Library and Archives Canada

Library and Archives Canada (LAC) (in French: Bibliothèque et Archives Canada) is a federal institution tasked with acquiring, preserving and making Canada's documentary heritage accessible.[1] It is the fourth biggest library in the world. LAC reports to Parliament through Pablo Rodríguez, the Minister of Canadian Heritage since August 28, 2018.

Library and Archives Canada
Library and Archives Canada
Library and Archives Canada building in Ottawa
TypeNational library and
national archives
Established2004
Reference to legal mandateLibrary and Archives of Canada Act[1][2]
Location395 Wellington Street, Ottawa
Collection
Items collectedAboriginal Magazines; Albums and Scrapbooks; Architectural drawings; Art; Artifacts; Canadian children’s literature; Canadian comic books; Canadian newspapers; Canadian periodicals; Electronic publications; Electronic records; English-language pulp literature; Ethnic community newsletters; Ephemera; Fiction and non-fiction; Films; Globes; Government publications; Government records; Government websites; Hebraica and Judaica; Indian residential school records; Journals and diaries; Livres d’artistes; Manuscripts; Maps; Microfilms; Photographs; Poetry; Portraits; Rare Books; Sheet music; Sketchbooks; Sound recordings; Stamps; Textual archives; Theses and dissertations; Trade Catalogues; Videos[3]
Size20 million books, periodicals, newspapers, microfilms, literary texts and government publications; 167,000 linear metres of government and private textual records; 3 million architectural drawings, maps and plans; 24 million photographs; 350,000 hours of film; 425,000 pieces of art, including paintings, drawings, watercolours, posters, prints, medals and caricatures; 547,000 musical items; More than a billion megabytes of digital content[4]
Criteria for collectionCanadiana, documents published in Canada and materials published elsewhere of interest to Canada; Records documenting the functions and activities of the Government of Canada; Records of heritage value that document the historical development and diversity of Canadian society.[6]
Legal depositYes[5]
Other information
BudgetCDN$98,346,695 (2013–14)[7][8]
DirectorGuy Berthiaume[9]
Staff860 FTE (2013–14)[8]
Websitewww.bac-lac.gc.ca

History and mandate

The Dominion Archives was founded in 1872 as a division within the Department of Agriculture and was transformed into the autonomous Public Archives of Canada in 1912 and renamed the National Archives of Canada in 1987. The National Library of Canada was founded in 1953. Freda Farrell Waldon contributed to the writing of the brief which led to the founding of the National Library of Canada.[10] In 2004, Library and Archives Canada (LAC) combined the functions of the National Archives of Canada and the National Library of Canada.[11][12][13] It was established by the Library and Archives of Canada Act (Bill C-8), proclaimed on April 22, 2004. A subsequent Order in Council dated May 21, 2004 united the collections, services and personnel of the National Archives of Canada and the National Library of Canada.[14] Since inception LAC has reported to Parliament through the Minister of Canadian Heritage.[15]

LAC's stated mandate is:[1][9][16]

  • to preserve the documentary heritage of Canada for the benefit of present and future generations;
  • to be a source of enduring knowledge accessible to all, contributing to the cultural, social and economic advancement of Canada as a free and democratic society;
  • to facilitate in Canada co-operation among communities involved in the acquisition, preservation and diffusion of knowledge;
  • to serve as the continuing memory of the Government of Canada and its institutions.

LAC is expected to maintain "effective recordkeeping practices that ensure transparency and accountability".[17]

Collection

LAC's holdings include the archival records of the Government of Canada, representative private archives, 20 million books acquired largely through legal deposit, 24 million photographs, and more than a petabyte of digital content.[4][18] Some of this content, primarily the book collection, university theses and census material, is available online.[19] Many items have not been digitized and are only available in physical form.[20] As of May 2013 only about 1% of the collection had been digitized, representing "about 25 million of the more popular and most fragile items".[21][22][23]

The collection includes:[24]

User profile

Genealogists account for 70% of LAC's clients.[32]

Facilities

Sculpture Lea Vivot LAC BAC
The Secret Bench of Knowledge sculpture by Lea Vivot,
395 Wellington Street, Ottawa
Gatineau Preservation Centre
Preservation Centre,
625 du Carrefour Boulevard, Gatineau

The building at 395 Wellington Street in downtown Ottawa is the main physical location where the public may access the collection in person. The building was officially opened on June 20, 1967.[20][33] With the de-emphasis on physical visits, in-person services have been curtailed, for example since April 2012 reference services are by appointment only, and the role of this building is decreasing.[34][35][36] There are also administrative offices in Gatineau and preservation and storage facilities throughout Canada for federal government records.[20][24][37][38]

The Preservation Centre in the city centre of Gatineau, about 10 kilometres away from the Ottawa headquarters, was designed to provide a safe environment for the long-term storage and preservation of Canada's valuable collections. It was built at a cost of CDN$107 million, and the official opening took place on June 4, 1997. It is a unique building containing 48 climate-controlled preservation vaults and state-of-the-art preservation laboratories.[37][39][40][41] In 2000, the Royal Architectural Institute of Canada named it one of the top 500 buildings constructed in Canada during the last millennium.[42]

A Nitrate Film Preservation Facility on the Communications Research Centre campus in Shirleys Bay, on the outskirts of Ottawa, houses Canada's cellulose nitrate film collection.[43] The collection contains 5,575 film reels dating back to 1912, including some of the first Canadian motion pictures and photographic negatives.[24][44] The film material is highly sensitive and requires precise temperatures for its preservation. The state-of-the-art facility, which was officially opened on June 21, 2011,[45] is an eco-designed building featuring an environmentally friendly roof that provides better insulation and minimizes energy expenditures.[46]

A planned key activity for 2013–14 was to rehouse analogue (non-digital) information resources in a new state-of-the-art high-density storage facility in Gatineau, where the national newspaper collection and records of Second World War veterans will be stored.[8][47] The facility will feature a high bay metal shelving system with a suitable environment to better protect Canada's published heritage.[48][49][50] In January 2019, Library and Archives Canada announced that negotiations for a new facility to be built next to the existing one in Gatineau were starting, with an opening date in 2022.[51]

LAC's online collection is accessible via its website and LAC provides ongoing information online via its blog, podcasts, the Twitter and Facebook social networking services, the Flickr image-sharing site, and the YouTube video-sharing site. RSS feeds provide links to new content on the LAC website and news about LAC services and resources.[19][52][53] A new modernized website is being developed and is scheduled for completion in 2013, with both new and old websites accessible during the transition period.[54]

Modernization and budget cuts

In June 2004 LAC issued a discussion paper Creating a New Kind of Knowledge Institution,[55] and after consultation in June 2006 it issued LAC Directions for Change, a document setting out five key directions to define the new institution:[56]

  • A new kind of knowledge institution
  • A truly national institution
  • Working with others to strengthen the whole of Canada's documentary heritage
  • A prime learning destination
  • A lead institution in government information management.

LAC's modernization policy provides for transformation from an institution focused on the acquisition and preservation of analogue (non-digital) materials to one that excels in digital access and digital preservation.[57] A Documentary Heritage Management Framework developed in 2009 seeks the right balance between resources dedicated to analogue and digital materials and is based on:

  • three main business pillars: acquisition, preservation and resource discovery (resource discovery includes description, discovery, access and services to the public)
  • four guiding principles for fulfilling its documentary heritage mandate, i.e. significance, sufficiency, sustainability and society (broad social context)
  • four key roles, i.e. foundation building (relationship building), collaboration, program (integrated collection management processes) and transfer (formal agreements with third parties to fulfill its legislated mandate).

Eight pilot research projects were initiated to validate the framework, including projects on military documentary heritage, aboriginal documentary heritage, and stewardship of newspapers in a digital age.[58][59][60] In March 2010 LAC issued its final report on Canadian Digital Information Strategy stakeholder consultations initiated in accordance with its mandate to facilitate co-operation among Canadian knowledge communities.[61] In the same month it issued Shaping Our Continuing Memory Collectively: A Representative Documentary Heritage, a document which outlines how it plans to achieve its modernization objectives.[62]

Despite LAC's stated objectives of continuing to fulfill its mandate by adapting to changes in the information environment and collaboration with others, the actual experience since 2004 has been a reduction in both services and collaboration.[57][58][63] Federal funding cuts since 2004 have also impacted on LAC services and acquisitions.[22][23][63][64][65] A detailed timeline of relevant developments and the decline in LAC services since 2004 has been compiled by the Ex Libris Association.[66]

Impact on employees

Following the announcement in the 2012 federal budget of a CDN$9.6 million funding cut over the three years commencing in 2012–13,[67] more than 400 LAC employees received notices which indicated their jobs may be affected and the department announced a 20% reduction of its workforce of about 1,100 over the following three years.[36][68][69][70] The "harsh" wording of a 23-page code of conduct for employees effective January 2013, which "spells out values, potential conflicts of interest and expected behaviours", has been criticized by the Association of Canadian Archivists and the Canadian Association of University Teachers among others. The code describes personal activities including teaching and speaking at or attending conferences as "high risk" activities "with regard to conflict of interest, conflict of duties and duty of loyalty" and participation in such activities is subject to strict conditions. In a section on duty of loyalty, it also cautions employees about expressing personal opinions in social media forums. Only authorized LAC spokespersons may issue statements or make public comments about LAC's mandate and activities, which includes controversial changes related to modernization and budget cuts.[71][72][73][74]

Public criticism

Changes introduced under the management of Ian E. Wilson and Daniel J. Caron have been the subject of controversy and public criticism.[63][75] Caron asserted that radical change is needed to cope with the influx and demand for digital material and they are subject to federal budget constraints.[74][76]

  • In 2011 the Canadian Association of University Teachers launched the Save Library & Archives Canada campaign.[77]
  • On May 2, 2012 the Canadian Library Association expressed concern about budget cuts to libraries, both in federal departments and at LAC.[69][70]
  • On May 31, 2012 the Association of Canadian Archivists announced its withdrawal from forums of LAC's Pan-Canadian Documentary Heritage Network, stating that it does not believe the network can meet the needs and interests of archives across Canada previously met by the National Archival Development Program abruptly terminated by LAC following the 2012 federal funding cut.[64][65][78]
  • In August 2012 the Bibliographical Society of Canada wrote to every Member of Parliament urging them to ensure budget cuts do not compromise LAC's legislated mandate. In a follow-up letter to Heritage Minister James Moore in November 2012 the Society singled out the termination of interlibrary loans as a particularly harmful decision.[79]
  • Bibliophile blogger Nigel Beale characterizes LAC as "Canada's national disgrace" in his blog Literary Tourist.[80]
  • Academic Ian Milligan describes LAC's "rhetoric of modernization" as a "smokescreen" for cutting services in light of the insignificance of and limited accessibility to LAC's online collections on the ActiveHistory.ca website.[81]
  • Historian Valerie Knowles outlines the impact of government cutbacks at LAC and federal government libraries in her article Closing doors on Canada's history on the iPolitics website.[82]

Following Caron's resignation in May 2013, a stakeholder coalition issued a joint statement on the qualities of a successful Librarian and Archivist of Canada for official consideration in what they consider a "matter of great national significance":[75][83]

A broad coalition of Canadian stakeholder organizations has developed the following list of qualities we believe the Librarian and Archivist of Canada should have in order to be successful in this critical position of public trust and responsibility. We believe it is essential that the person appointed to this position at this time possess the necessary qualities to meet the tremendous challenges of dealing with the complex issues of the digital environment in an era of limited financial and human resources and the demands of providing increased public access to the irreplaceable treasures of Canadian documentary heritage.

In June 2013 the Heritage Minister said speeding up the digitization of records will be a priority for the new Librarian and Archivist of Canada. Moore also said he will ask the person appointed to revisit the termination of the National Archival Development Program.[64][65]

Truth and Reconciliation Commission

During the Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada, Library and Archives Canada initially failed to produce records requested by the commission in a timely and comprehensive manner and was ordered by an Ontario Superior Court judge to do so.[84] Ultimately, LAC did provide the records, but many were not in digitized and searchable formats as required by the commission.[85]

The Calls to Action of the final report of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission explicitly referenced Library and Archives Canada as follows:

"69. We call upon Library and Archives Canada to: fully adopt and implement the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples and the United Nations Joinet-Orentlicher principles, as related to Aboriginal peoples' inalienable right to know the truth about what happened and why, with regard to human rights violations committed against them in the residential schools; ensure that its record holding related to residential schools are accessible to the public; [and] commit more resources to its public education materials and programming on residential schools."[86][87]

Library and Archives Canada has begun to address these concerns by dedicating funding to hire Indigenous archivists, build relationships with Indigenous communities, and support digitization efforts.[88] However, Indigenous-led organizations have drawn attention to the fact that Indigenous communities have been conducting this type of work for decades.[89]

LAC also holds and provides access to archival copies of the websites of organizations related to the TRC, in collaboration with the National Centre for Truth and Reconciliation, the University of Winnipeg Library, and University of Manitoba Libraries.[90]

Librarians and Archivists

The Librarian and Archivist of Canada is the deputy head of Library and Archives Canada.[9]

Current Librarian and Archivist of Canada

On April 14, 2014 Guy Berthiaume was appointed Librarian and Archivist of Canada by Minister of Canadian Heritage Shelly Glover for a five-year term commencing June 23, 2014.[91]

Former Librarians and Archivists of Canada

Former National Librarians

Former National Archivists and Dominion Archivists

The head of Canada's national archives was known as the Dominion Archivist from 1872 to 1987 and the National Archivist from 1987 to 2004.[98]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c "Justice Laws Website: An Act to establish the Library and Archives of Canada, to amend the Copyright Act and to amend certain Acts in consequence". Government of Canada. Archived from the original on March 29, 2012. Retrieved May 26, 2013.
  2. ^ "House Government Bill – C-8, Royal Assent (37-3)". Parliament of Canada. Retrieved May 26, 2013.
  3. ^ "Discover the Collection: Canada's Continuing Memory – Browse by Product Type". LAC. Archived from the original on June 3, 2013. Retrieved June 2, 2013.
  4. ^ a b "LAC at a glance – About Us". LAC. Retrieved May 29, 2013. The LAC collection... 20 million books, periodicals, newspapers, microfilms, literary texts and government publications; 167,000 linear metres of government and private textual records; 3 million architectural drawings, maps and plans; 24 million photographs; 350,000 hours of film; 425,000 pieces of art, including paintings, drawings, watercolours, posters, prints, medals and caricatures; 547,000 musical items; more than a billion megabytes of digital content
  5. ^ "Legal Deposit". LAC. Archived from the original on May 30, 2013. Retrieved 28 May 2013.
  6. ^ "Digital Collection Development Policy". LAC. February 1, 2006. Retrieved June 2, 2013. Refer section on Selection and Acquisition Criteria applicable to both digital and other media.
  7. ^ "2013–14 Estimates" (PDF). Treasury Board Secretariat. p. II–201. Retrieved May 26, 2013.
  8. ^ a b c "Report on Plans and Priorities 2013–14". LAC. Retrieved May 31, 2013.
  9. ^ a b c "Organization Profile – Library and Archives of Canada". Governor in Council Appointments. Government of Canada. June 5, 2014. Retrieved July 1, 2014.
  10. ^ "History of LH&A: Freda Farrell Waldon | HPL". Hpl.ca. Retrieved 2016-08-11.
  11. ^ Wilson, Ian E. (1982). "'A Noble Dream': The Origins of the Public Archives of Canada". Archivaria. ACA (15): 16–35. Retrieved June 3, 2013.
  12. ^ "Speech – Posthumous Tribute to Jean-Pierre Wallot". Government of Canada. Retrieved May 30, 2013. Following his appointment in the spring of 1985, he was given the task of reviewing the Public Archives Act of 1912, which led to the federal institution’s first name change. The institution that had been known as the Public Archives of Canada since 1872 was renamed the National Archives of Canada.
  13. ^ "Library and Archives Canada". Canada–France Archives. Archived from the original on March 3, 2016. Retrieved May 30, 2013. In 1872, the Canadian government created an Archives Division within the Department of Agriculture; its mandate was to acquire and transcribe documents related to Canadian history. In 1912, parliamentary legislation transformed this division into an autonomous organization, the Public Archives of Canada, and confirmed its responsibility to manage government documents. The mandate of the new institution focused on the acquisition of documents on all types of media, putting into practice the innovative concept of 'total archives.' Further legislation in 1987 clarified and reinforced the role and responsibilities of the Public Archives of Canada, which was then renamed the National Archives of Canada. In October 2002, in order to improve access to Canada’s documentary heritage, the government announced the creation of a new institution, Library and Archives Canada, which united the National Archives of Canada and the National Library of Canada (founded in 1953).
  14. ^ "House Government Bill C-8 (37-3)". Parliament of Canada. Retrieved 26 May 2013. Last Stage Completed: Royal Assent (2004-04-22). Coming Into Force: Her Excellency the Governor General in Council hereby fixes May 21, 2004 as the day on which that Act comes into force, other than sections 21, 53 and 54, which came into force on assent.
  15. ^ "Financial Administration Act – Schedule I.1". Government of Canada. Retrieved May 31, 2013.
  16. ^ "Our Mandate". LAC. Retrieved May 31, 2013.
  17. ^ "Directive on Recordkeeping". Government of Canada. Retrieved May 31, 2013.
  18. ^ "Overview – About the Collection". LAC. Retrieved May 29, 2013.
  19. ^ a b "Electronic Collection". LAC. Retrieved June 2, 2013.
  20. ^ a b c "Visit Us". LAC. Retrieved June 3, 2013. Much of Library and Archives Canada's collection has not been digitized and is only available in physical form. To use this material, you will have to visit one of our locations.
  21. ^ "Library and archives interlibrary loans soon eliminated". CBC News. Nov 7, 2012. Retrieved June 2, 2013.
  22. ^ a b Hall, Joseph (March 10, 2013). "Historical letters not wanted at Library and Archives Canada, critics say". Toronto Star. Retrieved May 26, 2013.
  23. ^ a b Cobb, Chris (May 3, 2013). "Record breaking". Ottawa Citizen. Archived from the original on May 30, 2013. Retrieved June 2, 2013.
  24. ^ a b c "Library and Archives Canada – By the numbers". Ottawa Citizen. May 3, 2013. Archived from the original on May 27, 2013. Retrieved June 4, 2013.
  25. ^ "Proclamation of the Constitution Act, 1982". LAC. Archived from the original on June 28, 2013. Retrieved June 3, 2013. This original copy of the Proclamation of the Constitution Act, 1982 is the one which was signed by HM Queen Elizabeth II on Parliament Hill, 17 April 1982. Damaged slightly by rain during the signing ceremony, this version is informally known as the 'raindrop' copy.
  26. ^ "Sir John A. Macdonald: Canada's Patriot Statesman". LAC. Retrieved June 3, 2013.
  27. ^ "Constitutional Achievements". LAC. Retrieved June 3, 2013.
  28. ^ "Jacob M. Lowy Collection". LAC. Archived from the original on June 4, 2013. Retrieved June 3, 2013.
  29. ^ "Israeli Foreign Minister Views Rare Book Collection During Visit to Library and Archives Canada". LAC. Retrieved June 3, 2013.
  30. ^ "Josephus". LAC. Retrieved June 3, 2013.
  31. ^ "The Glenn Gould Archive". LAC. Retrieved June 3, 2013.
  32. ^ Shouldice, Alison (July 1, 2013). "Release of 1921 census data on hold". The Kingston Whig-Standard. Retrieved July 9, 2013.
  33. ^ "A Behind-the-Scenes Look at LAC: Services for the Public Available in Ottawa". LAC. Retrieved June 4, 2013.
  34. ^ "LAC begins implementation of new approach to service delivery". LAC. Archived from the original on May 29, 2013. Retrieved June 5, 2013. Our website now gets close to half a million visits per month. In contrast, LAC’s in-person service hub located at 395 Wellington Street, receives about 2,000 visits per month. These two service points are also trending in opposite directions, with online consultations increasing rapidly, and in-person visits declining slowly but steadily.
  35. ^ "Reference by Appointment". LAC. Retrieved June 3, 2013.
  36. ^ a b Curry, Bill (May 1, 2012). "Visiting Library and Archives in Ottawa? Not without an appointment". The Globe and Mail. Retrieved May 31, 2013. A spokesman for Library and Archives Canada confirmed to The Globe and Mail that the current workforce of 1,065 will be reduced to 850 people over the next three years, as a result of the 2012 federal budget cuts.
  37. ^ a b "A Behind-the-Scenes Look at LAC: The Gatineau Preservation Centre". LAC. January 19, 2012. Retrieved June 3, 2013.
  38. ^ "Government Records Accessible Outside Ottawa". LAC. Archived from the original on May 29, 2013. Retrieved June 4, 2013.
  39. ^ "1997 December Report of the Auditor General of Canada". Office of the Auditor General of Canada. Retrieved June 3, 2013. As part of a composite project to respond to the needs of the National Archives of Canada, including the need to arrest the deterioration of records in existing storage facilities, a new conservation and laboratory building was constructed in the city centre of Gatineau, Quebec, at a total project cost of $107 million.
  40. ^ "The LAC Preservation Centre: What's there?". LAC. Archived from the original on May 30, 2013. Retrieved 27 May 2013.
  41. ^ "Library and Archives Canada Preservation Centre". LAC. Retrieved June 3, 2013.
  42. ^ Cook, Maria (May 11, 2000). "Cultural consequence". Ottawa Citizen. Archived from the original on June 6, 2013. Retrieved October 11, 2009.
  43. ^ "Nitrate Film Preservation Facility". Treasury Board of Canada Secretariat. Retrieved June 4, 2013.
  44. ^ "Library and Archives Canada Marks the Opening of the New Nitrate Film Preservation Facility". LAC. June 21, 2011. Retrieved May 28, 2013.
  45. ^ "Official Opening of Library and Archives Canada's Nitrate Film Preservation Centre" (Press release). LAC. June 17, 2011. Retrieved May 28, 2013.
  46. ^ "A Behind-the-Scenes Look at LAC: The Nitrate Film Preservation Facility". LAC. Retrieved June 4, 2013.
  47. ^ "Library and Archives Canada preparing for big move". CBC News. July 28, 2012. Retrieved June 3, 2013.
  48. ^ "Minutes of the Depository Services Program Library Advisory Committee (DSP-LAC) Meetings, 2009". Government of Canada. August 24, 2009. Retrieved May 28, 2013. It was recently announced that funding was received from Treasury Board to convert a building (formerly, a Zellers department store) in Gatineau into a high-density storage facility.
  49. ^ "Montel Awarded the Library and Archives Canada New Collection Storage Facility High Bay Metal Storage Shelving Contract". Montel. January 18, 2012. Retrieved May 27, 2013.
  50. ^ Butler, Don (February 28, 2013). "Museums mostly unconcerned about loss of federal funding". Ottawa Citizen. Archived from the original on June 30, 2013. Retrieved 27 May 2013. Much of the $20-million decrease in the Library and Archives Canada budget is accounted for in the conversion of the building in Gatineau to a high-density shelving collection storage facility, which is nearly complete.
  51. ^ Pilieci, Vito. "Government moves closer on $400-million document preservation facility". Library and Archives Canada =January 31, 2019. Retrieved March 23, 2019.
  52. ^ "Stay Connected". LAC. Retrieved May 26, 2013.
  53. ^ "The Shamrock and the Maple Leaf". LAC. Retrieved May 26, 2013.
  54. ^ "Library and Archives Canada Revamped Web Presence". LAC. Archived from the original on June 11, 2013. Retrieved June 5, 2013.
  55. ^ "Creating a New Kind of Knowledge Institution" (PDF). LAC. Retrieved June 5, 2013.
  56. ^ "LAC Directions for Change" (PDF). LAC. Retrieved June 5, 2013.
  57. ^ a b "Modernization". LAC. Archived from the original on June 11, 2013. Retrieved May 26, 2013.
  58. ^ a b "Library and Archives Canada". Treasury Board of Canada Secretariat. 2009. Archived from the original on June 3, 2013. Retrieved June 5, 2013. Under the guidance of the new Deputy Head, Library and Archives Canada (LAC) has identified new strategic directions for the organization and implemented a change management agenda. More broadly, LAC continues to adapt to technological changes in dealing with its mandate to preserve and make available the documentary heritage of Canada. LAC has commenced a modernization initiative and has also established a "Documentary Heritage Management Framework" to meet the challenges of collecting and preserving information in an environment that is transitioning from analogue production to digital production.
  59. ^ "Documentary Heritage Management Framework". LAC. Archived from the original on March 28, 2010. Retrieved June 5, 2013.
  60. ^ Levene, Mark (2010). "Documentary Heritage Development Framework" (PDF). LAC. Archived from the original (PDF) on July 3, 2014. Retrieved June 5, 2013.
  61. ^ "Canadian Digital Information Strategy (CDIS): Final Report of consultations with stakeholder communities 2005 to 2008" (PDF). LAC. Retrieved June 5, 2013.
  62. ^ "Shaping Our Continuing Memory Collectively: A Representative Documentary Heritage" (PDF). LAC. Retrieved June 5, 2013.
  63. ^ a b c "Stephen Harper should appoint a pro to head Canada's library and archives: Editorial". Toronto Star. May 21, 2013. Retrieved June 5, 2013. Caron oversaw $10 million in budget cuts in recent years, laying off dozens of staff, eliminating grants to independent archives across the country and, most controversially, ending an interlibrary loan program that massively expanded the reach of the government collections.
  64. ^ a b c "Heritage minister looks at restoring local archives program". CBC. June 10, 2013. Retrieved June 11, 2013.
  65. ^ a b c Cobb, Chris (June 10, 2013). "Heritage Minister James Moore wants axed Library and Archives Canada NADP program restored". Ottawa Citizen. Archived from the original on June 19, 2013. Retrieved June 11, 2013.
  66. ^ "Ex Libris Association Timeline on Library and Archives Canada Service Decline". Ex Libris Association. Retrieved March 18, 2017.
  67. ^ "National museums, Canada Council spared cuts". CBC News. March 29, 2012. Retrieved May 26, 2013. The federal government's 2012 budget outlined cuts of $9.6 million over three years to Library and Archives Canada
  68. ^ "Federal libraries, archives shutting down". CBC News. May 2, 2012. Retrieved May 31, 2013. The federal government is eliminating a series of libraries and archives throughout different departments as part of the latest budget cuts. Library and Archives Canada alone has received or will still receive more than 400 affected notices and the department announced 20 per cent of its workforce would be let go.
  69. ^ a b Fontaine, Alana (May 2, 2012). "CLA dismayed by impact of budget cuts on federal libraries" (Press release). CLA. Archived from the original on November 16, 2012. Retrieved May 31, 2013.
  70. ^ a b Kirkup, Kristy (May 2, 2012). "Librarians fighting mad over federal cuts". Ottawa Sun. Retrieved April 22, 2013.
  71. ^ Munro, Margaret (March 15, 2013). "Federal librarians fear being 'muzzled' under new code of conduct that stresses 'duty of loyalty' to the government". National Post. Retrieved May 26, 2013.
  72. ^ Fodden, Simon (March 19, 2013). "The Loyalty Policy at Library and Archives Canada". Slaw. Retrieved May 26, 2013.
  73. ^ Munro, Margaret (March 20, 2013). "Federal librarians face new 'behaviour regulation' code". The Regina Leader-Post. Archived from the original on June 29, 2013. Retrieved June 4, 2013.
  74. ^ a b Cobb, Chris (May 12, 2013). "Library and Archives boss chastised by heritage minister for taxpayer-funded Spanish lessons". Ottawa Citizen. Archived from the original on June 30, 2013. Retrieved May 31, 2013. The code says employees may accept speaking invitations as long as they don’t speak about LAC’s mandate and activities. Caron has countered criticism by saying he has to work within the budget imposed by the federal government and his focus must be less on collecting artifacts and books and more on preserving Canada’s digital record.
  75. ^ a b Karstens-Smith, Gemma (May 24, 2013). "Librarians give heritage minister wishlist for top job". Ottawa Citizen. Archived from the original on June 30, 2013. Retrieved May 31, 2013. 'The community has great concerns about the direction of Library and Archives Canada, and has had for a few years now.' ... Those concerns include where cuts are being made and how modernization is occurring, Marrelli said.
  76. ^ a b Cobb, Chris (May 16, 2013). "Librarian community calls on minister to appoint professional librarian to replace Caron as head of LAC". Ottawa Citizen. Archived from the original on June 30, 2013. Retrieved May 26, 2013. Hervé Déry, assistant deputy minister of policy and collaboration at LAC, will temporarily replace Caron, who had been critical of the archivist and librarian community for resisting the necessary push to collecting digital born material and digitizing more popular items at LAC.
  77. ^ "Save Library & Archives Canada". CAUT. Retrieved April 22, 2013.
  78. ^ "Letter from the Association of Canadian Archivists to the Director General of LAC" (PDF). ACA. May 31, 2012. Archived from the original (PDF) on May 14, 2013. Retrieved May 26, 2013.
  79. ^ "President's Letters about Library and Archives Canada". Bibliographical Society of Canada. Retrieved May 26, 2013.
  80. ^ Beale, Nigel (March 18, 2012). "Library and Archives, Canada's National disgrace (Part 1 of 3)". Literary Tourist. Retrieved April 22, 2013.
  81. ^ Milligan, Ian (May 22, 2012). "The Smokescreen of 'Modernization' at Library and Archives Canada". ActiveHistory.ca. Retrieved May 31, 2013.
  82. ^ Knowles, Valerie (August 10, 2012). "Closing doors on Canada's history". iPolitics. Archived from the original on June 19, 2013. Retrieved April 22, 2013.
  83. ^ "Joint Statement on Qualities of a Successful Librarian and Archivist of Canada" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on September 7, 2013. Retrieved June 6, 2013.
  84. ^ "Federal budget cuts to the Library & Archives of Canada stall Truth and Reconciliation Commission | The Nation: Cree News". The Nation: Cree News. 2013-09-23. Retrieved 2018-03-01.
  85. ^ Rennie, Steve (2014-04-22). "Truth and Reconciliation Commission gets access to thousands more documents". The Toronto Star. ISSN 0319-0781. Retrieved 2018-03-01.
  86. ^ "94 ways to redress the legacy of residential schools and advance reconciliation". CBC News. Retrieved 2018-03-01.
  87. ^ "Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada: Calls to Action" (PDF). 2015. Retrieved February 28, 2018.
  88. ^ "Archivists look to 'decolonize' Canada's memory banks". CTVNews. 2018-02-19. Retrieved 2018-03-01.
  89. ^ "Indigitization Commentary on LAC Initiatives [Thread]". Twitter. February 27, 2018. Retrieved February 28, 2018.
  90. ^ Canada, Library and Archives. "Library and Archives Canada's Truth and Reconciliation Commission Web Archive - Library and Archives Canada". Retrieved 2018-03-01.
  91. ^ "Guy Berthiaume appointed as Librarian and Archivist of Canada" (Press release). Government of Canada. April 14, 2014. Retrieved 16 April 2014.
  92. ^ "Biography of Dr. Daniel J. Caron". LAC. Retrieved May 30, 2013. He was appointed the Librarian and Archivist of Canada on April 24, 2009.
  93. ^ "Mr. Wilson's Biography". LAC. Retrieved May 30, 2013. Ian E. Wilson has just retired as the first Librarian and Archivist of Canada. Appointed as National Archivist in 1999, he and the National Librarian, Roch Carrier, OC, developed and led the process to create a new knowledge institution for Canada in the 21st century, the integrated Library and Archives of Canada. When the legislation came into force in May, 2004, Ian Wilson took on this new responsibility.
  94. ^ a b "Fellows of ICA: Ian E. Wilson". International Council on Archives. Archived from the original on June 8, 2013. Retrieved May 30, 2013. Dr. Wilson served as National Archivist of Canada, 1999 to 2004, and then as head of the newly amalgamated Library and Archives Canada. He retired in 2009 and received the unusual honour of being named Librarian and Archivist of Canada Emeritus.
  95. ^ a b Gagnaire, Catherine (July 5, 1999). "Appointments to the Positions of National Archivist and of National Librarian" (Press release). Office of the Minister of Canadian Heritage. Minister of Canadian Heritage Sheila Copps announced today the appointments of Ian Wilson to the position of National Archivist of Canada and Roch Carrier as National Librarian of Canada. Mr. Carrier will replace the current National Librarian, Marianne Scott, who has held the position since 1984.
  96. ^ "Guy Sylvestre fonds". LAC. Retrieved May 30, 2013. He was Associate National Librarian (1956-1968) and then National Librarian (1968-1983) at the National Library of Canada.
  97. ^ "W. Kaye Lamb fonds [multiple media]". LAC. Archived from the original on June 28, 2013. Retrieved May 30, 2013. Dr. Lamb was appointed as Canada's first national librarian in 1953 ... Dr. Lamb retired as national librarian in 1968 and as Dominion archivist in January 1969.
  98. ^ a b Chabot, Victorin. "Jean-Pierre Wallot, The Historian Archivist, 1985-1997". LAC. Retrieved May 29, 2013. After lengthy consultations with government departments, a Bill was tabled in the House of Commons and was enacted into law on March 25, 1987. The institution which had been known as the Public Archives of Canada since 1872 was renamed the National Archives of Canada, and the Federal Archivist became the National Archivist.
  99. ^ Wilson, Ian E. (2005). "'The Gift of One Generation to Another': The Real Thing for the Pepsi Generation". In Blouin,Francis X.;Rosenberg, William G. Archives, documentation, and institutions of social memory : essays from the Sawyer Seminar (1st pbk. ed.). Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press. p. 341. ISBN 9780472114931. The position of national archivist was vacant for more than two years, from the retirement of Dr. Jean-Pierre Wallot on June 6, 1997, to the announcement of my appointment on July 5, 1999.CS1 maint: Uses editors parameter (link)
  100. ^ a b Laplante, Normand. "Before Mr. Lamb and Mr. Smith went to Ottawa". LAC. Retrieved May 30, 2013. The first is known as a pioneer of archival administration in Canada whose work as Dominion Archivist from 1948 to 1968 made the Public Archives of Canada a truly modern institution ... Most of their personal papers kept at the NA relate to the period in which they led the institution from 1948 to 1984.
  101. ^ "Wilfred I. Smith fonds [multiple media]". LAC. Archived from the original on June 28, 2013. Retrieved May 30, 2013. He joined the Public Archives of Canada in Ottawa in 1950. From 1963 to 1968, Smith held various managerial positions within the Archives: chief of the Manuscript Division (1963-1964), director of the Historical Branch (1964-1965), Assistant Dominion Archivist (1965-1968) and Acting Dominion Archivist (1968-1970). In 1970, he was appointed Dominion Archivist, a position he held until his retirement in 1984.
  102. ^ Bélanger, Claude. "Quebec History – Gustave Lanctot (1883-1975)". Marianopolis College. Retrieved May 30, 2013. In 1937 he was appointed deputy minister and Dominion Archivist, a position he would hold until his retirement in 1948.
  103. ^ "Sir Arthur George Doughty (1860-1936)". LAC. Retrieved May 30, 2013.
  104. ^ "Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online – Brymner, Douglas". University of Toronto. Retrieved May 30, 2013.

Further reading

  • Council of Federal Libraries (Canada): Readers' Services Committee. Basic Readers' Services = Principaux services offerts aux lecteurs. Ottawa, Ont.: National Library of Canada, cop. 1980, t.p. 1979. N.B.: The English and French texts are printed tête-bêche one to the other. ISBN 0-662-50668-5
  • Delvaux, Alex, and Yves Marcoux. Public Archives Library = Bibliothèque des Archives publiques. In "General Guide Series: 1983". [Ottawa]: Public Archives Canada, 1983. Text, printed tête-bêche, in English and in French. ISBN 0-662-52580-9
  • Kallmann, Helmut. "The Music Division of the National Library: the First Five Years", The Canada Music Book, vol. 10, [no. 1] (Spring/Summer 1975), p. 95-100. N.B.: Also printed as a fold. offprint.
  • Library and Archives Canada. Legal Deposit at the [then named] National Library of Canada = Le Dépôt légal à la Bibliothèque nationale du Canada. Ottawa: National Library of Canada, 1982. N.B.: Text, printed tête-bêche, in English and in French. ISBN 0-662-52131-5
  • Library and Archives Canada. Music Collection [of the] National Library of Canada['s] Music Division = Collection de musique [de la] Division de la musique, Bibliothèque nationale du Canada. Ottawa: National Library of Canada, 1989. N.B.: Texts in English and in French, printed tête-bêche. ISBN 0-662-57231-9
  • Library and Archives Canada. National Film, Television, and Sound Archives = Archives nationales du film, de la television et de l'enregistrement sonore, in General Guide Series. Ottawa: Public Archives Canada, 1983. 45 p. (English) + 47 p. (French), ill. with b&w photos. N.B.: The English and French texts are printed tête-bêche one to the other. ISBN 0-662-52650-3
  • Library and Archives Canada: Sound Archives Section. Sound Archives, Guide to Procedures = Les Archives sonores, guide méthodologique. 3rd ed. ... rev. ... and updated, [in] collaboration between ... Michel Bourbonnais et al.; Josephine Langham ... responsible for the revision of the text in the English language version. Ottawa: Public Archives Canada, 1979. N.B.: Texts in English and in French, printed tête-bêche one to the other. ISBN 0-662-50363-5

External links

Coordinates: 45°25′11″N 75°42′28.5″W / 45.41972°N 75.707917°W

Bette Midler discography

American singer Bette Midler has released 13 studio albums, four soundtrack albums, five live albums, one spoken word album, seven greatest hits compilations, four video albums, 39 official singles, nine promotional singles, and 11 music videos.

As of 2010, Midler has sold over 30 million records worldwide.

Bryan Adams discography

Canadian singer Bryan Adams has released fourteen studio albums, six compilation albums, two soundtrack albums, four live albums, and sixty-nine singles. After the success of his debut single, "Let Me Take You Dancing" (1979), Adams signed a recording contract with A&M Records. Bryan Adams (1980), his debut album, peaked at number 69 on the Canadian RPM Albums Chart. Adams followed this with You Want It You Got It (1981), which peaked at number 118 on the Billboard 200 and was certified gold in Canada. Cuts Like a Knife, his third release, became his first successful work outside Canada. The album charted within the top ten in Canada and the United States and was certified three-times platinum by the Canadian Recording Industry Association (CRIA) and platinum by the Recording Industry Association of America (RIAA). Reckless (1984), his fourth studio album, selling over 12 million copies worldwide and featured the hit singles "Run to You", "Heaven" and "Summer of '69". In 1987, he released Into the Fire, which reached platinum status in the United States and triple-platinum in Canada.

Adams entered the 1990s with the release of Waking Up the Neighbours (1991), which contained "(Everything I Do) I Do It for You", the theme song for the film Robin Hood: Prince of Thieves. The album has sold over 10 million copies worldwide. He also released his first greatest hits compilation, So Far So Good, in 1993. This album topped the charts in nine countries and was certified six-time platinum and five-time platinum by the RIAA and CRIA respectively. His seventh studio album, 18 til I Die, was released in 1996. It sold five million copies worldwide and was certified platinum in the United States. MTV Unplugged, an acoustic live album released in 1997, reached the top ten in four countries while selling two million copies in Europe. Adams' eighth studio album, On a Day Like Today (1998), was certified double-platinum by the CRIA and platinum by the IFPI Platinum Europe Awards. His second compilation album, The Best of Me (1999), sold two million copies in Europe and went three-times platinum in Canada.

Spirit: Stallion of the Cimarron (2002) was certified gold by the RIAA and included the hit single "Here I Am". Room Service (2004), his ninth studio album, peaked at number 134 on the Billboard 200 and sold only 44,000 copies in the United States. However, it topped the album charts in Germany and Switzerland. Adams' third greatest hits compilation, Anthology, was released in 2005. 11 (2008), Adams' tenth studio album, peaked at number 80 on the Billboard 200 and became his third number-one album in Canada. Although it did not receive any certifications in Canada or the United Kingdom, the album sold over half-a-million units worldwide. According to the RIAA, Adams' album sales have been certified at 17 million copies while internationally he has sold between 65 and 100 million records and singles worldwide.

I'm No Hero

I'm No Hero is a 1980 album by Cliff Richard. It featured the singles "Dreamin'" and "A Little in Love", which were top 20 hits in both the UK and the US.

John Bell (historian)

John Bell (born 1952) is an Ottawa, Ontario, Canada-based senior archivist at Library and Archives Canada. He specializes in the history of English Canadian comic books, and has curated a number of exhibitions and websites.

He has contributed to the Literary Review of Canada, Event, This Magazine, and Maisonneuve, and was former editor of the poetry magazine Arc. On the subject of comics, he has contributed to The Comics Journal, The Canadian Encyclopedia, The Classics Collector, and Heritage Post.

Judas Priest discography

British heavy metal band Judas Priest have released 18 studio albums, 6 live albums, 6 compilation albums, 35 singles, 10 video albums, and 21 music videos. The band currently consists of singer Rob Halford, bassist Ian Hill, guitarists Glenn Tipton and Richie Faulkner, and drummer Scott Travis. After guitarist K. K. Downing's retirement from the band in 2011, bassist Ian Hill is the only remaining founding member. Judas Priest have sold close to 50 million albums worldwide, with 12 million copies in the United States.

Limblifter

Limblifter is a Canadian alternative rock group from Vancouver, formed in 1996.

List of Canadian number-one albums of 1971

This page lists the Canadian number-one albums of 1971. The chart was compiled and published by RPM every Saturday.

The top position (December 26, 1970, Vol. 14, No. 19) preceding January 9, 1971 (Vol. 14, No. 20-21) was George Harrison's All Things Must Pass. Five acts held the top position in the albums and singles charts simultaneously: George Harrison on January 9 – 16, The Rolling Stones on June 12 – 19, Carole King on July 10 – 24, Paul and Linda McCartney on September 18 and Rod Stewart on October 9. The eponymous Santana album, often referred to as Santana III to avoid confusion with their likewise eponymous debut album, was listed as New Santana.)

(Entries with dates marked thus* are not presently on record at Library and Archives Canada and were inferred from the following week's listing.)

List of Canadian number-one albums of 1975

This page lists the Canadian number-one albums of 1975. The chart was compiled and published by RPM every Saturday.

The top position (December 28, 1974, Vol. 22, No. 19) preceding January 11, 1975 (Vol. 24, No. 15) was Jim Croce's Photographs & Memories. Elton John's Captain Fantastic and the Brown Dirt Cowboy entered the chart at #1. Elton John held the top position in the albums and singles charts simultaneously on January 11 – February 1.(Entries with dates marked thus* are not presently on record at Library and Archives Canada and were inferred from the following week's listing. The issue that should have been published on October 11 is dated October 13. There were no publications from November 8 through December 6. The November 1 chart, Vol. 24, No. 9, is followed by December 13's chart, Vol. 24, No. 10-11-12. No "last week" positions were specified on this issue's chart, indicating that the charting process was restarted.)

identifies Canadian musical acts.

List of Canadian number-one albums of 1976

This page lists the Canadian number-one albums of 1976. The chart was compiled and published by RPM every Saturday.

The top position [December 27, 1975, Vol. 24, No. 14] preceding January 10 [Vol. 24, No. 15] was Elton John's Rock of the Westies. Stevie Wonder's Songs in the Key of Life entered the chart at #1. Three acts held the top position in the albums and singles charts simultaneously: The Bay City Rollers on March 13, Wings on June 5 - 12 and Rod Stewart on December 18.)

(Entries with dates marked thus* are not presently on record at Library and Archives Canada and were inferred from the following week's listing.)

identifies Canadian musical acts.

List of Canadian number-one albums of 1980

These are the Canadian number-one albums of 1980 as compiled by RPM.(Beginning with the missing publication on September 20, RPM published every other week until the end of the year, resuming regular weekly publications on January 24, 1981. Issues from the point of alternation bear consecutive identification numbers, September 13 being Vol 33, No. 25, followed by September 27 as Vol. 33, No. 26, October 11 as Vol. 34, No. 1, culminating in the December 20 issue, as Vol. 34, No. 6. with January 24, 1981 as Vol. 34, No. 7.) Beginning December 6, the list of Top RPM 100 albums was reduced to 50.

Lonely Night (Angel Face)

"Lonely Night (Angel Face)" is a song written by Neil Sedaka. The song was first recorded by Sedaka and appeared as a track on his 1975 studio album, The Hungry Years.

The following year the song was made popular when covered by the pop music duo Captain & Tennille, who took their version to #3 on the Billboard Hot 100.

Pat Benatar

Patricia Mae Benatar (née Andrzejewski; born January 10, 1953) is an American singer, songwriter, actress, and four-time Grammy Award winner. She has two RIAA-certified multi-platinum albums, five platinum albums, three gold albums, and 15 Billboard Top 40 singles, including the Top 10 hits "Hit Me with Your Best Shot", "Love Is a Battlefield", "We Belong", and "Invincible".

Portrait Gallery of Canada

The Portrait Gallery of Canada (French: Le Musée du portrait du Canada) is a Canadian art collection specialising in portraiture. It was established on 23 January 2001 by the Government of Canada as a program of Library and Archives Canada.

Since the nineteenth century the Library has gathered an extensive collection of paintings and portraits, almost all of which are in storage in its archives in Gatineau, Quebec.

A plan to permanently house the collection in a gallery in Ottawa, Ontario, across the street from the Parliament Buildings, was announced in 2001, and initial plans called for its opening in 2004/2005, but this plan is now defunct. Library and Archives Canada is instead partnering with museums, galleries and other institutions across the country to showcase the collection.

The new gallery in Ottawa would have created a public location to display this collection. In the meantime, the Portrait Gallery of Canada is displaying its collection to the public in travelling exhibitions. Its "Portraits in the Streets" series brings portrait reproductions to urban areas of Canadian cities, including Ottawa, Quebec City, and, in 2010, Vancouver.

Renovations and additions were underway until 2006 at the former location of the American Embassy, at 100 Wellington Street. It was intended that this building would house the gallery's collection upon its completion, projected for 2007, however in 2006, the project was put on hold by the Conservative government, who considered locating the museum in Calgary and for it to be partially funded by the energy company EnCana.

In particular, there were discussions with EnCana about including the museum in the company's office tower currently under construction in Calgary. As of June 2007, construction of additional gallery space had not started, and two weeks later, EnCana announced that the gallery wouldn't be moving into their new office tower in Calgary.A competition for private sector corporations to house the collection attracted bids from Edmonton, Calgary, and Ottawa, but that competition was cancelled in November 2008. The idea of locating a gallery outside of Ottawa resulted in a motion before the Senate that would have made it illegal to move the gallery outside Ottawa.

Sweet discography

The following is a comprehensive discography of British rock band Sweet.

The Outfield

The Outfield were an English rock band based in London, England. The band achieved success in the mid-1980s and are best remembered for their hit single, "Your Love". The band's lineup consisted of guitarist John Spinks, vocalist and bassist Tony Lewis, and drummer Alan Jackman.

They had an unusual experience for a British band in that they enjoyed commercial success in the US, but never in their homeland. The band began recording during the mid-1980s, and released their first album, Play Deep, in 1985 through Columbia Records. The album reached No. 9 on the Billboard 200 list and then reached triple platinum in the United States. The band's single "Your Love" reached No. 6 on the Billboard Hot 100 as well as No. 7 on the Mainstream Rock chart, and it became their signature song. The band continued to record and tour through the 1980s and then into the early 1990s. While subsequent albums Bangin' (1987) and Voices of Babylon (1989) saw some chart successes, the group's popularity waned.

Drummer Alan Jackman left and, now as a duo, they recorded Diamond Days in 1991. After the disappointing response to their 1992 album Rockeye, which represented a shift towards progressive rock and arena rock, the group essentially disbanded in the 90s. They resumed touring in 1998, and thereafter released two live albums via their website, along with a new studio album, Any Time Now in 2004, which was later re-released in 2006. In 2011, the band released their final album, Replay, with original drummer Alan Jackman re-joining the band. Spinks died in 2014 after which the group officially disbanded. On March 22, 2018, lead singer/bassist Tony Lewis announced a solo album called Out of the Darkness, which was released on June 29, 2018 through Madison Records.

The Supremes discography

This is a complete listing of all of The Supremes' singles and albums. Described as 'one of the most successful groups of all time' by Billboard; 33 of their singles reached the Billboard Top 40 in the US, 23 reached either the US or UK Top 10. The Supremes are the most successful American group on the US Billboard Hot 100 with 12 number-one peaks, whilst "Baby Love" topped the UK Singles Chart. 12 of their albums reached the Top 10 in either the US or UK, with five of them reaching number-one.

The Supremes A' Go-Go (1966) 'made chart history' as 'the first album in the rock era by a girl group' to hit number-one in the US. In 2018, the Official Charts Company published that The Supremes' Greatest Hits (1967) has a total of 60 weeks in the UK top 40; making it the 4th 'longest-reigning Top 40 girl group album ever'. In 1980, EBONY estimated The Supremes' record sales at 50 million, whilst a 2014 Euronews article states The Supremes' sales exceed 100 million records. In 2017, Billboard ranked The Supremes first on its list of the 'Top 10 Girl Groups Of All Time', writing 'although there have been many girl group smashes in the decades since the Supremes ruled the Billboard charts, no collective has yet to challenge their, for lack of a better word, supremacy.'

Visa policy of Canada

A foreign national wishing to enter Canada must obtain a temporary resident visa from one of the Canadian diplomatic missions unless he or she holds a passport issued by one of the 54 eligible visa exempt countries and territories or proof of permanent residence in the United States.All visa-exempt travelers to Canada (except United States citizens) have been required to obtain an Electronic Travel Authorization (eTA) when arriving in Canada by air since 10 November 2016. Travelers were able to apply early as of 1 August 2015.Applications of visitor visas, work permits, study permits and certain types of permanent residency can be submitted online. However, such applicants must provide their biometrics (photograph and fingerprints) as a part of their application process. Depending on the country by which the passport was issued, a visa application may have to be submitted at a visa application centre at a Canadian diplomatic mission.

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