Lidder Valley

The Lidder Valley or Liddar Valley[1] in the state of Jammu and Kashmir, India, is a Himalayan sub-valley that forms the southeastern corner of the Kashmir Valley.[2] The Lidder River flows down the valley. The entrance to the valley lies 7 km northeast from Anantnag town and 62 km southeast from Srinagar, the summer capital of Jammu and Kashmir. It is a 40-km-long gorge valley[3] with an average width of 3 km.

Lidder Valley
Liddar Valleda
Pahalgam Valley
The Lidder Valley at Pahalgam
Length25 mi (40 km)
Width3 mi (4.8 km)
StateJammu and Kashmir
RegionKashmir Division
Population centerPahalgam
Borders onSind Valley (North)
Kashmir Valley (West)
Coordinates33°46′35″N 75°12′48″E / 33.77639°N 75.21333°ECoordinates: 33°46′35″N 75°12′48″E / 33.77639°N 75.21333°E
Mountain rangeHimalayas
RiverLidder River


The Lidder Valley is situated within the jurisdiction of Pahalgam tehsil, of Anantnag district. It is bordered by Kashmir Valley to the west, and Sind Valley to the north,[4] and covers a length of 40 km. It has a maximum width of 5 km. The Lidder basin is surrounded on the south and southeast by the Pir Panjal Range, on the north by the Sind Valley and on the northeast by the Zaskar Range. The Lidder drainage basin has an area of 1134 km2.[5] It is formed by the flow of the Lidder River which flows within a Y-shaped valley, upstream of Pahagam the river diverges into the East Lidder and the West Lidder. The East Lidder of which reaches eastwards from Pahalgam up past Chandanwari and flows from east to west starting in the area of Sheshnag Lake and the Shisram Glacier.[1] The West Lidder originates from the Kolhoi Glacier[3][6] and runs through green coniferous forests through many alpine meadows. The Lidder Valley provides fresh water supply to other districts and irrigation for agriculture. The Lidder River flows through the entire valley passing several natural landmarks and tourist spots, including Aru, Pahalgam, Betab Valley, and Akad. The main towns in the Lidder Valley are Mandlan, Laripora, Phraslun, Ashmuqam and Seer Hamdan.[7]


Horse Riding At Pahalgam
Horse riding at Pahalgam

The Lidder Valley formed over millions of years as the Lidder River cut into the Himalayan Mountains. Today, the river continues to deposit sheets of sand in the lower areas of Anantnag.[8] Gradual erosive processes have washed away bordering forests and created deep gorges at many places.

The Lidder Valley at Aru, Jammu and Kashmir


The Lidder Valley has many glacier-fed streams, and the tributaries of the Lidder River are home to different types of trout.[9] The valley is the natural habitat of the Himalayan black bear. The Himalayan brown bear, musk deer, snow leopard and hangul have also been spotted in the Aru and Lidderwat areas, which are close to Dachigam National Park.[7][10]


  1. ^ a b Kaul, Manmohan N., Glacial and Fluvial Geomorphology of Western Himalaya, South Asia Books, 1990, p. 23, ISBN 978-8170222446
  2. ^ Parmanand Parashar (2004). Kashmir The Paradise Of Asia. Sarup & Sons, 2004. p. 97–. ISBN 9788176255189. Retrieved 20 June 2012.
  3. ^ a b M.S. Kohli (1983). The Himalayas: Play Ground of the Gods Trekking Climbling Adventure. Indus Publishing, 1983. p. 45–. ISBN 9788173871078. Retrieved 20 June 2012.
  4. ^ Subodh Kapoor (2002). The Indian Encyclopaedia: Gautami Ganga -Himmat Bahadur. Genesis Publishing Pvt Ltd, 2002. p. 178–. ISBN 9788177552669. Retrieved 20 June 2012.
  5. ^ Kanth, T.A., Aijaz Ahmad Shah and Zahoor ul Hassan; Geomorphologic Character & Receding Trend of Kolahoi Glacier in Kashmir Himalaya, Recent Research in Science and Technology 2011, 3(9): 68-73 Archived 2013-12-11 at the Wayback Machine, ISSN 2076-5061
  6. ^ N. Ahmed and N. H. Hashimi (1974). "Glacial History of Kolahoi Glacier, Kashmir, India" (PDF). Journal of Glaciology. 13 (68). Retrieved 16 April 2012.
  7. ^ a b "Pahalgam". Archived from the original on 12 December 2013. Retrieved 20 June 2012.
  8. ^ Sir Walter Roper Lawrence (1895). The Valley of Kashmir. Asian Educational Services, 1895. p. 47–. ISBN 9788120616301. Retrieved 20 June 2012.
  9. ^ R.B.Singh (1990). Environmental geography. Heritage Publishers, 1990. p. 230–. ISBN 9788170260622. Retrieved 20 June 2012.
  10. ^ Trevor Drieberg (1978). Jammu and Kashmir: a tourist guide. Vikas Pub. House, 1978. p. –. ISBN 9780706905755. Retrieved 20 June 2012.
Betaab Valley

Betaab valley is situated at a distance of 15 kilometers from Pahalgam in Anantnag district in India's northernmost state of Jammu and Kashmir. The valley got its name from the Sunny Deol-Amrita Singh hit debut film Betaab. The Valley is towards northeast of Pahalgam and falls between Pahalgam and Chandanwadi and is en route Amarnath Temple Yatra. The valley surrounded by lush green meadows, snow clad mountains and covered with dense vegetation.

Doru Shahabad

Doru Shahabad (also written as Dooru Shahabad or only Doru) is a town and a notified area committee in Anantnag district of the Indian state of Jammu & Kashmir. It is also known as historical township in South Kashmir's Anantnag district. Doru shahabad has been known as a place of intelligentia where great scholars like Mehmood shah Gami, Rasul Mir shahabadi, were borne who contributed to the literature and culture of kashmir. In present times shahabad has produced chief minister like syed mir qasim and many other politicians, bureaucrats and some leading agricultural scientists.

Geography of Jammu and Kashmir

Jammu and Kashmir is home to several valleys such as the Kashmir Valley, Tawi Valley, Chenab Valley, Poonch Valley, Sind Valley and Lidder Valley. The Kashmir valley is 100 km (62 mi) wide and 15,520.3 km2 (5,992.4 sq mi) in area. The Himalayas divide the Kashmir valley from the Tibetan plateau while the Pir Panjal range, which encloses the valley from the west and the south, separates it from the Great Plains of northern India. Along the northeastern flank of the Valley runs the main range of the Himalayas. This densely settled and beautiful valley has an average height of 1,850 metres (6,070 ft) above sea-level, but the surrounding Pir Panjal range has an average elevation of 10,000 feet (3,000 m). The Jhelum River is the only major Himalayan river which flows through the Kashmir valley. The Indus, Tawi, Ravi and Chenab are the major rivers flowing through the region.The climate of Jammu and Kashmir varies greatly owing to its rugged topography. In the south around Jammu, the climate is typically monsoonal, though the region is sufficiently far west to average 40 to 50 mm (1.6 to 2 inches) of rain per months between January and March. In the hot season, Jammu city is very hot and can reach up to 40 °C (104 °F) whilst in July and August, very heavy though erratic rainfall occurs with monthly extremes of up to 650 millimetres (25.5 inches). In September, rainfall declines, and by October conditions are hot but extremely dry, with minimal rainfall and temperatures of around 29 °C (84 °F).

Across from the Pir Panjal range, the South Asian monsoon is no longer a factor and most precipitation falls in the spring from southwest cloudbands. Because of its closeness to the Arabian Sea, Srinagar receives as much as 25 inches (635 millimetres) of rain from this source, with the wettest months being March to May with around 85 millimetres (3.3 inches) per month. Annual precipitation is only around 100 mm (4 inches) per year and humidity is very low. All the rivers freeze over and locals actually do river crossings during this period because their high levels from glacier melt in summer inhibits crossing.

Himalayan Welfare Organization, Pahalgam

Himalayan Welfare Organization, Pahalgam (HWO) is a Non-Profit, Non-Governmental Organization based in Pahalgam, founded by its President, Mushtaq Pahalgami in March, 2008.

The Himalayan Welfare Organization (HWO) has been working for the cause of Environmental Conservation and Protection, Education, Healthcare and Promotion of Sports Adventure Tourism and Eco-Trekking in and around Pahalgam. The HWO also organizes Seminars, Awareness Camps, Information Campaigns, Demonstrations and Relief and Rehabilitation camps to promote a general culture of societal service and empathy and to challenge corruption and other agency issues in Public Institutions in the state through the use of RTI, 2009 and PSGA Acts.

Jammu and Kashmir

Jammu and Kashmir ( and (listen)) is a state in India, located in the northern part of the Indian subcontinent, and a part of the larger region of Kashmir, which has been the subject of dispute between India, Pakistan, and China since 1947.The underlying region of this state was the southern and eastern part of the former princely state of Jammu and Kashmir, whose western districts, now known as Azad Kashmir, and northern territories, now known as Gilgit-Baltistan, are administered by Pakistan.

The Aksai Chin region in the east, bordering Tibet, has been under Chinese control since 1962. After the Government of India repealed the special status accorded to Jammu and Kashmir under Article 370 of the Indian constitution, the Parliament of India passed the Jammu and Kashmir Reorganisation Act, which seeks to dissolve the state and reorganise it into two union territories – Jammu and Kashmir and Ladakh. The act will come into effect from 31 October 2019.Jammu and Kashmir is the only state in India with a Muslim-majority population. The state consists of three regions: (a) the Kashmir Valley, which accounts for 54.9% of the population of Jammu and Kashmir, and 15.7% of the area; 96.4% of the Valley's population is Muslim; (b) the Jammu Division, which accounts for 42.9% of the population of Jammu and Kashmir, and 25.9% of its area; 62.5% of Jammu's population is Hindu, and 33.5% Muslim; (c) and Ladakh, which accounts for 2.8% of the population of Jammu and Kashmir and 58.4% of its area; Muslims constitute 46.6% of the population of Ladakh, Buddhists 39.7%, and Hindus, 12.1%. Overall, in the state, Muslims constitute 68.31% of the population, Hindus 28.43%, Sikhs 1.87% and Buddhists 0.89%.

Lidder River

Lidder or Liddar is a 73 kilometres (45 mi) long river in the Kashmir region of India in the state of Jammu and Kashmir. It originates from the Kolhoi Glacier and joins the Jehlum River at Mirgund Khanabal at an altitude of 1,615 metres (5,299 ft).

List of valleys in India

The following is a partial list of valleys in India, listed alphabetically. Many of these valleys in India are named after the river that flows through them.

Araku Valley, Vishakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh

Bangus Valley, Jammu and Kashmir

Barak Valley, Assam

Baspa Valley, Himachal Pradesh

Betaab Valley, Jammu and Kashmir

Bhakra Nangal Valley, Bilaspur, Himachal Pradesh

Brahmaputra Valley, Assam

Breng Valley, Jammu and Kashmir

Chamba Valley, Himachal Pradesh

Chambal Valley, Madhya Pradesh

Chenab Valley, Jammu and Kashmir

Chumbi Valley, Tibet, China, the intersection of India (Sikkim), Bhutan and China (Tibet) in the Himalayas

Dah Hanu Valley, Jammu and Kashmir

Damodar Valley, West Bengal

Darma Valley, Pithoragarh District, Uttarakhand

Upper Dibang Valley, Arunachal Pradesh

Lower Dibang Valley, Arunachal Pradesh

Dihing Valley, Arunachal Pradesh

Doon Valley, Lower Himalayas, Uttarakhand

Dzükou Valley, Nagaland

Godavari Valley, Maharashtra, Telangana and Andhra Pradesh

Gurais Valley, Jammu and Kashmir

Gwass-Bagi Valley, Himachal Pradesh

Habban Valley, Himachal Pradesh

Imphal Valley, Manipur

Indus Valley, Jammu and Kashmir

Jhelum Valley, Jammu and Kashmir

Joginder Nagar Valley, Himachal Pradesh

Johar Valley, Uttarakhand

Kabaw Valley, Manipur, India and Sagaing region, Myanmar

Kambam Valley, Tamil Nadu

Kangra Valley, Himachal Pradesh

Kashmir Valley, Jammu and Kashmir

Kaveri Valley, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu

Ketti Valley, Ooty, Tamil Nadu

Kharahal Valley, Himachal Pradesh

Krishna Valley, Maharashtra, Karnataka, Telangana and Andhra Pradesh

Kullu Valley, Himachal Pradesh

Kunihar Valley, Himachal Pradesh

Kuthi Valley, Uttarakhand

Leepa Valley, Jammu and Kashmir

Lidder Valley, Jammu and Kashmir

Lolab Valley, Jammu and Kashmir

Lug Valley, Himachal Pradesh

Mahanadi Valley, Odisha and Chhattisgarh

Mandakini Valley, Kedarnath, Uttarakhand

Markha Valley, Ladakh, Jammu and Kashmir

Mushkoh Valley, Jammu and Kashmir

Nagarjunasagar, Telangana

Narmada Valley, Madhya Pradesh

Neelam Valley, Jammu and Kashmir

Neora Valley, Kalimpong, Darjeeling

Nubra Valley, Ladakh, Jammu and Kashmir

Patratu Valley, Jharkhand

Pangi Valley, Himachal Pradesh

Parvati Valley, Kasol, Himachal Pradesh

Pin Valley, Himachal Pradesh

Pindar Valley, Uttarakhand

Sangla Valley, Kinnaur District, Himachal Pradesh

Satluj Valley, Kinnaur District, Himachal Pradesh

Saur Valley, Pithoragarh District, Uttarakhand

Shiladesh, Himachal Pradesh

Silent Valley, Palakkad District, Kerala

Sind Valley, Jammu and Kashmir

Solang Valley, Himachal Pradesh

Soon Valley, Punjab (Pakistan) and Jammu and Kashmir (India)

Spiti Valley, Himachal Pradesh (India) and Tibet (China)

Suru Valley, Ladakh region, Jammu and Kashmir

Tlawng Valley, Mizoram

Tons Valley, Garhwal region, Uttarakhand

Tosa Maidan, Jammu and Kashmir

Valley of Flowers, West Himalayas, Uttarakhand

Visalakshi Nagar, Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh

Yumthang Valley, Sikkim

Zanskar Valley, Ladakh, Jammu and Kashmir

Zoji La Valley, Jammu and Kashmir


Pahalgam is a tourist town and a notified area committee in Anantnag district of the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir. It is a popular tourist destination and hill station. Its lush green meadows and pristine waters attract thousands of tourists from all over the world each year. It is located 45 kilometres (28 mi) from Anantnag on the banks of Lidder River at an altitude of 7,200 feet (2,200 m). Pahalgam is the headquarters of one of the five tehsils of Anantnag district. Pahalgam is associated with the annual Amarnath Yatra. Chandanwari, located 16 kilometres (9.9 mi) from Pahalgam is the starting point of the yatra that takes place every year in the months of July–August.

Sind Valley

The Sind Valley is a Himalayan sub-valley of the Kashmir Valley in the Indian union territory Kashmir. The entrance of the Sind Valley lies 33 kilometres (21 mi) northeast of Srinagar the capital of Jammu and Kashmir. It is a 65 kilometres (40 mi) long gorge valley with an average width of 1 kilometre (0.62 mi).

Tourism in Jammu and Kashmir

Jammu and Kashmir is the northernmost state of India locked in Himalayan Mountains. Jammu and Kashmir is home to several Valleys such as the Kashmir Valley, Chenab Valley, Sindh Valley and Lidder Valley. Some major tourist attractions in Jammu and Kashmir are Srinagar, the Mughal Gardens, Gulmarg, Pahalgam, Patnitop, Jammu, and Ladakh. Some areas require a special permit for non-Indians to visit.

Uri, Jammu and Kashmir

Uri is a town and a tehsil in the Baramulla district, in the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir. Uri is located on the left bank of the Jhelum River, about 10 kilometres (6.2 mi) east of the Line of Control with Pakistan.


A valley is a low area between hills or mountains typically with a river running through it. In geology, a valley or dale is a depression that is longer than it is wide. The terms U-shaped and V-shaped are descriptive terms of geography to characterize the form of valleys. Most valleys belong to one of these two main types or a mixture of them, at least with respect to the cross section of the slopes or hillsides.

Winter sports in India

Winter sports are common in India in the Himalayan areas. Ski tournaments take place every winter in Gulmarg, Kashmir and Manali. Winter sports are generally more common in the northern states of Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand (formerly Uttaranchal), Sikkim and Arunachal Pradesh. Skiing, snow rugby, snow cycling and snow football are few of the common sports played in India. Skiing is more popular although India has taken part in Luge in Winter Olympics since 1998. The Bandy Federation of India is headquarters are in Mandi in Himachal Pradesh. Luge is practiced in a big way by the mountain residents in an improvised form called 'Reri'.

Shiva Keshavan is the only Indian to have won medals in international meets in winter sports (Asian Gold 2011, Asian Silver 2009, Asian Bronze 2008, Asian Silver (Doubles) 2005, Asian Bronze (Singles) 2005), and to have participated in four Olympic Games. He is currently the Asian Speed record holder at 134.4 km/h, making him the fastest man in Asia on ice.

Zabarwan Range

The Zabarwan Range is a short (20 mi (32 km) long) sub-mountain range between Pir Panjal and Great Himalayan Range in the central part of the Kashmir Valley in the state of Jammu and Kashmir in India.

Hill stations
Mughal gardens
See also


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