lieutenant Governor of Quebec (/lɛfˈtɛnənt/, French (masculine): Lieutenant-gouverneur du Québec, or (feminine): Lieutenante-gouverneure du Québec) is the viceregal representative in Quebec of the Canadian monarch, Queen Elizabeth II, who operates distinctly within the province but is also shared equally with the ten other jurisdictions of Canada, as well as the other Commonwealth realms and any subdivisions thereof, and resides predominantly in her oldest realm, the United Kingdom. The Lieutenant Governor of Quebec is appointed in the same manner as the other provincial viceroys in Canada and is similarly tasked with carrying out most of the monarch's constitutional and ceremonial duties. The present and 29th Lieutenant Governor of Quebec is J. Michel Doyon, who has served in the role since 24 September 2015.
|Lieutenant Governor of Quebec|
Coat of arms of Quebec and emblem of the lieutenant governor
J. Michel Doyon
since 24 September 2015
|Style||His Honour the Honourable|
|Appointer||Governor General of Canada|
|Term length||At the Governor General's pleasure|
|Formation||1 July 1867|
|First holder||Sir Narcisse-Fortunat Belleau|
The Lieutenant Governor of Quebec is tasked with a number of governmental duties. Not among them, though, is delivering the Throne Speech, which sets the Lieutenant Governor of Quebec apart from the other Canadian viceroys. (Instead, new parliaments begin with the Opening Speech by the premier.) The lieutenant governor is also expected to undertake various ceremonial roles. For instance, upon installation, the lieutenant governor automatically becomes a Knight or Dame of Justice and the Vice-Prior in Quebec of the Most Venerable Order of the Hospital of Saint John of Jerusalem. As well, he or she will present numerous other provincial honours and decorations and various awards that are named for and presented by the lieutenant governor, which were reinstated in 2000 by Lieutenant Governor Lise Thibault. These honours are presented at official ceremonies, which count among hundreds of other engagements the lieutenant governor partakes in each year, either as host or guest of honour; in 2006, the Lieutenant Governor of Quebec undertook 400 engagements and 200 in 2007.
At these events, the lieutenant governor's presence is marked by the lieutenant governor's standard, consisting of a blue field bearing the escutcheon of the Arms of Her Majesty in Right of Quebec surmounted by a crown and set within a white disc; the Quebec viceregal flag is only one of two that are significantly different from all the others in Canada. Within Quebec, the lieutenant governor also follows only the sovereign in the province's order of precedence, preceding even other members of the Canadian Royal Family and the Queen's federal representative.
It has been argued by Jeremy Webber and Robert Andrew Young that, as the office is the core of authority in the province, the secession of Quebec from the Confederation would first require the abolition or transformation of the post of Lieutenant Governor of Quebec; such an amendment to the constitution of Canada could not be done without, according to Section 41 of the Constitution Act, 1982, the approval of the federal parliament and all other provincial legislatures in Canada. Others, such as J. Woehrling, however, have claimed that the legislative process towards Quebec's independence would not require any prior change to the viceregal post. Young also felt that the lieutenant governor could refuse Royal Assent to a bill that proposed to put an unclear question on sovereignty to referendum or was based on the results of a referendum that asked such a question.
The office of Lieutenant Governor of Quebec came into being in 1867, upon the creation of Quebec at Confederation, and evolved from the earlier position of Lieutenant Governor of Canada East. Since that date, 28 lieutenant governors have served the province, amongst whom were notable firsts, such as Lise Thibault—the first female and first disabled lieutenant governor of the province. The shortest mandate by a Lieutenant Governor of Quebec was Lomer Gouin, from January to March 1929, while the longest was Hugues Lapointe, from 1966 to 1978.
One of the few examples in Canada of a viceroy exercising the royal prerogative against or without ministerial advice came in 1887, when Lieutenant Governor Auguste-Réal Angers dismissed the Cabinet headed by Premier Honoré Mercier; a report concluded that Mercier's government had benefited from a kickback scheme with contractors building the Baie des Chaleurs railway.
The appointment of Jean-Louis Roux as Lieutenant Governor of Quebec by Governor General Roméo LeBlanc, on the advice of Prime Minister Jean Chrétien, stirred controversy, as Roux was well known as a strong opponent of Quebec independence and, soon after he took up the post, it was revealed that, as a university student in the 1940s, he had worn a swastika on his lab coat in protest of the proposal to invoke conscription for service in World War II and had participated in an anti-Semitic protest. Roux had, in an interview after his appointment as lieutenant governor, stated that he might have to use the reserve powers of the Crown should certain circumstances arise following a referendum result in favour of Quebec's separation from Canada; a statement that displeased Roux's premier at the time, Lucien Bouchard. Bouchard thereafter exploited the revelation of Roux's past anti-Semitism and the Lieutenant Governor soon resigned his post voluntarily in 1996. The following year, Bouchard tabled in the legislature three motions, calling the Office of the Lieutenant Governor "a heritage of the colonial past", the appointment process controversial and interfering, and demanding the post be abolished, though, until then, the federal Crown-in-Council should appoint a person "democratically designated by the [Quebec] Assembly".
Since 1997 there is no longer an official residence; the Lieutenant Governors must instead obtain their own home in or near the capital. However, they still retain an official office at Édifice André-Laurendeau.
Sir Charles Alphonse Pantaléon Pelletier, (January 22, 1837 – April 29, 1911) was a Canadian lawyer, militia officer, politician, publisher, judge, and the ninth Lieutenant Governor of Quebec.
Born in Rivière-Ouelle, Lower Canada (now Quebec), the son of Jean-Marie Pelletier and Julie Painchaud, he studied law at the Université Laval, was called to the bar in 1860 and entered practice in Quebec City. He married Suzanne, the daughter of lawyer Charles-Eusèbe Casgrain in 1861; his wife died during childbirth the following year. In 1866, he married Eugénie, the daughter of Marc-Pascal de Sales Laterrière, a doctor and seigneur. He was elected as a Liberal to the House of Commons of Canada representing the riding of Kamouraska, Quebec in a by-election held in 1869. There was no election in this riding in 1867 due to riots. He was re-elected in 1872 and 1874. He was also elected to represent Québec-Est in the Legislative Assembly of Quebec in an 1873 by-election; he resigned this seat in 1874 when the dual mandate became illegal. From 1877 to 1878, he was the Minister of Agriculture in the federal cabinet.
He was President of the Canadian commission for the Paris World Fair in 1878. He was made a Companion of the Order of St Michael and St George for his work on this commission. In 1898, he was promoted to Knight Commander.
In 1877, he was appointed to the Senate of Canada representing the senatorial division of Grandville, Quebec. From 1896 to 1901, he was the Speaker of the Senate of Canada. He resigned in 1904 and was appointed a puisne judge of the Quebec Superior Court.
In 1908, he was appointed Lieutenant Governor of Quebec and served until his death in 1911.Esioff-Léon Patenaude
Esioff-Léon Patenaude, , often called E.L. Patenaude (February 12, 1875 – February 7, 1963) was a Canadian statesman who served as the 17th Lieutenant Governor of Quebec. Born in Saint-Isidore, Quebec, in 1875, he studied law at Université de Montreal and was called to the Quebec bar in 1899. He established a successful law practice and was soon drawn to politics, serving as a chief organizer for the Conservative Party of Canada in Montreal.
He was first elected to the Quebec National Assembly as a Conservative in La Prairie in the 1908 provincial election, and was re-elected in the 1912 election. In 1915, he was elected to the House of Commons of Canada in a by-election, and joined the government of Prime Minister Sir Robert Borden as Minister of Inland Revenue. He served in that position until early 1917, when he was appointed as Secretary of State and Minister of Mines. In July, however, Patenaude resigned from the Canadian Cabinet in protest of the government's decision to implement conscription. He chose not to seek re-election in the 1917 federal election. When Arthur Meighen became Prime Minister in 1920, he offered Patenaude a seat in cabinet, which the latter declined.
Returning to provincial politics, Patenaude was re-elected to the Quebec National Assembly in Jacques-Cartier in 1923. In 1925, however, Meighen persuaded Patenaude to return to federal politics as his Quebec lieutenant. He was given almost exclusive authority over the Conservative Party's campaign in Quebec during the 1925 federal election as Meighen's Quebec lieutenant. Patenaude proved, however, to be little match for Ernest Lapointe and the Liberal Party of Canada, securing only 4 seats in the province. Patenaude, who had resigned his seat in the Quebec National Assembly to contest the election, was himself defeated.
Despite this setback, Patenaude continued to enjoy the favour of Meighen. When Meighen formed a second government in 1926, he appointed Patenaude as Minister of Justice and Attorney General of Canada. Patenaude led the Conservative Party in Quebec for a second time during the 1926 federal election, but again fared poorly and was personally defeated.
In 1934, the Governor General of Canada, on the advice of Prime Minister Richard Bedford Bennett, appointed Patenaude as Lieutenant Governor of Quebec, a position in which he served until his retirement from public life in 1940. In his later years, he experienced a successful career as a banker (became President of the Provincial Bank of Canada in 1946) and businessman (as director withMcColl Frontenac, Crown Life Insurance and board of Texaco Canada).François Langelier
Sir François Langelier, (24 December 1838 – 8 February 1915) was a Canadian lawyer, professor, journalist, politician, the tenth Lieutenant Governor of Quebec, and author. He was born in Sainte-Rosalie, Lower Canada (now Quebec) and died in Spencerwood, Quebec.
In 1871, he was an unsuccessful candidate to the Legislative Assembly of Quebec for the riding of Bagot. A Liberal, he was elected in an 1873 by-election for the riding of Montmagny. He was defeated in 1875 but was re-elected in 1878 for the riding of Portneuf. He was Commissioner of Crown Lands and Provincial Treasurer from 1878 to 1879. He was defeated in 1881. From 1880 to 1890, he was a municipal councillor in Quebec City and was mayor from 1882 to 1890.
He was elected to the House of Commons of Canada for Mégantic in an 1884 by-election, after the results for the 1882 election were declared void. He was re-elected for Quebec-Centre in the 1887, 1891, and 1896 elections. He resigned in 1898 when he was appointed a puisne judge of the Quebec Superior Court for the district of Montreal.
He was knighted in 1907 and was elected to the Royal Society of Canada in 1909. He was made a knight of the Order of St John of Jerusalem in England in 1912 and a knight of the Order of St Michael and St George on 31 December 1913.
From 1911 until his death in 1915, he was the Lieutenant Governor of Quebec.
His brother, Charles Langelier was also an MP from 1887 to 1890.Gaspard Fauteux
Gaspard Fauteux, (August 27, 1898 – March 29, 1963) was a Canadian parliamentarian, Speaker of the House of Commons of Canada (1945–1949), and the 19th Lieutenant Governor of Quebec (1950–1958).
He was born in St-Hyacinthe, Quebec, to a political family. His grandfather, Honoré Mercier and his uncle, Lomer Gouin, were both former Premiers of Quebec. His grandmother's second husband was Liberal Member of Parliament (MP) and later Senator Joseph Godbout. His brother was the judge Gérald Fauteux.
Fauteux married Marguerite Barré daughter of the Canadian artist Raoul Barré (Sept 18th 1923). The couple had 4 children; Roger, Paul, Marie (Mimi) and Gaspard Jr.
A dentist by training and then a businessman, he first entered politics at the provincial election defeating Quebec Conservative Party leader and Mayor of Montreal Camillien Houde to win a seat in the Quebec legislature for the Quebec Liberal Party. He lost his seat in 1935 and returned to business. He was first elected to the House of Commons of Canada from the Quebec riding of St. Mary in a 1942 by-election, and was re-elected in the 1945 federal election by again defeating Camillien Houde. He was re-elected in the 1949 election.
In Parliament, Fauteux opposed conscription and was a delegate to the United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Conference that followed World War II.
Despite his lack of legal training or long tenure in the House, he was tapped by Prime Minister William Lyon Mackenzie King to become Speaker following the 1945 election.
His inexperience in parliamentary procedure caused him difficulties in the Chair. He had a habit of making decisions before MPs had presented their arguments. He preferred the social aspects of the position and entertained and travelled frequently.
He returned to the backbenches after the 1949 election and, in 1950 was appointed Lieutenant-Governor of Quebec by Governor General Harold Alexander, Earl Alexander of Tunis, on the advice of his prime minister, Louis St. Laurent.Gilles Lamontagne
Joseph-Georges-Gilles-Claude Lamontagne, (French pronunciation: [ʒozɛf ʒɔʁʒ ʒil klod lamɔ̃taɲ]; April 17, 1919 – June 14, 2016) was a Canadian politician and the 24th Lieutenant Governor of Quebec.Government of Quebec
The Government of Quebec (in French, and officially, Gouvernement du Québec) refers to the provincial government of the province of Quebec. Its powers and structure are set out in the Constitution Act, 1867.
In modern Canadian use, the term "government" refers broadly to the cabinet of the day, elected by the National Assembly of Quebec and the non-political staff within each provincial department or agency – that is, the civil and public services.
The province of Quebec, like all Canadian provinces, is governed by a unicameral legislature, the National Assembly of Quebec, which operates in the Westminster system of government. The political party that wins the largest number of seats in the legislature normally forms the government, and the party's leader becomes premier of the province, i.e., the head of the government.Henry George Carroll
Henry George Carroll, (January 31, 1865 – August 20, 1939) was a Canadian politician, jurist and the 16th Lieutenant Governor of Quebec from 1929 to 1934 and the last anglophone to serve in that position to the present day.
Born in Kamouraska, Canada East to Michael Burke Carroll of Ireland and Marguerite Campbell of Scotland, Carroll studied law at Laval University, was called to the Quebec Bar in 1889, and was created a Queen's Counsel in 1899.
A Liberal, he was first elected to the House of Commons of Canada in 1891 representing Kamouraska and was re-elected in 1896 and 1900. He was appointed Solicitor General of Canada in 1902 and served until 1904 at a time when the position was not a cabinet office but was part of the ministry under the Minister of Justice. He left politics to become a judge in the Quebec Superior Court in 1904 and was appointed to the Court of King's Bench in 1908. In 1912 he served as chairman of Quebec's Royal Commission examining the alcohol trade and subsequently served as vice-president province's Quebec Liquor Commission (Commission des liqueurs du Québec) from 1921 to 1929 when he was appointed Lieutenant Governor of Quebec following the sudden death of Gouin.
Carroll died in Quebec and was buried in his home town of Kamouraska in 1939. He was survived by wife Boulanger Malvine-Amazelie and two daughters Margaret Carroll and Juliette Carroll.J. Michel Doyon
J. Michel Doyon (born April 22, 1943) is the 29th and current Lieutenant Governor of Quebec, and a former head of the Quebec Bar. He assumed office on September 24, 2015.Jean-Pierre Côté
Joseph Julien Jean-Pierre Côté, (January 9, 1926 – July 10, 2002) was a Canadian parliamentarian and the 23rd Lieutenant Governor of Quebec.John Wilson (British Army officer, died 1819)
John Wilson (c.1765–1819) was Lieutenant Governor of Lower Canada in 1816.Lomer Gouin
Sir Jean Lomer Gouin, (March 19, 1861 – March 28, 1929) was a Canadian politician. He served as 13th Premier of the Canadian province of Quebec, as a Cabinet minister in the federal government of Canada, and as the 15th Lieutenant Governor of Quebec.Louis-Amable Jetté
Sir Louis-Amable Jetté, (French pronunciation: [lwi amabl ʒɛte]; 15 January 1836 – 5 May 1920) was a Canadian lawyer, politician, judge, professor, and the eighth Lieutenant Governor of Quebec. He was born in L'Assomption, Lower Canada (now Quebec) in 1836.
In 1872, he was elected to the House of Commons of Canada representing the riding of Montreal East. A Liberal, he was re-elected in 1874.
Jetté was chief justice of the Court of King’s Bench.
From 1898 to 1908 he was the lieutenant governor of Quebec. He was knighted as a Knight Commander of the Order of St Michael and St George (KCMG) during the visit to Quebec of TRH the Duke and Duchess of Cornwall and York (later King George V and Queen Mary) in October 1901.Louis-Rodrigue Masson
Louis-Rodrigue Masson, (baptized Louis-François-Roderick Masson) (6 November 1833 – 8 November 1903) was a Canadian Member of Parliament, Senator, and the fifth Lieutenant Governor of Quebec. He represented Terrebonne in the House of Commons of Canada from 1867 to 1882.Luc Letellier de St-Just
Luc Letellier de Saint-Just, (May 12, 1820 – January 28, 1881) was a Canadian politician. He also served as the third Lieutenant Governor of Quebec (1876–1879).
A notary by training, Letellier belonged to an old and prominent family. He was a half-brother of Horace Bélanger. In 1851, he was elected in a by-election to the Legislative Assembly of the Province of Canada as a supporter of Louis-Hippolyte Lafontaine. He was defeated in a general election a few months later by his rival Jean-Charles Chapais. In 1860, Letellier won election to the legislative council of the united province and, in 1863, he was appointed minister of agriculture in the Reform - rouge Cabinet of Joint Premiers John Sandfield Macdonald and Antoine-Aimé Dorion. The government fell the next year, however, in favour of a Tory – Parti bleu administration.
Letellier opposed Canadian Confederation prior to 1867, but accepted it once it became a reality. He was appointed by royal charter as a charter member of the Senate of Canada when it was created in 1867. He sat as a "Nationalist Liberal", and was Leader of the Opposition in the Senate from 1867 until the 1872 election when the Liberals took power under Alexander Mackenzie. Letellier became Leader of the Government in the Senate and Minister of Agriculture in Mackenzie's Cabinet. He had also attempted to concurrently win a seat in the Quebec legislative assembly, but was defeated in his attempts in 1869 and 1871 to win election.
In 1876, Mackenzie advised the Governor General of Canada to appoint Letellier to the position of lieutenant-governor of Quebec. As lieutenant governor, he dismissed the government of Conservative Quebec Premier Charles-Eugène Boucher de Boucherville on March 1, 1878, despite the fact that the government enjoyed a 20-seat majority in the Quebec legislative assembly and a two-to-one majority in the legislative council. Letellier justified the dismissal on charges that the government was acting incompetently and corruptly on the matter of railway legislation. He also argued that if the de Boucherville government hadn't made concessions to "rings" of interest within the legislature on the issue, it would lose the legislature's support. De Boucherville called the move a "coup d'etat", and complained to the Governor General of Canada. Both houses of the Quebec legislature passed motions of censure against the lieutenant-governor.
When the federal Conservatives under Sir John A. Macdonald defeated the federal Liberals in the 1878 election, the new federal Cabinet tried to have Letellier dismissed as lieutenant-governor of Quebec. The Governor General, the Marquess of Lorne, referred the matter to the Colonial Secretary in London who advised him to follow the advice of his ministers. Letellier was dismissed.Martial Asselin
Martial Asselin, (February 3, 1924 – January 25, 2013) was a Canadian politician and the 25th Lieutenant Governor of Quebec (1990–1996).Narcisse-Fortunat Belleau
Sir Narcisse-Fortunat Belleau, (October 20, 1808 – September 14, 1894) was a Canadian politician who served as the first Lieutenant Governor of Quebec. Prior to Canadian Confederation, he served as the leader of the blue party in Canada East.Onésime Gagnon
Onésime Gagnon, (October 23, 1888 – September 30, 1961) was a Canadian politician who served as the 20th Lieutenant Governor of Québec.Pierre Duchesne
Pierre Duchesne (born 1940) was the 28th Lieutenant Governor of Quebec and former secretary general of the National Assembly of Quebec. As lieutenant governor he was the viceregal representative of Queen Elizabeth II of Canada in the Province of Quebec. His appointment was made by Governor General of Canada Michaëlle Jean, on the Constitutional advice of Prime Minister of Canada Stephen Harper, and announced on May 18, 2007.Théodore Robitaille
Théodore Robitaille, (29 January 1834 – 17 August 1897) was a Canadian physician, politician, and the fourth Lieutenant Governor of Quebec.Born in Varennes, Lower Canada, the son of Louis-Adolphe Robitaille (pronounced "ro-bee-tah-yeh") and Marie-Justine Monjeau, he was baptized as Louis-François-Christophe-Théodore. A physician, he graduated from McGill College in 1858 and settled in New Carlisle, Quebec. In 1861, he was elected to the Legislative Assembly of the Province of Canada for the riding of Bonaventure. In 1867, he was elected to the House of Commons of Canada. A Conservative he was re-elected in 1872, an 1873 ministerial by-election, 1874, and 1878. In 1873, he was appointed Receiver General.In 1871, he was elected to the Legislative Assembly of Quebec in Bonaventure and served until 1874 when holding a federal and provincial seat was abolished. From 1879 to 1884, he was the Lieutenant Governor of Quebec. Notably, during his tenure he commissioned Calixa Lavallée and Sir Adolphe-Basile Routhier to prepare the music and French lyrics to what would become Canada's national anthem, O Canada. In 1885, he was appointed to the Senate representing the senatorial division of Gulf, Quebec. He served until his death in New Carlisle, Quebec in 1897.
|Colonial & territorial governors|
This article is part of the series: Politics and government of Canada