Libum or Libon was a town of ancient Bithynia, on the road from Nicomedia to Nicaea.[1][2]

Its site is located near Senaiye, in Asiatic Turkey.[3][4]


  1. ^ Itin. Ant. 140; Itin. Hieros. 573
  2. ^ Walther Ruge: Libon 1.(in German) In: Realencyclopädie der classischen Altertumswissenschaft (RE). Volume XIII,1, Stuttgart 1926, col. 116.
  3. ^ Richard Talbert, ed. (2000). Barrington Atlas of the Greek and Roman World. Princeton University Press. p. 52, and directory notes accompanying.
  4. ^ Lund University. Digital Atlas of the Roman Empire.

Coordinates: 40°37′54″N 29°41′10″E / 40.631587°N 29.686075°E


Ariassus or Ariassos (Ancient Greek: Άριασσός) was a town in Pisidia, Asia Minor built on a steep hillside about 50 kilometres inland from Attaleia (modern Antalya).


Baking is a method of preparing food that uses dry heat, normally in an oven, but can also be done in hot ashes, or on hot stones. The most common baked item is bread but many other types of foods are baked. Heat is gradually transferred "from the surface of cakes, cookies, and breads to their center. As heat travels through, it transforms batters and doughs into baked goods and more with a firm dry crust and a softer centre". Baking can be combined with grilling to produce a hybrid barbecue variant by using both methods simultaneously, or one after the other. Baking is related to barbecuing because the concept of the masonry oven is similar to that of a smoke pit.

Because of historical social and familial roles, baking has traditionally been performed at home by women for day-to-day meals and by men in bakeries and restaurants for local consumption. When production was industrialized, baking was automated by machines in large factories. The art of baking remains a fundamental skill and is important for nutrition, as baked goods, especially breads, are a common and important food, both from an economic and cultural point of view. A person who prepares baked goods as a profession is called a baker.


Caloe was a town in the Roman province of Asia. It is mentioned as Kaloe or Keloue in 3rd-century inscriptions, as Kalose in Hierocles's Synecdemos (660), and as Kalloe, Kaloe, and Kolone in Parthey's Notitiæ episcopatuum, in which it figures from the 6th to the 12fth or 13th century.


Cestrus was a city in the Roman province of Isauria, in Asia Minor. Its placing within Isauria is given by Hierocles, Georgius Cyprius, and Parthey's (Notitiae episcopatuum). While recognizing what the ancient sources said, Lequien supposed that the town, whose site has not been identified, took its name from the River Cestros and was thus in Pamphylia. Following Lequien's hypothesis, the 19th-century annual publication Gerarchia cattolica identified the town with "Ak-Sou", which Sophrone Pétridès called an odd mistake, since this is the name of the River Cestros, not of a city.


Cotenna was a city in the Roman province of Pamphylia I in Asia Minor. It corresponds to modern Gödene, near Konya, Turkey.


Cozonac (Romanian pronunciation: [kozoˈnak]) or Kozunak (Bulgarian: козунак, Bulgarian pronunciation: [kozuˈnak]), is a type of Stollen, or sweet leavened bread, traditional to Romania and Bulgaria. It is usually prepared for Easter in Bulgaria, and mostly for every major holiday (Christmas, Easter, New Year's Day, Pentecost) in Romania and Moldova.

The dessert is also known as tsoureki (Greek: τσουρέκι), شوريك (Arabic), panarët (Arbërisht), choreg or chorek (Armenian: չորեկ), çörək (Azerbaijani), or çörek (Turkish and Cypriot Turkish). It is a sweet, egg-enriched bread, which is rooted in the cuisines of Western and Central Asia. Such rich brioche-like breads are also traditional in many other countries, such as Hungary and the Czech Republic. Examples of similar breads from other cultures include badnji kruh in Croatian cuisine, folar de páscoa in Portuguese cuisine, brioche in French cuisine, kulich in Russian cuisine, panettone in Italian cuisine, hot cross bun in English cuisine, and challah in Jewish cuisine.

Cozonac is a sweet bread, into which milk, yeast, eggs, sugar, butter, and other ingredients are mixed together and allowed to rise before baking. In Bulgaria, the kozunak is prepared by adding lemon zest to the dough mixture, just as the Romanian version. The Italian Panettone is very similar to the basic cozonac, the most visible difference being their shapes.

In Romania, the recipes for trimmings differ rather significantly between regions. The dough is essentially similar throughout the country; a plain sweet bread made from flour, eggs, milk, butter, sugar and salt. Depending on the region, one may add to it any of the following: raisins, lokum, grated orange or lemon zest, walnuts or hazelnuts, and vanilla or rum flavor. Cozonac may be sprinkled with poppy seeds on top. Other styles dictate the use of a filling, usually a ground walnut mixture with ground poppy seeds, cocoa powder, rum essence, or raisins. The dough is rolled flat with a pin, the filling is spread and the whole is rolled back into a shape vaguely resembling a pinwheel. In the baked product, the filling forms a swirl adding to the character of the bread.

It was the sweet chosen to represent Romania in the Café Europe initiative of the Austrian presidency of the European Union, on Europe Day 2006.


Cyaneae (Ancient Greek: Κυανέαι; also spelt Kyaneai or Cyanae) was a town of ancient Lycia, or perhaps three towns known collectively by the name, on what is now the southern coast of Turkey. William Martin Leake says that its remains were discovered west of Andriaca. The place, which is at the head of Port Tristomo, was determined by an inscription. Leake observes that in some copies of Pliny it is written Cyane; in Hierocles and the Notitiae Episcopatuum it is Cyaneae. To Spratt and Forbes, Cyaneae appeared to be a city ranking in importance with Phellus and Candyba, but in a better state of preservation. No longer a residential bishopric, Cyanae is today listed by the Catholic Church as a titular see.

De Agri Cultura

De Agri Cultura (Latin pronunciation: [ˈdeː ˈaɡriː kʊlˈtuːraː], On Farming or On Agriculture), written by Cato the Elder, is the oldest surviving work of Latin prose. Alexander Hugh McDonald, in his article for the Oxford Classical Dictionary, dated this essay's composition to about 160 BC and noted that "for all of its lack of form, its details of old custom and superstition, and its archaic tone, it was an up-to-date directed from his own knowledge and experience to the new capitalistic farming." Cato was revered by many later authors for his practical attitudes, his natural stoicism and his tight, lucid prose. He is much quoted by Pliny the Elder, for example, in his Naturalis Historia.


Drizipara (or Druzipara, Drousipara. Drusipara) now Karıştıran (Büyükkarıştıran) in Lüleburgaz district was a city and a residential episcopal see in the Roman province of Europa in the civil diocese of Thrace. It is now a titular see of the Catholic Church.


Hisarlik (Turkish: Hisarlık, "Place of Fortresses"), often spelled Hissarlik, is the modern name for an ancient city in modern day located in what is now Turkey (historically Anatolia) near to the modern city of Çanakkale. The unoccupied archaeological site lies approximately 6.5 km from the Aegean Sea and about the same distance from the Dardanelles. The archaeological site of Hisarlik is known in archaeological circles as a tell. A tell is an artificial hill, built up over centuries and millennia of occupation from its original site on a bedrock knob.

It is believed by many scholars to be the site of ancient Troy, also known as Ilion.


Lusik and Marut are villages located on the absolute shoreline some 57 kilometres north of Madang on the north-west coast of Papua New Guinea, and are pristine examples of a traditional coastal villages. Lusik faces out to the open ocean, and Marut borders a bay overlooking Kabukum Island.

On the ocean shoreline some of the wonderful coastal trees which thrive under these conditions can be noticed, Barontonia or Box Fruit. This tree is one of the few plants which flower at night to be pollinated by nectar eating bats. As soon as the sun comes up the flower drops off. Nearby is a Calophyllum, with its trunk growing along the ground in search of light. At the waters edge it then grows upward towards the light. This type of tree is extremely important for the coastal people, as the trunks from these trees is used to make the outrigger canoes needed for fishing.

Northern cassowary (Casuarius unappendiculatus), known locally as a muruk, lives in this village. In the wild, these unique territorial birds, not unlike an ostrich or an emu, feed almost exclusively on fallen fruit. Males are smaller than females and alone care for the eggs and young. Eggs are laid on bare ground. Cassowaries are valued by villagers for their meat and feathers. Though wild individuals are wary and avoid man, captive birds are pugnacious and should be avoided for their sometimes lethal kick. This specimen is allowed to range in the forest and scrub near the village, and is fed mainly by the village people.

The men and women of the village work at tending the yam and taro gardens set back in the hinterland. During May and June the Yam Festival is held, with all helping with the harvest and sharing the crop, which is then stored in houses in the village. Celebratory feasts follow.

The housing is all built from traditional materials of bamboo walls, with Kunai grass roofing. The flooring is made from bamboo or libum, a palm not unlike coconut. The housing is built well clear of the ground for ventilation, and fires are often built under the house to reduce the problem of mosquitoes. In these villages, the women do not use a kitchen (or haus kuk), but cook their meals of taro, yams, greens in coconut milk over fires in the open.

Walking from Lusik to Marut around the coast, a fine example of Strangler Fig tree can be noticed. It has grown from the base of a Calophyllum tree and has thrown out its aerial roots to a large distance around the host tree.

At the headland between the two villages one can come to a wonderful stand of pandanus trees, with stilt roots providing nourishment and physical support for the main tree.

The tribal chief of these villages is Didol. It is alleged that his great grandparents moved to this land when it was occupied by the Sereureu, who were dwarfs with long fingers, a tail, long nose, big ears and a thick mouth. These people lived in trees, and did not cook their food, but ate all raw. Didol's great grandfather fought them and killed most of them, taking over their land. It is said that a few of these people still live in the trees deep in the jungle.

The chief of the village (Kukurai) is a hereditary position. His father took over the role after leading a band of his clansmen to battle against neighbouring clans. In victory, he was elected Kukurai, a position then handed down to Didol after his death. His eldest son will inherit the role in time.

Little bay near the village is home to a myriad collection of sea cucumbers or beche de mer, sea stars, corals and fish all within a few feet of the shore.


Lyrbe (spelled Lyrba in the 1910 Catholic Encyclopedia; Ancient Greek: Λύρβη) was a city and episcopal see in the Roman province of Pamphylia Prima and is now a titular see.


Pandoro [panˈdɔːro] is a traditional Italian sweet bread, most popular around Christmas and New Year. Typically a Veronese product, pandoro is traditionally shaped like a frustum with an eight-pointed star section.

It is often served dusted with vanilla-scented icing sugar made to resemble the snowy peaks of the Italian Alps during Christmas.


A pie is a baked dish which is usually made of a pastry dough casing that covers or completely contains a filling of various sweet or savoury ingredients.

Pies are defined by their crusts. A filled pie (also single-crust or bottom-crust), has pastry lining the baking dish, and the filling is placed on top of the pastry but left open. A top-crust pie has the filling in the bottom of the dish and is covered with a pastry or other covering before baking. A two-crust pie has the filling completely enclosed in the pastry shell. Shortcrust pastry is a typical kind of pastry used for pie crusts, but many things can be used, including baking powder biscuits, mashed potatoes, and crumbs.

Pies can be a variety of sizes, ranging from bite-size to ones designed for multiple servings.


Plăcintă is a Romanian, Moldovan and Ukrainian traditional pastry resembling a thin, small round or square-shaped cake, usually filled with apples or a soft cheese such as Urdă.


Rhodiapolis (Ancient Greek: Ῥοδιάπολις), also known as Rhodia (Ῥοδία) and Rhodiopolis (Ῥοδιόπολις), was a city in ancient Lycia. Today it is located on a hill northwest of the modern town Kumluca in Antalya Province, Turkey.

Stratonicea (Lydia)

Stratonicea – (Greek: Στρατoνικεια, or Στρατονίκεια) also transliterated as Stratoniceia and Stratonikeia, earlier Indi, and later for a time Hadrianapolis – was an ancient city in the valley of the Caicus river, between Germe and Acrasus, in Lydia, Anatolia; its site is currently near the village of Siledik, in the district of Kırkağaç, Manisa Province, in the Aegean Region of Turkey.


Tyana (Ancient Greek: Τύανα; Hittite Tuwanuwa) was an ancient city in the Anatolian region of Cappadocia, in modern Kemerhisar, Niğde Province, Central Anatolia, Turkey. It was the capital of a Luwian-speaking Neo-Hittite kingdom in the 1st millennium BC.

Üçayaklı ruins

The Üçayaklı ruins are in Mersin Province, Turkey.

Black Sea
Central Anatolia
Eastern Anatolia

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