Liberian mongoose

The Liberian mongoose (Liberiictis kuhni) is a small carnivoran belonging to the mongoose family (Herpestidae). It is the only member of the genus Liberiictis.[3] Phylogenetic analysis has shown that the Liberian mongoose is closely related other small, social mongooses and that the banded mongoose is its closest relative.[4]

It was discovered in Liberia in 1958. Little was known about the animal, except what local natives related. They typically forage in packs consisting of 3-8 individuals, but larger groups have been observed.[5][6] Their diet consists of earthworms and various insects. The exact distribution is unknown, but may extend from Sierra Leone to Côte d'Ivoire. Confirmed sightings are restricted to forests in Liberia and the Tai National Park in Côte d'Ivoire. Human activity such as mining, agriculture, hunting and logging has displaced the Liberian mongoose from its previous range.[7] A live specimen was exhibited at the Toronto Zoo, but civil war in Liberia has prevented further study. Due to its limited range and the fact that it is heavily hunted, the Liberian mongoose is considered endangered.

The Liberian mongoose has a primarily dark brown body, with a darker stripe on the neck and shoulders. This stripe is bordered by smaller stripes that are white. Compared with other mongoose species, the Liberian mongoose has rather long claws and an elongated snout with small teeth relative to the size of the skull. It has a bushy tapering tail, that is less than half of the length of the head and body.[8] This is likely and adaptation of their specialized diet of earthworms. One of the few specimens ever seen alive was found in a burrow close to a termite nest. The animal's physical characteristics, and its preferred locality to insects, has led experts to suggest that the Liberian mongoose is primarily insectivorous. The few observers that have witnessed this species in the wild have reported that the animal lives primarily in the trunks of trees. Indeed, some of the better-known mongoose species live in tree during the rainy season and occupy burrows only during hotter weather. The collection of juveniles at the end of July and a lactating female at the beginning of August suggests that breeding coincides with the rainy season, when there is an increase in food availability.[9]

This species is extremely rare, and has been listed by the IUCN as endangered. Human destruction of their habitat and human hunting are the primary threats to Liberian mongooses. Owing to their rarity, they were not described until 1958,[10] with the first complete specimens discovered as recently as 1974. An attempt to study them in 1988 yielded only one animal, which had already been killed by a hunter. The specimen that lived at the Toronto Zoo has since died. This rarity also limited what is understood about the Liberian mongoose's interaction with other aspects of the ecosystem. Recent work has shown that they may act as an ecosystem engineer by maintaining the heterogeneity of the forest floor. Through field observations and radio-tracking, a group of mongooses was followed for a period of three months, with a record of their foraging traces being kept. As they forage, they disturb the leaf litter and soil, with an estimate that they may be able to overturn the entire forest floor in a period of 8 months.[11] This altering of the litter environment indirectly effects seed predation and germination. The Liberian mongoose is also host to a species of Mallophaga (chewing louse) known as Felicola liberiae.[12] Political unrest in the areas in which they live has made further studies difficult in recent years.

(Nowak, 1999; Taylor, 1992)

Liberian mongoose[1]
Scientific classification
Kingdom:
Phylum:
Class:
Order:
Family:
Subfamily:
Genus:
Liberiictis

Hayman, 1958
Species:
L. kuhni
Binomial name
Liberiictis kuhni
Hayman, 1958
Liberian Mongoose area
Range of the Liberian mongoose

References

  1. ^ Wilson, D.E.; Reeder, D.M., eds. (2005). "Liberiictis kuhni". Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 978-0-8018-8221-0. OCLC 62265494.
  2. ^ Dunham, A. & Gaubert, P. (2008). "Liberiictis kuhni". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2008. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 22 March 2009. Database entry includes a brief justification of why this species is of vulnerable.
  3. ^ Wilson, D.E.; Reeder, D.M., eds. (2005). "Liberiictis". Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 978-0-8018-8221-0. OCLC 62265494.
  4. ^ Veron, Geraldine; Colyn, Marc; Dunham, Amy E.; Taylor, Peter; Gaubert, Philippe (2004). "Molecular systematics and origin of sociality in mongooses (Herpestidae, Carnivora)". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 30: 582–598. doi:10.1016/s1055-7903(03)00229-x. PMID 15012940.
  5. ^ Veron, Geraldine; Colyn, Marc; Dunham, Amy E.; Taylor, Peter; Gaubert, Philippe (2004). "Molecular systematics and origin of sociality in mongooses (Herpestidae, Carnivora)". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 30: 582–598. doi:10.1016/s1055-7903(03)00229-x. PMID 15012940.
  6. ^ Grzimek, B.; Schlager, N.; Olendorf, M.; McDade, C. (2004). Grzimek's animal life encyclopedia (2nd ed.). New York: Thomson Gale. pp. 347–358.
  7. ^ Colyn, Marc; Barriere, Patrick; Formenty, Pierre; Perpete, Olivier; Van Rompaey, Harry (1998). "First confirmation of the presence of the Liberian mongoose, Liberiictis kuhni, in Cote d'Ivoire". Small Carnivore Conservation. 18: 12–14.
  8. ^ Goldman, Corey A.; Taylor, Mark E. (1990). "Liberiictis kuhni". Mammalian Species. 348: 1–3.
  9. ^ Goldman, Corey A.; Taylor, Mark E. (1990). "Liberiictis kuhni". Mammalian Species. 348: 1–3.
  10. ^ Hayman, Robert W. (1958). "A new genus and species of West African mongoose". Annals and Magazine of Natural History. 13 (1): 448–452.
  11. ^ Dunham, Amy E. (2011). "Soil disturbance by vertebrates alters seed predation, movement and germination in an African rain forest". Journal of Tropical Ecology. 27: 581–589. doi:10.1017/s0266467411000344.
  12. ^ Emerson, K.C.; Price, Roger D. (1972). "A new species of Felicola (Mallophaga: Trichodectidae) from the Liberian mongoose (Liberiictis kuhni)". Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington. 85 (33): 399–404.
Arctocephalus

The genus Arctocephalus consists of fur seals. Arctocephalus translates to "bear head."

Asiatic linsang

The Asiatic linsang (Prionodon) is a genus comprising two species native to Southeast Asia: the banded linsang (Prionodon linsang) and the spotted linsang (Prionodon pardicolor). Prionodon is considered a sister taxon of the Felidae.

Bengal mongoose

The Bengal mongoose (Herpestes javanicus palustris) is a subspecies of the small Asian mongoose. It is also known as the marsh mongoose, not to be confused with Atilax paludinosus, which is also called the marsh mongoose. Other synonyms include Indian marsh mongoose and Bengali water mongoose.

Catopuma

Catopuma is a genus containing two Asian small wild cat species, the bay cat (C. badia) and the Asian golden cat (C. temminckii).

Both are typically reddish brown in colour, with darker markings on the head. They inhabit forested environments in Southeast Asia. The bay cat is restricted to the island of Borneo. Originally thought to be two subspecies of the same animal, recent genetic analysis has confirmed they are, indeed, separate species.The two species diverged from one another 4.9-5.3 million years ago, long before Borneo separated from the neighboring islands. Their closest living relative is the marbled cat, from which the common ancestor of the genus Catopuma diverged around 9.4 million years ago.

Crossarchus

Crossarchus is a genus of mongoose, commonly referred to as kusimanse (often cusimanse), mangue, or dwarf mongoose. Of three subfamilies of Herpestidae (Herpestinae, Mungotinae and Galidiinae), dwarf mongooses belong to Herpestinae or Mungotinae, which are small, highly social mongooses.

Ferret-badger

Ferret-badgers are the five species of the genus Melogale, which is the only genus of the monotypic mustelid subfamily Helictidinae.

Bornean ferret-badger (Melogale everetti)

Chinese ferret-badger (Melogale moschata)

Javan ferret-badger (Melogale orientalis)

Burmese ferret-badger (Melogale personata)

Vietnam ferret-badger (Melogale cucphuongensis)

Indian brown mongoose

The Indian brown mongoose (Herpestes fuscus) looks similar to the short-tailed mongoose from Southeast Asia and is sometimes believed to be only a subspecies of this latter. The Indian brown mongoose is found in southwest India and Sri Lanka.

Lutrogale

Lutrogale is a genus of otters, with only one extant species—the smooth-coated otter.

Mongoose

Mongoose is the popular English name for 29 of the 34 species in the 14 genera of the family Herpestidae, which are small feliform carnivorans native to southern Eurasia and mainland Africa. The other five species (all African) in the family are the four kusimanses in the genus Crossarchus, and the species Suricata suricatta, commonly called meerkat in English.

Six species in the family Eupleridae are endemic to the island of Madagascar. These are called "mongoose" and were originally classified as a genus within the family Herpestidae, but genetic evidence has since shown that they are more closely related to other Madagascar carnivorans in the family Eupleridae; they have been classified in the subfamily Galidiinae within Eupleridae since 2006.

Herpestidae is placed within the suborder Feliformia, together with the cat, hyena, and Viverridae families.

Mustelinae

Mustelinae is a subfamily of family Mustelidae, which includes weasels, ferrets amd minks.It was formerly defined in a paraphyletic manner to also include wolverines, martens, and many other mustelids, to the exclusion of the otters (Lutrinae).

Narrow-striped mongoose

The narrow-striped mongoose (Mungotictis decemlineata) is a member of the family Eupleridae, subfamily Galidiinae and endemic to Madagascar. It inhabits the Madagascar dry deciduous forests of western and southwestern Madagascar, where it lives from sea level to about 125 m (410 ft) between the Tsiribihina and Mangoky rivers. In Malagasy it is called bokiboky (pronounced "Boo-ky Boo-ky").

Nyctereutes

Nyctereutes is an Old World genus of the family Canidae, consisting of just one living species, the raccoon dog of East Asia. Nyctereutes appeared about 9.0 million years ago (Mya), with all but one species becoming extinct before the Pleistocene.

Native to East Asia, the raccoon dog has been intensively bred for fur in Europe and especially in Russia during the twentieth century. Specimens have escaped or have been introduced to increase production and formed populations in Eastern Europe. It is currently expanding rapidly in the rest of Europe, where its presence is undesirable because it is considered to be a harmful and invasive species.

Paradoxurus

Paradoxurus is a genus within the viverrid family that was denominated and first described by Frédéric Cuvier in 1822. As of 2005, this genus was defined as comprising three species native to Southeast Asia:

the Asian palm civet (P. hermaphroditus)

the golden palm civet (P. zeylonensis)

the brown palm civet (P. jerdoni)In 2009, it was proposed to also include the golden wet-zone palm civet (P. aureus), the Sri Lankan brown palm civet (P. montanus) and the golden dry-zone palm civet (P. stenocephalus), which are endemic to Sri Lanka.

Patagonian weasel

The Patagonian weasel (Lyncodon patagonicus) is a small mustelid that is the only member of the genus Lyncodon. Its geographic range is the Pampas of western Argentina and sections of Chile. An early mention of the animal is in the Journal of Syms Covington, who sailed with Charles Darwin on his epic voyage aboard HMS Beagle.

Prionailurus

Prionailurus is a genus of spotted, small wild cats native to Asia. Forests are their preferred habitat; they feed on small mammals, reptiles and birds, some also on aquatic wildlife.

Wildlife of Liberia

Liberia has a rich biodiversity of flora and fauna.

Zalophus

Zalophus is a genus of the family Otariidae (sea lions and fur seals) of order Carnivora. It includes these species, of which one became recently extinct:

Z. californianus: California sea lion

Z. japonicus: Japanese sea lion †

Z. wollebaeki: Galápagos sea lion

Extant Carnivora species

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.