Liberalism in Greece

This article gives an overview of liberalism in Greece. It is limited to liberal parties. The sign ⇒ denotes another party in that scheme. For inclusion in this scheme it isn't necessary so that parties labeled themselves as a liberal party.

Background

Liberal parties in Greece are largely committed to liberalism, republicanism and democracy.

History

From Modernist Party to the Center Union

From Democratic Socialist Party to the Center Union

National Progressive Union of the Centre

  • 1949: National Progressive Union of the Centre (Ethniki Proodeutiki Enosis Kentrou, EPEK) is founded by Nikolaos Plastiras after the Greek Civil War and disappears in 1956

From Center Union to Union of the Democratic Center

Democratic Center Union

Party of New Liberals

Liberal Party

Democratic Renewal

Union of Centrists

The Liberals

  • 1999: A short-lived libertarian party is founded by Stefanos Manos, The Liberals espousing a laissez-faire political platform. The party was dissolved in October 2001. [1] The party's founder cooperated with PASOK in 2004, after George Papandreou's invitation to be honorarily elected as member of the Greek parliament under PASOK's flag, and founded yet another party, "Drassi", in 2009, this time refusing to use the term "liberal" and claiming it was based upon "common sense".

Liberal Alliance

Recreate Greece

Liberal leaders

See also

11 September 1922 Revolution

The 11 September 1922 Revolution (Greek: Επανάσταση της 11ης Σεπτεμβρίου 1922) was an uprising by the Greek army and navy against the government in Athens. The revolution took place on 11 September [N.S. 24 September] 1922.

1935 Greek coup d'état attempt

The attempted coup d'état of March 1935 (Greek: Κίνημα του 1935) was a Venizelist revolt against the People's Party government of Panagis Tsaldaris, which was suspected of pro-royalist tendencies.

The coup was headed by Nikolaos Plastiras, and broke out on 1 March 1935, but failed to establish itself in Athens and most of mainland Greece. The government quickly reacted, and loyal forces under the leadership of General Georgios Kondylis put the revolt down by March 11, when Venizelos himself was forced to flee Greece. In the coup's aftermath, a military tribunal was set up, which purged the Armed Forces of Venizelist and Republican officers, and ordered the execution of two prominent Venizelist generals, Anastasios Papoulas and Miltiadis Koimisis, and major Stamatis Volanis on April 24. Venizelos and Plastiras likewise were condemned to death in absentia. In the political sphere, the failure of the revolt marked the triumph of anti-Venizelist forces, and actually quickened the collapse of the fragile Second Hellenic Republic. Its final death blow was given in October, when the Armed Forces overthrew the government in a coup (due to their consideration of Tsaldari's stance towards the immediate restoration of monarchy as indecisive, and due to personal motives of Kondylis and his political and military circle), and Kondylis declared himself regent for the restored monarchy.

23 October 1862 Revolution

The 23 October 1862 Revolution was a popular insurrection which led to the overthrow of King Otto of Greece. Starting on 18 October in Vonitsa, it soon spread to other cities and reached Athens on 22 October.

3 September 1843 Revolution

The 3 September 1843 Revolution (Greek: Επανάσταση της 3ης Σεπτεμβρίου 1843; N.S. 13 September), was an uprising by the Hellenic Army in Athens, supported by large sections of the people, against the autocratic rule of King Otto. The rebels, led by veterans of the Greek War of Independence, demanded the granting of a constitution and the departure of the Bavarian officials that dominated the government. The revolution succeeded, ushering the period of constitutional monarchy and universal suffrage in Greece.

Centre Union

The Centre Union (EK, Greek: Ένωσις Κέντρου, Enosis Kentrou (ΕΚ)) was a Greek political party, created in 1961 by Georgios Papandreou.

Eleftherios Venizelos

Eleftherios Kyriakou Venizelos (full name Elefthérios Kyriákou Venizélos, Greek: Ελευθέριος Κυριάκου Βενιζέλος, pronounced [elefˈθerios cirˈʝaku veniˈzelos]; 23 August 1864 – 18 March 1936) was a Greek statesman and a prominent leader of the Greek national liberation movement. He is noted for his contribution in the expansion of Greece and promotion of liberal-democratic policies. As leader of the Liberal Party, he was elected several times, in total eight, as Prime Minister of Greece, serving from 1910 to 1920 and from 1928 to 1933. Venizelos had such profound influence on the internal and external affairs of Greece that he is credited with being "the maker of modern Greece", and is still widely known as the "Ethnarch".

His first entry into the international scene was with his significant role in the autonomy of the Cretan State and later in the union of Crete with Greece. Soon, he was invited to Greece to resolve the political deadlock and became the country's Prime Minister. Not only did he initiate constitutional and economic reforms that set the basis for the modernization of Greek society, but also reorganized both army and navy in preparation of future conflicts. Before the Balkan Wars of 1912–1913, Venizelos' catalytic role helped gain Greece entrance to the Balkan League, an alliance of the Balkan states against the Ottoman Empire. Through his diplomatic acumen, Greece doubled its area and population with the liberation of Macedonia, Epirus, and most of the Aegean islands.

In World War I (1914–1918), he brought Greece on the side of the Allies, further expanding the Greek borders. However, his pro-Allied foreign policy brought him into direct conflict with Constantine I of Greece, causing the National Schism. The Schism polarized the population between the royalists and Venizelists and the struggle for power between the two groups affected the political and social life of Greece for decades. Following the Allied victory, Venizelos secured new territorial gains, especially in Anatolia, coming close to realizing the Megali Idea. Despite his achievements, he was defeated in the 1920 General Election, which contributed to the eventual Greek defeat in the Greco-Turkish War (1919–22). Venizelos, in self-imposed exile, represented Greece in the negotiations that led to the signing of the Treaty of Lausanne, and the agreement of a mutual exchange of populations between Greece and Turkey.

In his subsequent periods in office, Venizelos succeeded in restoring normal relations with Greece's neighbors and expanded his constitutional and economical reforms. In 1935 he resurfaced from retirement to support a military coup. Its failure severely weakened the Second Hellenic Republic.

First National Assembly at Epidaurus

The First National Assembly of Epidaurus (Greek: Αʹ Εθνοσυνέλευση της Επιδαύρου, 1821–1822) was the first meeting of the Greek National Assembly, a national representative political gathering of the Greek revolutionaries.

Georgios Kafantaris

Georgios Kafantaris (alternative spellings: Kafandaris; 13 October 1873 – 28 August 1946) was a Greek politician, born in Anatoliki Fragkista, Evrytania.

Greek Resistance

The Greek Resistance (Greek: Εθνική Αντίσταση, romanized: Ethnikí Antístasi, "National Resistance") is the blanket term for a number of armed and unarmed groups from across the political spectrum that resisted the Axis occupation of Greece in the period 1941–1944, during World War II. It is considered as one of the strongest resistance movements in Nazi-occupied Europe.

Liberal Alliance (Greece)

The Liberal Alliance (Greek: Φιλελεύθερη Συμμαχία, Fileleftheri Simmahia) is a liberal political party in Greece, founded in February 2007. Its stated purpose is to cover the political ground between what it considers to constitute a conservative New Democracy and the socialist PASOK.The highest organ in Liberal Alliance is its bi-annual congress, which elects a seven member Coordination Committee. The CC then elects the President.

Liberal Alliance's founding document is the Proclamation of Anavissos, written on 28 April 2007. It contains a reference to Victor Hugo.

The symbol of Liberal Alliance is like @ but instead of 'a' it has the Greek phi letter, which is also the first letter of the word 'liberal' in the Greek language, while the dominating colours are purple and yellow. Initially the logo was the head of Adamadios Korais, until the first party congress.

Liberal Party (Greece)

The Liberal Party (Greek: Κόμμα Φιλελευθέρων [ˈkoma filelefˈθeɾon] (listen), literally "Party of Liberals"), also the National Progressive Centre Union (Εθνική Προοδευτική Ένωσις Κέντρου) since 1952, was a major political party in Greece during the early-to-mid 20th century. It was founded in August 1910 by Eleftherios Venizelos and went on to dominate Greek politics for a considerable number of years until its decline following the Second World War. Among its most well-known members, apart from Venizelos, were Alexandros Papanastasiou, Nikolaos Plastiras, Georgios Papandreou and Konstantinos Mitsotakis.

Since its founding, the party's emblem had been the anchor, Venizelos had brought with him from Crete.

National Progressive Center Union

The National Progressive Center Union (Greek: Εθνική Προοδευτική Ένωση Κέντρου (ΕΠΕΚ), EPEK) was a Greek political party.

National Schism

The National Schism (Greek: Εθνικός Διχασμός, Ethnikos Dikhasmos, sometimes called The Great Division) was a series of disagreements between King Constantine I and Prime Minister Eleftherios Venizelos regarding the foreign policy of Greece in the period of 1910–1922 of which the tipping point was whether Greece should enter World War I. Venizelos was in support of the Allies and wanted Greece to join the war on their side, while the pro-German King wanted Greece to remain neutral, which would favor the plans of the Central Powers.

The disagreement had wider implications, since it would also affect the character and role of the king in the state. The dismissal of Venizelos by the King resulted in a deep personal rift between the two and in subsequent events their followers divided into two radically opposed political camps affecting the wider Greek society.

With the contrary actions of Venizelos permitting the landing of Allied forces in Thessaloniki and the unconditional surrender of a military fort in Macedonia to German-Bulgarian forces by the king, the disagreements of the two men started to take the form of civil war. In August 1916, followers of Venizelos set up a provisional state in Northern Greece, with Entente support, with the aim of reclaiming the lost regions in Macedonia, effectively splitting Greece into two entities. After intense diplomatic negotiations and an armed confrontation in Athens between Allied and royalist forces the king abdicated on 11 June 1917, and his second son Alexander took his place.

Venizelos returned to Athens on 29 May 1917 and Greece, now unified, officially joined the war on the side of the Allies, emerging victorious and securing new territory by the Treaty of Sèvres. The bitter effects of this division were the main features of Greek political life until the 1940s, and contributed to Greece's defeat in the Greco-Turkish War, the collapse of the Second Hellenic Republic and the establishment of the dictatorial Metaxas Regime.

New Party (Greece)

The New Party or the Modernist Party (Greek: Νεωτεριστικόν Κόμμα, Neoteristikon Komma) was a reformist Greek political party.

The Liberals (Greece)

The Liberals (Greek: Οι Φιλελεύθεροι, Oi Fileleftheroi) was a liberal political party in Greece founded by Stefanos Manos in April 1999. The president suspended operations of the party in October 2001, citing economic problems and limited appeal amongst the voting public. The party participated independently in popular elections only once, in the 1999 European Parliament elections, gaining 1,72% of the popular vote. In the 2000 national elections, Stefanos Manos and the Liberals entered the Parliament cooperating with New Democracy. In 2004, Stefanos Manos accepted an invitation by George Papandreou, president of the Panhellenic Socialist Party and was elected, like Andreas Adrianopoulos, in the 2004 national elections riding PASOK's ticket.

The River (Greece)

The River (Greek: Το Ποτάμι, romanized: To Potami, IPA: [to poˈtami]) is a centrist, social-liberal political party in Greece. The party was founded in February 2014 by Stavros Theodorakis. The party has two MEPs in the European Parliament and three seats in the Hellenic Parliament (down from the 11 elected in the last election).

Themistoklis Sofoulis

Themistoklis Sofoulis or Sophoulis (Greek: Θεμιστοκλής Σοφούλης; 24 November 1860 – 24 June 1949) was a prominent centrist Greek politician from Samos Island, who served three times as Prime Minister of Greece, belonging to the centre-left wing of the Liberal Party, which he led for many years.

Union of Centrists

The Union of Centrists (Greek: Ένωση Κεντρώων, Enosi Kentroon) is a centrist, liberal political party in Greece. The leader and founder of the party is Vassilis Leventis. It strongly supports Greece's remaining an integral part of the European Union.

Venizelism

Venizelism (Greek: Βενιζελισμός) was one of the major political movements in Greece from the 1900s until the mid-1970s.

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