The Liberal Democrats (Lib Dems) are a liberal political party in the United Kingdom. They have 11 Members of Parliament in the House of Commons, 96 members of the House of Lords, one member of the European Parliament, five Members of the Scottish Parliament and one member in the Welsh Assembly and London Assembly. At the height of its influence, the party formed a coalition government with the Conservative Party from 2010 to 2015 with its leader Nick Clegg serving as Deputy Prime Minister. It is currently led by Sir Vince Cable.
In 1981, an electoral alliance was established between the Liberal Party, a group which was the direct descendent of the 18th-century Whigs, and the Social Democratic Party (SDP), a splinter group from the Labour Party. In 1988 this alliance was formalised as the Liberal Democrats. Under the leadership of Paddy Ashdown and Charles Kennedy, the party grew during the 1990s and 2000s, focusing its campaigning on specific seats and becoming the third largest party in the House of Commons. Under its leader Nick Clegg, the Liberal Democrats were junior partners in a coalition government headed by Conservative Prime Minister David Cameron, with Clegg serving as Deputy Prime Minister. The coalition damaged the Liberal Democrats' electoral prospects: the party was reduced from 57 to 8 seats at the 2015 election.
Positioned in the centre ground of British politics, the Liberal Democrats are ideologically liberal. Emphasising stronger protections for civil liberties, the party promotes socially liberal approaches to issues like LGBT rights, education policy, and criminal justice. Different factions take different approaches to economic issues; a classical liberal faction promotes greater economic liberalism, while others endorse a social market economy. The party is pro-Europeanist, supporting continued UK membership of the European Union and greater European integration; it previously called for adoption of the Euro currency. It calls for electoral reform with a transition from the first-past-the-post voting system to one of proportional representation. Other policies have included further environmental protections and drug liberalisation laws, while it has also opposed certain UK military engagements like the Iraq War.
The party is a member of the Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe and Liberal International. The Liberal Democrats are historically strongest in northern Scotland, southwest London, southwest England, and mid-Wales.
|Leader||Sir Vince Cable (outgoing)|
|Deputy Leader||Jo Swinson|
|Lords Leader||Richard Newby|
|CEO||Sir Nick Harvey|
|Founded||3 March 1988|
|Merger of||Liberal Party|
Social Democratic Party
|Headquarters||8–10 Great George Street,|
|Youth wing||Young Liberals|
|LGBT wing||LGBT+ Liberal Democrats|
|Membership (2018)||99,200 |
|Political position||Centre to|
|European affiliation||Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe|
|International affiliation||Liberal International|
|European Parliament group||Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe|
|House of Commons|
11 / 650
|House of Lords|
95 / 782
1 / 73
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5 / 129
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1,885 / 20,712
2 / 17
|Devolved administrations in government|
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The Liberal Democrats were formed on 3 March 1988 by a merger between the Liberal Party and the Social Democratic Party, which had formed a pact nearly seven years earlier as the SDP–Liberal Alliance. The Liberal Party, founded in 1859, were descended from the Whigs, Radicals and Peelites, while the SDP were a party created in 1981 by former Labour Party members, MPs and cabinet ministers, but also gained defections from the Conservative Party.
Having declined to third party status after the rise of the Labour Party from 1918 and especially during the 1920s, the Liberals were challenged for this position in the 1980s when a group of Labour MPs broke away and established the Social Democratic Party (SDP). The SDP and the Liberals realised that there was no space for two political parties of the centre and entered into the SDP–Liberal Alliance so that they would not stand against each other in elections. The Alliance was led by David Steel (Liberal) and Roy Jenkins (SDP); Jenkins was replaced by David Owen. The two parties had their own policies and emphases, but produced a joint manifesto for the 1983 and 1987 general elections.
Following disappointing results in the 1987 election, Steel proposed to merge the two parties. Although opposed by Owen, it was supported by a majority of members of both parties, and they formally merged in March 1988, with Steel and Robert Maclennan (who had become SDP leader in August 1987) as joint interim leaders. The new party was initially named Social and Liberal Democrats (SLD) with the unofficial short form The Democrats being used from September 1988. The name was subsequently changed to Liberal Democrats in October 1989, which is frequently shortened to Lib Dems. The new party logo, the Bird of Liberty, was adopted in 1989.
The minority of the SDP who rejected the merger remained under Owen's leadership in a rump SDP; the minority of the Liberal Party divided, with some retiring from politics immediately and others (led by former Liberal MP Michael Meadowcroft) creating a new 'Liberal Party' that claimed to be the continuation of the Liberal Party which had just dissolved itself. Michael Meadowcroft eventually joined the Liberal Democrats in 2007 but some of his former followers continue still as the Liberal Party, most notably in a couple of electoral wards of the cities of Liverpool and Peterborough.
The then-serving Liberal MP Paddy Ashdown was elected leader in July 1988. At the 1989 European Elections, the party received only 6% of the vote, putting them in fourth place after the Green Party. They failed to gain a single Member of the European Parliament at this election.
Over the next three years, the party recovered under Ashdown's leadership. They performed better at the 1990 local elections and in by-elections—including at Eastbourne in 1990 which saw the first success by a Liberal Democrat standing for parliament. They had further successes in Ribble Valley and Kincardine & Deeside in 1991.
The Lib Dems did not reach the share of national votes in the 1990s that the Alliance had achieved in the 1980s. At their first election in 1992 (which ended in a fourth successive Conservative win), they won 17.8% of the vote and twenty seats.
Following the election of Tony Blair as Labour leader in July 1994 after the death of his predecessor John Smith, Ashdown pursued co-operation between the two parties because he wanted to form a coalition government should the next general election end without any party having an overall majority. This Lib-Lab pact failed to form because Labour's massive majority after the 1997 general election made it an irrelevance for Labour, and because Labour were not prepared to consider the introduction of proportional representation and other Lib Dem conditions. The election was, however, something of a turning point for the Liberal Democrats. They took a smaller share of the vote than at the previous election, but they managed to more than double their representation in parliament, winning 46 seats, through tactical voting and concentrating resources in winnable seats.
Ashdown retired as leader in 1999 and the party elected Charles Kennedy as his replacement. The party improved on their 1997 results at the 2001 general election, increasing their number of seats to 52 and their share of the vote to 18.3%. Liberal Democrat candidates won support from former Labour and Conservative voters due to the Lib Dems' position on issues that appealed to those on the left and the right: opposition to the war in Iraq and support for civil liberties, electoral reform, and open government. Charles Kennedy expressed his goal to replace the Conservatives as the official opposition; The Spectator awarded him the 'Parliamentarian of the Year' award in November 2004 for his position on the war. The party won seats from Labour in by-elections in Brent East in 2003 and Leicester South in 2004, and narrowly missed taking others in Birmingham Hodge Hill and Hartlepool.
At the 2005 general election, the Lib Dems gained their highest share of the vote since the SDP–Liberal Alliance (22%) and won 62 seats. Many had anticipated that this election would be the Lib Dems' breakthrough at Westminster; party activists hoped to better the 25% support of the 1983 election, or to reach 100 MPs. Much of the apparent lack of success resulted from the first-past-the-post electoral system: the party got 22% of the votes nationally but only 10% of the seats in the Commons. Controversy became associated with the campaign when it became known that Michael Brown had donated £2.4 million to the Liberal Democrats. Brown, who lived in Majorca, Spain at the time, was charged in June 2008 with fraud and money laundering and subsequently jumped bail and fled the country. In November 2008 he was convicted in his absence of thefts amounting to £36 million and sentenced to seven years imprisonment.
The 2005 election figures revealed a trend of the Lib Dems replacing the Conservatives as Labour's main opponents in urban areas. Many gains came in previously Labour-held urban constituencies (for example, Manchester Withington, Cardiff Central, Birmingham Yardley), many of which the Conservatives had held in the 1980s, and Lib Dem aspirants had over 100 second-place finishes behind Labour candidates. The British electoral system makes it hard for the Conservatives to form a government without winning some city seats outside its rural heartlands, such as the Lib Dem Bristol West constituency, where the Conservatives came third in 2005 after holding the seat until 1997.
In a statement on 5 January 2006 Charles Kennedy admitted to a long battle with alcoholism and announced a leadership election in which he intended to stand for re-election, while Sir Menzies Campbell took over as acting leader.
There were rumours for several years that Kennedy had problems with alcohol—the BBC's Nick Robinson called it "Westminster's worst-kept secret". Kennedy had on previous occasions denied these rumours, and some suggested that he had deliberately misled the public and his party.
Kennedy had planned to stand as a candidate, but he withdrew from the election citing a lack of support among Lib Dem MPs. Sir Menzies Campbell subsequently won the contest, defeating Chris Huhne and Simon Hughes, among others, in a very controversial race. Mark Oaten withdrew from the contest because of revelations about visits to male prostitutes. Simon Hughes came under attack regarding his sexuality while Chris Huhne was accused live on Daily Politics of attempting to rig polls.
Despite the negative press over Kennedy's departure, the leaderless party won the Dunfermline and West Fife by-election over Labour in February 2006. This result was viewed as a particular blow for Gordon Brown, who lives in the constituency, represented the adjacent seat and featured in Labour's campaign. The party also came second place by 633 votes in the Bromley and Chislehurst by-election, threatening the safe Conservative seat and pushing Labour into fourth place behind the UK Independence Party. In July 2007, Sir Menzies announced that the party wished to cut the basic rate of income tax from 20 to 16p per pound—the lowest rate since 1916—and wanted to finance the cut using green taxes and other revenues, including making gains from UK properties owned by non-UK residents eligible for capital gains tax.
Opinion poll trends during Campbell's leadership showed support for the Lib Dems decline to less than 20%. Campbell resigned on 15 October 2007, and Vince Cable became acting leader until a leadership election could be held. Cable was praised during his tenure for his performances at Prime minister's questions over the Northern Rock crisis, HMRC's loss of child benefit data, and the 2007 Labour party donation scandal.
On 18 December 2007 Nick Clegg won the leadership election, becoming the party's fourth leader. Clegg won the leadership with a majority of 511 votes (1.2%) over his opponent Chris Huhne, in a poll of party members. Clegg was the Member of Parliament for Sheffield Hallam until 2017, and was an MEP for the East Midlands from 1999 to 2004.
In his acceptance speech, Clegg declared that he was "a liberal by temperament, by instinct and by upbringing" and that he believed "Britain [is] a place of tolerance and pluralism". He claimed that his priorities were defending civil liberties; devolving the running of public services to parents, pupils and patients; and protecting the environment, and that he wanted to forge a "liberal alternative to the discredited policies of big government". He also proposed a target to double the number of Lib Dem MPs within two elections, and before the 2008 local elections confirmed that he was pleased with their performance in the polls.
Shortly after the election Clegg reshuffled the party's frontbench team, making Huhne the replacement Home Affairs spokesperson, Ed Davey the Foreign Affairs spokesperson, and keeping Vince Cable as Shadow Chancellor. His predecessors were also given roles: Campbell joined the all-party Commons foreign affairs select committee, and Kennedy campaigned nationwide on European issues, as president of the European Movement UK.
Clegg became deputy prime minister to David Cameron, leader of the Conservative Party, in a 2010 coalition agreement that placed a centre-right government at the helm of the United Kingdom. Political commentators identified Clegg's leadership as promoting a shift to the radical centre in the Liberal Democrats, bringing more emphasis to the economically liberal side of social liberalism.
After the first of three general election debates on 15 April 2010, a ComRes poll put the Liberal Democrats on 24%. On 20 April, a YouGov poll put the Liberal Democrats on 34%, the Conservatives on 33% and Labour on 28%.
In the general election held on 6 May 2010, the Liberal Democrats won 23% of the vote and 57 seats in the House of Commons. The election returned a hung parliament with no party having an absolute majority. Negotiations between the Lib Dems and the two main parties occurred in the following days. David Cameron became Prime Minister on 11 May after Gordon Brown's resignation and the Liberal Democrats formed a coalition government with the Conservative Party, with Nick Clegg as Deputy Prime Minister and other Liberal Democrats in the cabinet. Three quarters of the Liberal Democrat's manifesto pledges went into the Programme for Government. Of the 57 Liberal Democrat MPs, only two refused to support the Conservative Coalition agreement, with former leader Charles Kennedy and Manchester Withington MP John Leech both rebelling.
After joining the coalition poll ratings for the party fell, particularly following the government's support for raising the cap on tuition fees with Liberal Democrat MPs voting 27 for, 21 against and 8 abstaining. Shortly after the 2015 General Election, Liberal Democrat leadership contender Norman Lamb conceded that Clegg's broken pledge on university tuition had proven costly.
On 8 December 2010, the eve of a vote on the raising of the cap on tuition fees in the United Kingdom to £9,000, an opinion poll conducted by YouGov recorded voting intention figures of Conservatives 41%, Labour 41%, Other Parties 11% and Liberal Democrats 8%. the lowest level of support recorded for the Liberal Democrats in any opinion poll since September 1990. In the Oldham East and Saddleworth by-election, 2011 held on 13 January 2011, the Liberal Democrats gained 31.9% of the vote, a 0.3% increase despite losing to Labour. In a by-election in the South Yorkshire constituency of Barnsley in March 2011, the Liberal Democrats fell from second place at the general election to sixth, with the candidate Dominic Carman, losing his deposit.
In council elections held on 5 May 2011, the Liberal Democrats suffered heavy defeats in the English Midlands, the North of England and Scotland. They also lost heavily in the Welsh assembly and Scottish Parliament, where several candidates lost their deposits. According to The Guardian, "they lost control of Sheffield council – the city of Clegg's constituency – were ousted from Liverpool, Hull and Stockport, and lost every Manchester seat they stood in. Overall, they got their lowest share of the vote in three decades".
As part of the deal that formed the coalition, it was agreed to hold a referendum on the Alternative Vote, in which the Conservatives would campaign for First Past the Post and the Liberal Democrats for Alternative Vote. The referendum, held on 5 May 2011, resulted in First Past the Post being chosen over Alternative Vote by approximately two-thirds of voters.
In May 2011, Clegg revealed plans to make the House of Lords a mainly elected chamber, limiting the number of peers to 300, 80% of whom would be elected with a third of that 80% being elected every 5 years by single transferable vote. In August 2012, Clegg announced that attempts to reform the House of Lords would be abandoned due to opposition for the proposals by backbench Conservative MPs. Claiming the coalition agreement had been broken, Clegg stated that Liberal Democrat MPs would no longer support changes to the House of Commons boundaries for the 2015 general election.
The Lib Dem Secretary of State for Energy and Climate Change Chris Huhne in 2011 announced plans for halving UK carbon emissions by 2025 as part of the "Green Deal" which was in the 2010 Liberal Democrat manifesto.
In council elections held on 3 May 2012, the Lib Dems lost more than 300 councillors, leaving them with fewer than 3000 for the first time in the party's history. In June 2012 it was reported that membership of the party had fallen by around 20% along with falling poll numbers since joining the coalition. On 20 September 2012 Clegg personally apologised for breaking his pledge not to raise university tuition fees.
On 28 February 2013, the party won a by-election in Eastleigh, the Hampshire constituency that had previously been held by the former minister, Chris Huhne. The party's candidate, Mike Thornton, had been a local councillor for the party, and held the seat. In eighteen other by-elections held throughout the 2010–15 Parliament, the party lost its deposit in 11; in the Rochester and Strood by-election held on 20 November 2014, it came fifth polling 349 votes or 0.9% of the total votes cast. This was both the worst result in the history of the party, and of any governing party.
Despite Clegg's efforts at triangulation, the Liberal Democrats experienced its worst-ever showing in the 2015 general election, losing 48 seats in the House of Commons, leaving them with only eight MPs. Prominent Liberal Democrat MPs who lost their seats included former leader Charles Kennedy, former deputy leaders Vince Cable and Simon Hughes, and several cabinet ministers. The party held onto just eight constituencies in Great Britain, with only one in Scotland, one in Wales and six in England. The Liberal Democrats' erstwhile coalition partner, Cameron's Conservatives, won an outright majority, negating the need for them to accommodate the smaller party in government. On 8 May 2015, Clegg announced his resignation as party leader.
Membership of the Liberal Democrats rose from 45,000 to 61,000 as the party prepared to hold its 2015 party leadership ballot. On 16 July 2015, Tim Farron was elected to the leadership of the party with 56.5% of the vote, beating opponent Norman Lamb. On 29 July, Farron unveiled his frontbench team, with Tom Brake MP taking on Foreign Affairs, Alistair Carmichael MP Home Affairs, Susan Kramer Economics and Judith Jolly representing Defence.
In the May 2016 local elections, the Liberal Democrats gained a small number of council seats, though they lost ground in the National Assembly for Wales. The party campaigned for a Remain vote in the referendum on United Kingdom membership of the European Union in June 2016. After the Leave vote, the Liberal Democrats sought to mobilise the 48% who voted Remain, and the party's membership rose again, reaching 80,000 by September.
On 1 December 2016, the Liberal Democrats made its first by-election gain in ten years when Sarah Olney won a seat in Richmond Park previously held by the Conservative MP Zac Goldsmith, who had resigned and was contesting the election as an Independent. The main theme of the party's campaign was opposition to the manner of the government opting for a hard Brexit in leaving the European Union.
In the 2017 snap general election, the Liberal Democrats had an overall vote share of 7.4%, down 0.5% from 2015. Nevertheless, the party made a net gain of four seats from the last election, taking their seat total to twelve (an unprecedented 50% increase in their seats). The party recaptured several of its former strongholds: Sir Vince Cable was elected in Twickenham, with a majority of 9,762 votes and a swing of 14.7%. Despite making some gains compared to the previous general election, former party leader Nick Clegg lost Sheffield Hallam to Jared O'Mara of the Labour Party, and Zac Goldsmith of the Conservatives regained Richmond Park from Sarah Olney with a very narrow majority of 45 votes. Party membership exceeded 100,000 during the campaign. On 14 June, following the election, Farron announced his intention to stand down as leader of the Liberal Democrats.
Sir Vince Cable was elected unopposed to the leadership of the party on 20 July 2017 following Farron's resignation. Before his election, Cable argued for an "exit from Brexit", calling for a second referendum on the UK's relationship with the European Union.
The ideology of the Liberal Democrats draws from liberal ideas. The party is in favour of reform of traditional British institutions such as the Church of England, a change in the electoral system from first-past-the-post to proportional representation, and drug decriminalisation. The Liberal Democrats supported the adoption of the Euro and greater European integration. In recent years the adoption of the Euro hasn't been on their agenda, with no mention of it in their 2017 manifesto.
Within the Liberal Democrats, the two main ideological strands are social liberals and classical liberals, the latter supporting economic liberalism. The principal difference between the two is that the classical liberals tend to support greater choice and competition and aim to increase social mobility through economic deregulation and creation of opportunity, whereas the social liberals are more commonly associated with directly aiming to increase equality of outcome through state intervention. Classical liberals tend to favour cutting taxes for the poorest in order to increase opportunity, contrasting with social liberals who would rather see higher spending on public services and the disadvantaged in order to reduce income inequality.
The strand of social liberalism in the party is influenced by William Beveridge, who is credited with drafting further advancements of the welfare state, and economist John Maynard Keynes. In 2009, social liberals founded the Social Liberal Forum, a pressure group within the party, to pursue social liberal policies. Notable social liberals in the Liberal Democrats include Tim Farron, David Steel, Paddy Ashdown, Menzies Campbell, Charles Kennedy, and Simon Hughes. The party has also been described as having a social-democratic wing, identified with party figures including Kennedy, Ashdown and Campbell, with current leader Vince Cable self-identifying himself as a social democrat (Kennedy and Cable had been members of the SDP before the merger).
In 2004 members of the classical and economic liberal strand contributed to The Orange Book, which contained social market economy policies and was seen as an attempt to move the party towards the centre-ground. Notable economic liberals include Nick Clegg, David Laws and Jeremy Browne, a group which has since been referred to as the "Orange Book Liberals".
On 13 February 2012, those welcoming social liberalism while advocating the equal importance of economic liberalism, founded Liberal Reform. The group opposes what it regards as illiberal policies and abuses of power, such as detention without trial, while advocating employee share ownership, tax cuts for those on low and middle incomes, the right of citizens to freedom of information, and of their right to personal privacy.
The Liberal Democrats have been strongly in favour of European integration. The party maintains a "strong and positive" commitment to the European Union; the Liberal Democrats and its predecessors (the SDP–Liberal Alliance) have been consistently in favour of British EU membership, with the Liberal Party originally proposing membership into the predecessor European Coal and Steel Community. However, the Liberal Democrats oppose the European federalism espoused by their counterparts.
In June 2016 following the United Kingdom European Union membership referendum, in which 51.9% of those voting voted in favour of leaving the European Union, Tim Farron stated that if Liberal Democrats were to be elected in the next parliamentary election, they would not follow through with triggering Article 50 of the Treaty on European Union and leaving the EU ("Any Member State may decide to withdraw from the Union in accordance with its own constitutional requirements") but would instead keep UK part of the EU. Following this promise, the Liberal Democrats claim that their membership has increased by 10,000 since the referendum; at one point, the growth in the party was the equivalent of one person joining per minute. Campaigning for a second referendum regarding the exact goals of Brexit negotiation is currently one of the party's flagship policies.
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In the 1992 General Election the Lib Dems succeeded the SDP–Liberal Alliance as the third most popular party, behind Labour and the Conservatives. Their popularity never rose to the levels attained by the Alliance, but in later years their seat count rose far above the Alliance's peak, a feat that has been credited to more intelligent targeting of vulnerable seats. The vote percentage for the Alliance in 1987 and the Lib Dems in 2005 is similar, yet the Lib Dems won 62 seats to the Alliance's 22.
The first-past-the-post electoral system used in UK General Elections is not suited to parties whose vote is evenly divided across the country, resulting in those parties achieving a lower proportion of seats in the Commons than their proportion of the popular vote (see table and graph). The Lib Dems and their Liberal and SDP predecessors have suffered especially, particularly in the 1980s when their electoral support was greatest while the disparity between the votes and the number of MPs returned to parliament was significantly large. The increase in their number of seats in 1997, 2001 and 2005 was attributed to the weakness of the Conservatives and the success of their election strategist Chris Rennard. Lib Dems state that they want 'three-party politics' in the Commons; the most realistic chance of power with first past the post is for the party to be the kingmakers in a hung parliament. Party leaders often set out their terms for forming a coalition in such an event—Nick Clegg stated in 2008 that the policy for the 2010 General Election was to reform elections, parties and Parliament in a "constitutional convention".
20 / 650
46 / 659
52 / 659
62 / 646
57 / 650
8 / 650
12 / 650
with DUP confidence & supply
The party had control of 31 councils in 2008, having held 29 councils prior to the 2008 election. In the 2008 local elections they gained 25% of the vote, placing them ahead of Labour and increasing their control by 34 to more than 4,200 council seats—21% of the total number of seats. In council elections held in May 2011, the Liberal Democrats suffered heavy defeats in the Midlands, North and Scotland. They also lost heavily in the Welsh assembly and Scottish Parliament. In local elections held in May 2012, the Lib Dems lost more than 300 councillors, leaving them with fewer than 3000 for the first time in the party's history. In the 2013 local elections, they lost more councillors. In the 2014 local elections they lost over 300 councillors and the control of two local governments.
In the 2016 local elections, the number of Liberal Democrat councillors increased for the first time since they went into coalition in 2010. The party won 43 seats and increased its vote share by 4%. A number of former MPs who lost their seats in 2015 won council seats in 2016, including former Manchester Withington MP John Leech  who won 53% of the vote in a traditionally safe Labour seat. Leech's win was hailed as 'historic', signifying the first gain for any party in Manchester other than Labour for the first time in six years, and provided the city's majority Labour administration with its first opposition for two years. Cheadle's former MP Mark Hunter also won a seat on Stockport Council.
The party has generally not performed as well in elections to the European Parliament. In the 2004 local elections their share of the vote was 29% (placing them second, ahead of Labour) and 14.9% in the simultaneous European Parliament elections (putting them in fourth place behind the UK Independence Party). The results of the 2009 European elections were similar with the party achieving a vote of 28% in the county council elections yet achieving only 13.7% in the Europeans despite the elections taking place on the same day. The 2009 elections did however see the party gain one seat from UKIP in the East Midlands region taking the number of representatives in the parliament up to 11. In 2014 the party lost ten seats, leaving them with one MEP.
In Europe, the party sits with the Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe (ALDE) political group, which favours further strengthening the EU. The group's leader for seven and a half years was the South West England MEP Graham Watson, who was also the first Liberal Democrat to be elected to the European Parliament when he won the old Somerset and North Devon constituency in 1994. The group's current leader is the former Prime Minister of Belgium Guy Verhofstadt.
0 / 81
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12 / 78
11 / 72
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The first elections for the Scottish parliament were held in 1999 and resulted in the Liberal Democrats forming a coalition government with Labour from its establishment until 2007. The Liberal Democrat leader Jim Wallace became Deputy First Minister, a role he continued until his retirement as party leader in 2005. The new leader of the party, Nicol Stephen, then took on the role of Deputy First Minister until the election of 2007.
For the first three Scottish Parliament elections, the Lib Dems maintained a consistent number of MSPs. From the 17 elected in 1999, they retained this number in 2003 and went down one to 16 in 2007. However, this fell to only five seats after the 2011 election as a result of the widespread unpopularity of their coalition with the Conservative party at the UK level.
|Election||Constituency votes||Regional votes||Total seats||Share of seats|
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The first elections to the newly created National Assembly for Wales were in 1999; the Liberal Democrats took six seats in the inaugural Assembly; Welsh Labour won a plurality of seats, but without an overall majority. In October 2000, following a series of close votes, the parties formed a coalition, with the Liberal Democrat leader in the assembly, Michael German, becoming the Deputy First Minister. The deal lasted until the 2003 election, when Labour won enough seats to be able to govern outright.
The party had polled consistently in the first four elections to the National Assembly, returning six representatives in the first three elections and five in the 2011 Election, thereby establishing itself as the fourth party in Wales behind Labour, the Conservatives and Plaid Cymru, but fell to just one seat in 2016. Between 2008 and 2016, the leader of the Welsh Liberal Democrats was Kirsty Williams, the assembly member for Brecon & Radnorshire, the Assembly's first female party leader.
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The Liberal Democrats are a federal party of the parties of England, Scotland, and Wales. The English and Scottish parties are further split into regions. The parliamentary parties of the House of Commons, the House of Lords, the Scottish Parliament and Welsh Assembly form semi-autonomous units within the party. The leaders in the House of Commons and the Scottish Parliament are the leaders of the federal party and the Scottish Party; the leaders in the other two chambers, and the officers of all parliamentary parties, are elected from their own number. Co-ordination of all party activities across all federated groups is undertaken through the Federal Board. Chaired by the party leader, its 30+ members includes representatives from each of the groups and democratically elected representatives.
The Lib Dems had 65,038 members at the end of 2010 and in the first quarter of 2008, the party received £1.1 million in donations and have total borrowings and unused credit facilities of £1.1 million (the "total debt" figure reported by the Electoral Commission includes, for example, unused overdraft facilities). This compares to Labour's £3.1 million in donations and £17.8 million of borrowing/credit facilities, and the Conservatives' £5.7 million in donations and £12.1 million of borrowing/credit facilities.
Specified Associated Organisations (SAOs) review and input policies, representing groups including: ethnic minorities (LDCRE), women (WLD), the LGBT community (LGBT+ Liberal Democrats), youth and students (Young Liberals), engineers and scientists (ALDES), parliamentary candidates (PCA) and local councillors (ALDC). Others can become Associated Organisations (AOs) as campaigning or representative groups in the party, such as the Green Liberal Democrats (GLD) , the Liberal Democrat European Group (LDEG) and the Liberal Democrat Disability Association. There are many other groups that are not formally affiliated to the party, including Social Liberal Forum (SLF) and Liberal Reform. The National Union of Liberal Clubs (NULC) represents Liberal Social Clubs which encourages recreational institutions where the promotion of the party can take place.
Like the Conservatives, the Lib Dems organise in Northern Ireland, though they do not contest elections in the province: they work with the Alliance Party of Northern Ireland, de facto agreeing to support the Alliance in elections. There is a separate local party operating in Northern Ireland, the Northern Ireland Liberal Democrats. Several individuals, including Alliance Party leader David Ford, hold membership of both parties. Alliance members of the House of Lords take the Lib Dem whip on non-Northern Ireland issues, and the Alliance Party used to have a stall at Lib Dem party conferences.
It is also a 'sister party' of the Liberal Party of Gibraltar and contests the South-West England constituency at European Parliamentary elections on a joint ticket with them taking place six on the party list.
The party is a member of Liberal International and the Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe Party, and their 1 MEP sits in the Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe (ALDE) Group in the European Parliament.
Membership fluctuated between 1988 and 2000 between a low of 69,000 in 2000 and a peak of 101,768 in 1994. Membership increased sharply after the confirmation on 18 April 2017 of the 8 June 2017 general election, again surpassing 100,000 on 24 April 2017.
|Entered office||Left office||Length of term||Date of Birth||Date of Death|
|David Steel 1||7 July 1987||16 July 1988||1 year 0 months 9 days||31 March 1938|
|Bob Maclennan 2||6 August 1987||16 July 1988||11 months 10 days||26 June 1936|
|Paddy Ashdown||16 July 1988||9 August 1999||11 years 0 months 24 days||27 February 1941||22 December 2018|
|Charles Kennedy||9 August 1999||7 January 2006||6 years 4 months 29 days||25 November 1959||1 June 2015|
|Sir Menzies Campbell 3||2 March 2006||15 October 2007||1 year 7 months 13 days||22 May 1941|
|Vince Cable 4||15 October 2007||18 December 2007||2 months 3 days||9 May 1943|
|Nick Clegg||18 December 2007||16 July 2015||7 years 6 months 28 days||7 January 1967|
|Tim Farron||16 July 2015||20 July 2017||2 years 0 months 4 days||27 May 1970|
|Sir Vince Cable||20 July 2017||9 May 1943|
Also see President of the Liberal Democrats
Presidents chair the Federal Board. They are elected for a two-year term, starting on 1 January and ending on 31 December. They may serve a maximum of two terms.
|Leader||Entered office||Left office|
|Roy Jenkins, Baron Jenkins of Hillhead (1920–2003)||16 July 1988||4 May 1997|
|William Rodgers, Baron Rodgers of Quarry Bank (b. 1928)||4 May 1997||13 June 2001|
|Shirley Williams, Baroness Williams of Crosby (b. 1930)||13 June 2001||22 June 2004|
|Tom McNally, Baron McNally (b. 1943)||22 June 2004||15 October 2013|
|Jim Wallace, Baron Wallace of Tankerness (b. 1954)||15 October 2013||13 September 2016|
|Dick Newby, Baron Newby (b. 1953)||13 September 2016||present|
The Liberal Democrats did not have representation in the European Parliament prior to 1994.
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Alison Mary Suttie, Baroness Suttie (born 27 August 1968) is a British Liberal Democrat politician. She was appointed a life peer in the House of Lords in September 2013. A party whip, she is a member of the Liberal Democrat foreign affairs team. She is also a trustee on the board of IPPR.
Campaigner for public awareness of tuberculosis in the UK and internationally and also a campaigner on homelessness issues.Barbara Janke
Barbara Lilian Janke, Baroness Janke (born 5 June 1947) is a British teacher and politician. She was the Liberal Democrat leader of Bristol City Council from 2005 to 2007 and from 2009 to 2012. She has been Councillor for Clifton ward since 1995. She was leader of the Liberal Democrat group since 1997, with a break from 2007 to 2008. In August 2014 Cllr Janke was named as one of six new Liberal Democrat working peers.Bob Maclennan, Baron Maclennan of Rogart
Robert Adam Ross Maclennan, Baron Maclennan of Rogart, (born 26 June 1936, Glasgow), known popularly as Bob Maclennan, is a British Liberal Democrat life peer. He was the last leader of the Social Democratic Party (SDP), serving during the negotiations that led to its merger with the Liberal Party in 1988. He then became joint interim leader of the new party, known as the Social and Liberal Democrats (SLD) before later becoming the Liberal Democrats.Brian Cotter, Baron Cotter
Brian Joseph Michael Cotter, Baron Cotter (born 24 August 1936) is a politician in the United Kingdom. He was Liberal Democrat Member of Parliament for Weston-super-Mare from 1997 to 2005.David Chidgey, Baron Chidgey
David William George Chidgey, Baron Chidgey (born 9 July 1942 in Basingstoke) is a Liberal Democrat politician in the United Kingdom. A former Member of Parliament (MP) for Eastleigh, he now sits in the House of Lords.David Shutt, Baron Shutt of Greetland
David Trevor Shutt, Baron Shutt of Greetland (born 16 March 1942) is a British Liberal Democrat politician, who served as Captain of the Yeomen of the Guard and Deputy Chief Whip in the House of Lords between May 2010 and May 2012.Diana Maddock, Baroness Maddock
Diana Margaret Maddock, Baroness Maddock, Lady Beith (born 19 May 1945), is a Liberal Democrat politician.Jenny Randerson, Baroness Randerson
Jennifer Elizabeth Randerson, Baroness Randerson (born 26 May 1948) is a Welsh Liberal Democrat member of the House of Lords. She is former junior minister in the Wales Office, with specific responsibility for education.She is a former Cardiff councillor and was an AM from 1999 to 2011, when she was created a life peer. She was a member of the Welsh Labour-Lib Dem administration of the 2000–2003 Welsh Assembly Government.Jonny Oates, Baron Oates
Jonathan Oates, Baron Oates (born 28 December 1969) is a British Liberal Democrat politician and member of the House of Lords. A past Chief of Staff to the former Deputy Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, Nick Clegg, he was previously the Director of Policy and Communications at the Liberal Democrats.Navnit Dholakia, Baron Dholakia
Navnit Dholakia, Baron Dholakia (born 4 March 1937) is a British Liberal Democrat politician and the Deputy Leader of the Liberal Democrats in the House of Lords.Paul Scriven
Paul James Scriven, Baron Scriven (born 7 February 1966) is a Liberal Democrat politician and former Leader of Sheffield City Council (2008–11), who was once described as Nick Clegg's "closest ally in local government".Phil Willis
George Philip Willis, Baron Willis of Knaresborough (born 30 November 1941, Burnley) is a politician in the United Kingdom. He is a Liberal Democrat member of the House of Lords, and was Member of Parliament (MP) for Harrogate and Knaresborough from 1997 until retiring at the 2010 general election. Up to that date he was the chair of the House of Commons Science and Technology Committee.Qurban Hussain, Baron Hussain
Qurban Hussain, Baron Hussain (Urdu: قربان حسین; born 27 March 1956) is a politician and life peer, born in Kotli, Azad Kashmir.He was the unsuccessful candidate for parliament for Luton South in 2005 and 2010. He was firstly a member of the Labour Party, from 1996 to 2003 but then joined the Liberal Democrats. He has been a member of Luton Borough Council since 2003, serving as its Deputy Leader from 2005 to 2007.
He was created a life peer as Baron Hussain, of Luton in the county of Bedfordshire on 20 January 2011. Previously aligning with the Liberal Democrats, Hussain withdrew from the party in March 2015 amidst a scandal involving his allegedly smuggling a two-year-old Kashmiri boy into the UK decades earlier, he was later readmitted.Rosalind Grender, Baroness Grender
Rosalind Mary Grender, Baroness Grender, , known as Olly Grender, (19 August 1962) is a former Head of Communications for the Liberal Democrats and a party life peer.Sal Brinton
Sarah Virginia Brinton, Baroness Brinton (born 1 April 1955), known as Sal Brinton, is the President of the UK Liberal Democrats. In November 2010 she was nominated to the House of Lords, taking her place on 10 February 2011 as Baroness Brinton, of Kenardington in the County of Kent.Shas Sheehan, Baroness Sheehan
Shaista Ahmad Sheehan, Baroness Sheehan is a British politician and life peer. She was nominated for a life peerage by Nick Clegg in August 2015.Sheehan served as councillor for Kew from 2006 to 2010. She has also stood for Wimbledon at the 2010 and 2015 general election, finishing second and third, as well as the London Assembly election, 2012. She lives in Putney.
She was created a life peer taking the title Baroness Sheehan, of Wimbledon in the London Borough of Merton and of Tooting in the London Borough of Wandsworth on 2 October 2015.