In the Canadian Forces, the rank of lieutenant-general (LGen) (lieutenant-général or Lgén in French) is an Army or Air Force rank equal to a vice-admiral of the Navy. A lieutenant-general is a general officer, the equivalent of a Naval flag officer. A lieutenant-general is senior to a major general or rear-admiral, and junior to a general or admiral. Prior to 1968, Canadian Air Force officers held the equivalent rank of air marshal, which was abolished with the unification of the Canadian Forces.
The rank insignia for a lieutenant-general in the Royal Canadian Air Force is a wide braid below two narrow braid on the cuff, as well as three silver maple leaves, beneath crossed sword and baton, all surmounted by St. Edward's Crown, worn on the shoulder straps of the Service Dress tunic. In the Canadian Army, the rank insignia is a wide braid on the cuff, as well as three gold maple leaves, beneath crossed sword and baton, all surmounted by St. Edward's Crown, worn on the shoulder straps of the Service Dress tunic. The rank is also worn on slip-ons on other uniforms. On the visor of the service cap are two rows of gold oak leaves.
Lieutenant-generals are addressed verbally as "general" and name, as are all general officer ranks; thereafter by subordinates as "sir" or "ma'am", as applicable. In French, subordinates thereafter use the expression "mon général". Lieutenant-generals are normally entitled to staff cars.
A lieutenant-general generally holds only the most senior command or administrative appointments, barring only Chief of the Defence Staff, which is held by a full admiral or general. Appointments held by lieutenant-generals may include Vice-Chief of the Defence Staff (VCDS); Deputy Chief of the Defence Staff (DCDS); Commander of the Canadian Army and Commander of the Royal Canadian Air Force.
In November 2009, Prince Charles became an honorary lieutenant-general of the Canadian Forces Land and Air Command.
Lieutenant general, lieutenant-general and similar (abbrev Lt Gen, LTG and similar) is a three-star military rank (NATO code OF-8) used in many countries. The rank traces its origins to the Middle Ages, where the title of lieutenant general was held by the second in command on the battlefield, who was normally subordinate to a captain general.
In modern armies, lieutenant general normally ranks immediately below general and above major general; it is equivalent to the navy rank of vice admiral, and in air forces with a separate rank structure, it is equivalent to air marshal. A lieutenant general commands an army corps, made up of typically three army divisions, and consisting of around 60,000–70,000 soldiers (U.S.).
The seeming incongruity that a lieutenant general outranks a major general (whereas a major outranks a lieutenant) is due to the derivation of the latter rank from sergeant major general, which was also subordinate to lieutenant general. In some countries (e.g. France and Italy), the ranks of corps general or lieutenant colonel general are used instead of lieutenant general, in an attempt to solve this apparent anomaly – these ranks are often translated into English as lieutenant general.However, some countries of Latin America such as Brazil and Chile use divisional general as the equivalent of lieutenant general. In addition, because no brigadier general rank is used in Japan, lieutenant general is the rank of divisional commander. Therefore, it corresponds to divisional general of these countries. In a number of smaller states which employ NATO and western style military organizational structures, because of the limited number of soldiers in their armies, the rank of lieutenant general is the highest army rank in use. In Latvia, Lithuania and Singapore, the chief of defence is a lieutenant general, and in the Irish Defence Forces and Israel Defense Forces, the Chief of Staff holds this rank.
|NATO rank code||Student Officer||OF-1||OF-2||OF-3||OF-4||OF-5||OF-6
|Royal Canadian Navy||NCdt||A/SLt||SLt||Lt(N)||LCdr||Cdr||Capt(N)||Cmdre||RAdm||VAdm||Adm
|Canadian Army||OCdt||2Lt||Lt||Capt||Maj||LCol||Col||BGen||MGen||LGen||Gen||Not used|
|Royal Canadian Air Force||OCdt||2Lt||Lt||Capt||Maj||LCol||Col||BGen||MGen||LGen||Gen||Not used|