Lhotse (Nepali: ल्होत्से L'hōtsē [loːtsi]; Tibetan: ལྷོ་རྩེ, lho rtse) is the fourth highest mountain in the world at 8,516 metres (27,940 ft), after Mount Everest, K2, and Kangchenjunga. Part of the Everest massif, Lhotse is connected to the latter peak via the South Col. Lhotse means “South Peak” in Tibetan. In addition to the main summit at 8,516 metres (27,940 ft) above sea level, the mountain comprises the smaller peaks Lhotse Middle (East) at 8,414 m (27,605 ft), and Lhotse Shar at 8,383 m (27,503 ft). The summit is on the border between Tibet of China and the Khumbu region of Nepal.
The South Face of Lhotse as seen from the climb up to Chukhung Ri.
|Elevation||8,516 m (27,940 ft) [nb 1]|
|Prominence||610 m (2,000 ft) |
|Isolation||2.66 kilometres (1.65 mi)|
Location in China and Nepal border
|Location||China (Tibet Autonomous Region)|
Province No. 1, Nepal (Khumbu)
|Parent range||Mahalangur Himal|
|First ascent||May 18, 1956|
Fritz Luchsinger, Ernst Reiss
(First winter ascent 31 December 1988 Krzysztof Wielicki)
|Easiest route||glacier/snow/ice climb|
An early attempt on Lhotse was by the 1955 International Himalayan Expedition, headed by Norman Dyhrenfurth. It also included two Austrians (cartographer Erwin Schneider and Ernst Senn) and two Swiss (Bruno Spirig and Arthur Spöhel), and was the first expedition in the Everest area to include Americans (Fred Beckey, George Bell, and Richard McGowan). The Nepalese liaison officer was Gaya Nanda Vaidya. They were accompanied by 200 local porters and several climbing Sherpas. After a brief look at the dangerous southern approaches of Lhotse Shar, they turned their attention, during September and October, to the Western Cwm and the northwest face of Lhotse, on which they achieved an altitude of about 8,100 metres (26,600 ft). They were beaten back by unexpectedly strong wind and low temperatures. Under Schneider's direction, they completed the first map of the Everest area (1:50,000 photogrammetric). The expedition also made several short films covering local cultural topics and made a number of first ascents of smaller peaks in the Khumbu region.
The main summit of Lhotse was first climbed on May 18, 1956, by the Swiss team of Ernst Reiss and Fritz Luchsinger from the Swiss Mount Everest/Lhotse Expedition. On May 12, 1970, Sepp Mayerl and Rolf Walter of Austria made the first ascent of Lhotse Shar.
Lhotse Middle remained, for a long time, the highest unclimbed named point on Earth; on May 23, 2001, its first ascent was made by Eugeny Vinogradsky, Sergei Timofeev, Alexei Bolotov and Petr Kuznetsov of a Russian expedition.
The Lhotse standard climbing route follows the same path as Everest's South Col route up to the Yellow Band beyond Camp 3. After the Yellow Band, the routes diverge with climbers bound for Everest taking a left over the Geneva Spur up to the South Col, while Lhotse climbers take a right further up the Lhotse face. The last part to the summit leads through the narrow "Reiss couloir" until the Lhotse main peak is reached.
By December 2008 371 climbers had summitted Lhotse while 20 died during their attempt. Lhotse was not summited in 2014, 2015, or 2016 due to a series of incidents, however, it was summited again in May 2017. In 2016 Ang Furba Sherpa died from a fall while working on the mountain to set ropes.
The western flank of Lhotse is known as the Lhotse Face. Any climber bound for the South Col on Everest must climb this 1,125 m (3,690 ft) wall of glacial blue ice. This face rises at 40 and 50-degree pitches with the occasional 80-degree bulges. High-altitude climbing Sherpas and the lead climbers will set fixed ropes up this wall of ice. Climbers and porters need to establish a good rhythm of foot placement and pulling themselves up the ropes using their jumars. Two rocky sections called the Yellow Band and the Geneva Spur interrupt the icy ascent on the upper part of the face.
On May 19, 2016, the high-altitude mountain worker Ang Furba Sherpa died when he slipped and fell down Lhotse face.
Ambulapcha Glacier is a glacier of the Himalayas in the Solukhumbu District of Nepal. It adjoins Imja Glacier to its south and with Lhotse Shar Glacier forms three major glaciers. It forms the Ambulapcha Tsho glacial lake, located at 27°53′35″N 86°54′47″E.Ashish Mane
Ashish Mane (Born 14 August 1990) is one of the prominent professional mountaineer from India. He has scaled Mt. Everest (2012)., Mt. Lhotse (2013), Mt. Makalu (2014), Mt Manaslu (2017) and Kanchenjunga (2019). Ashish is the only climber from Maharashtra as of now, to ascend five of the fourteen Eight-thousander|peaks over 8,000 metres means about 26,000 ft above sea level. In the year 2016, he attempted to scale Daulagiri, but due to technical reasons he had to quit the expeditionBergschrund
A bergschrund (from the German for mountain cleft) or rimaye (from French; pronounced [ʁimaj]) is a crevasse that forms where moving glacier ice separates from the stagnant ice or firn above. It is often a serious obstacle for mountaineers, who sometimes abbreviate "bergschrund" to "schrund".
In a corrie or cirque, the bergschrund is positioned at the rear, parallel to the back wall of the corrie. It is caused by the rotational movement of the glacier. In a longitudinal glacier, the bergschrund is at the top end of the glacier at a right angle to the flow of the glacier. It is caused by the downwards flow of the glacier.
Bergschrunds extend to the bedrock and can have a depth of well over 100 metres (330 ft).
In winter, a bergschrund is often filled by snow from avalanches from the mountain above it. In later summer, due to melting, it lies open and can present a very difficult obstacle to alpinists.
The bergschrund is distinct from the randkluft (also called rimaye), which is the crevasse of which one face is the rock, back wall of the corrie. The randkluft arises in part from the melting of the ice due to the presence of the warmer rock face. However, the randkluft is sometimes called a bergschrund. The French word rimaye covers both notions of randkluft and bergschrund.
On the South Col route to reach the summit of Mount Everest, a deep bergschrund lies at the bottom of the Lhotse face, separating Camp II from Camp III.Eight-thousander
The International Mountaineering and Climbing Federation or UIAA recognise eight-thousanders as the 14 mountains that are more than 8,000 metres (26,247 ft) in height above sea level, and are considered to be sufficiently independent from neighbouring peaks. However, there is no precise definition of the criteria used to assess independence, and since 2012 the UIAA has been involved in a process to consider whether the list should be expanded to 20 mountains. All eight-thousanders are located in the Himalayan and Karakoram mountain ranges in Asia, and their summits are in the death zone.
The first person to summit all 14 eight-thousanders was Italian Reinhold Messner in 1986, who completed the feat without the aid of supplementary oxygen. In 2010, Spaniard Edurne Pasaban became the first woman to summit all 14 eight-thousanders, but with the aid of supplementary oxygen; in 2011 Austrian Gerlinde Kaltenbrunner became the first woman to summit all 14 eight-thousanders without the aid of supplementary oxygen. From 1950–1964, all eight-thousanders were summited. As of May 2019, K2 remains the only eight-thousander not summited in a Winter ascent.Ernst Reiss
Ernst Reiss (24 February 1920, Davos – 3 August 2010, Basel) was a Swiss mountaineer, who together with Fritz Luchsinger was the first to climb the fourth highest mountain on earth in 1956.
On 18 May 1956, Reiss and Luchsinger successfully climbed the 8,516-metre (27,940 ft) Lhotse, the fourth highest mountain on earth. Lhotse is connected to Mount Everest via the South Col on the border of Tibet and Nepal.
Reiss was a member of the 1956 Swiss Everest–Lhotse expedition. At the end of April and start of May, the expedition erected some high camps. From the last high camp at the "Geneva Spur" on 18 May, Luchsinger and Reiss climbed the summit of Lhotse mountain. Their colleagues Ernst Schmied and Jürg Marmet were successful on 23 May and one day later Dölf Reist and Hansruedi von Gunten made the second and third climb on Mount Everest.Reiss died in Basel, Switzerland, on 3 August 2010, aged 90.Geneva Spur
The Geneva Spur, named Eperon des Genevois and has also been called the Saddle Rib is a geological feature on Mount Everest—it is a large rock buttress near the summits of Everest and Lhotse. The Geneva spur is above Camp III and the Yellow Band, but before Camp IV and South Col. It is a spur near the south col. A related formation is the saddle (landform) between the peaks of Mount Everest and Lhotse.
The altitude of the spur is between 25,000 and 26,000 feet (7,600 and 7,900 m).The Geneva Spur name comes from the 1952 Swiss Mount Everest Expedition. The spur provides a route to the South Col, and is usually traversed by climbers heading for Lhotse or Everest summits.From the top of Geneva Spur, South Col can be seen, and when looking at it Mount Everest is on the left and Lhotse to the right. Lhotse climbers typically head southeast from Geneva Spur, and on to a couloir to ascend that summit.Hongu River
The Hongu River is a major river and valley in the Sankhuwasawa District. It is a tributary of the Hinku River, which subsequently flows into the Dudh Kosi.The Hongu Valley is at the back of the Everest region. It has views of the peaks of Everest, Lhotse, Nuptse and Ama Dablam. The Hongu basin is a river valley which feeds a group of lakes. The Hongu region offers one of the finest wilderness treks in Nepal where even huts and herds are rarely seen.Both the Hongu and Hinku valleys remain uninhabited although there are kharka in the upper Hinku basin where Sherpas from the south, near Pangkongma, graze their animals during the grass-growing monsoon.Jerzy Kukuczka
Jerzy Kukuczka (24 March 1948 in Katowice, Poland – 24 October 1989 Lhotse, Nepal) was a Polish alpine and high-altitude climber. Born in Katowice, his family origin is Silesian Goral. On 18 September 1987, he became the second man (after Reinhold Messner), to climb all fourteen eight-thousanders in the world; a feat which took him less than 8 years to accomplish. He is the only person in the world who has climbed two eight-thousanders in one winter. Altogether, he ascended four eight-thousanders in winter, including three as first ascents. Along with Tadeusz Piotrowski, Kukuczka established a new route on K2 in alpine style (the so-called "Polish Line"), which no one has repeated.Khumbu Glacier
The Khumbu Glacier is located in the Khumbu region of northeastern Nepal between Mount Everest and the Lhotse-Nuptse ridge. With elevations of 4,900 m (16,100 ft) at its terminus to 7,600 m (24,900 ft) at its source, it is the world's highest glacier. The Khumbu Glacier is followed for the final part of the trail to one of the Everest Base Camps. The start of the glacier is in the Western Cwm near Everest. The glacier has a large icefall, the Khumbu Icefall, at the west end of the lower Western Cwm. This icefall is the first major obstacle—and among the more dangerous—on the standard south col route to the Everest summit. It is also the largest glacier of Nepal.
The end of Khumbu Glacier is located at 27.932N and 86.805E27°55′55″N 86°48′18″E.Lhotse Middle
Lhotse Middle is a subsidiary peak to Lhotse, and was the final eight-thousander to be summited. It is a sharp, jagged peak rising 8,410 metres (27,590 ft) high, and has been described as the most difficult peak over eight thousand meters to climb.Lhotse Shar
Lhotse Shar is a subsidiary mountain of Lhotse, and the 11th-highest mountain on Earth, at 8,383 m (27,503 ft) high. It has the highest fatality rate of all the eight-thousanders – for every two people who summit the mountain, one person dies attempting to. However, this is primarily because most climbers tend to try to ascend to the primary peak of Lhotse, rather than the lowest summit of the mountain. It was first climbed by Sepp Mayerl and Rolf Walter on May 12, 1970.
On April 27, 1980, Nicolas Jaeger was seen for the last time at 8,200 metres (26,900 ft) altitude during an attempted ascent of Lhotse Shar in Nepal, and is presumed dead.Lhotse Shar Glacier
Lhotse Shar is a glacier of the Himalayas in the Solukhumbu District of Nepal. It adjoins Imja Glacier to the northeast and with Ambulapcha Glacier forms three major glaciers. To the east is Cho Polu (6734m/22,093ft).List of deaths on eight-thousanders
The eight-thousanders are the 14 mountains that rise more than 8,000 metres (26,247 ft) above sea level; they are all in the Himalayan and Karakoram mountain ranges.
This is a list of mountaineers who have died on these mountains.Mahalangur Himal
Mahālangūr Himāl (Nepali: महालङ्गूर हिमाल, Mahālaṅgūra himāla) is a section of the Himalayas in northeast Nepal and south-central Tibet of China extending east from the pass Nangpa La between Rolwaling Himal and Cho Oyu, to the Arun River. It includes Mount Everest, Lhotse, Makalu, and Cho Oyu — four of Earth's six highest peaks. On the Tibetan side it is drained by the Rongbuk and Kangshung Glaciers and on the Nepali side by Barun, Ngojumba and Khumbu Glaciers and others. All are tributaries to the Koshi River via Arun River on the north and east or Dudh Kosi on the south.
Mahalangur Himal can be divided into three subsections:
Makālu (Nepali: मकालु) nearest the Arun River and along the Nepal-China border including Makalu 8463m, Chomo Lonzo 7790m south of the Kama valley in Tibet, Kangchungtse or Makalu II 7678m, Peak 7199 and some ten others over 6000 metres.
Barun (Nepali: बरुण, Baruṇa) inside Nepal and south of the Makālu section. It includes Chamlang 7319m and Chamlang East 7235m, Peak 7316, Baruntse 7129m, Ama Dablam 6812m and about 17 others over 6000 metres.
Khumbu (Nepali: खुम्बु) along the international border west of the Makalu section, Including the Everest massif: Everest 8848m, Lhotse 8516m, Nuptse 7855m and Changtse 7580m. West of Everest are Pumori 7161m and Cho Oyu 8201m plus some 20 others over 7000 metres and 36 over 6000 metres.The Khumbu region of Nepal is the best known populated part of the Mahalangurs since it is on the access trail to the normal (South Col) route up Everest.Nuptse
Nuptse or Nubtse (Sherpa: ནུབ་རྩེ། नुबचे, Wylie: Nub rtse) is a mountain in the Khumbu region of the Mahalangur Himal, in the Nepalese Himalayas. It lies two kilometres WSW of Mount Everest. Nubtse is Tibetan for "west peak", as it is the western segment of the Lhotse-Nubtse massif.
The summit of Nuptse is extremely dangerous due to loose snow with a lot of hollows, and there are also weakly attached cornices of snow. This provides a barrier to climbing, yet is not sturdy enough for safe climbing.The long east-west trending main ridge of Nubtse is crowned by seven peaks:
The main peak, Nubtse I, was first climbed on May 16, 1961 by Dennis Davis and Sherpa Tashi and the following day by Chris Bonington, Les Brown, James Swallow and Pemba Sherpa, members of a British expedition led by Joe Walmsley. This route they took is called the Scott route for the Nuptse mountain. After this it was climbed just twice between 1961 and 1996.After a long hiatus, Nubtse again became the objective of high-standard mountaineers in the 1990s and 2000s, with important routes being put up on its west, south, and north faces.
While Nubtse is a dramatic peak when viewed from the south or west, and it towers above the base camp for the standard south col route on Everest, it is not a particularly independent peak: its topographic prominence is only 319 m (1,047 ft). Hence it is not ranked on the list of highest mountains.
In 2013 Briton Kenton Cool summited Nuptse as part of the"Triple Crown" or "Everest Trilogy" climb, which he achieved that year. He summited Nuptse, Everest, and Lhotse in one season, supported by various climbers and using various climbing techniques. During this climb Mr. Cool tried to save the life a climber that had come down with HACE after summiting Lhotse, but was not reachable for helicopter rescue.On April 30, 2017, famed Swiss mountaineer and speed-climber Ueli Steck died in an accident near Camp 1 off the Western Cwm, whilst on an acclimatisation climb on the north face of the Nuptse Wall.South Col
The South Col is the sharp-edged col between Mount Everest and Lhotse, the highest and fourth highest mountains in the world, respectively. When climbers attempt to climb Everest from the southeast ridge in Nepal, their final camp (usually Camp IV) is situated on the South Col. The South Col is typically swept by high winds, leaving it free of significant snow accumulation.
The South Col was first reached on May 12, 1952 by Aubert, Lambert, and Flory of Edouard Wyss-Dunant's Swiss Mount Everest Expedition that failed to reach the summit. The following year, when Mount Everest was first climbed, Wilfrid Noyce and the Sherpa Annullu were the first climbers on the expedition to reach the col. According to John Hunt, the expedition leader:
It was 2.40 p.m. Wilfrid Noyce and his companion Annullu stood at that moment above the South Col of Everest, at about 26,000 feet [7,900 m]. They were gazing down on the scene of the Swiss drama, and they were also looking upwards to the final pyramid of Everest itself. It was a great moment for them both, and it was shared by all of us who watched it. Their presence there was symbolic of our success in overcoming the most crucial problem of the whole climb; they had reached an objective which we had been striving to attain for twelve anxious days.
Once on the South Col, climbers have entered the death zone; Altitude sickness is a significant threat at this elevation and can easily prove fatal. It is also difficult to sleep, and most climbers' digestive systems have significantly slowed or completely stopped. This is because it is more efficient at this altitude for the body to use stored energy sources than to digest new food. Most climbers will begin using supplemental oxygen here and have a maximum of only two or three days for making summit bids. Clear weather and low winds are critical factors in deciding whether to make a summit attempt. If weather does not cooperate within these short few days, climbers are forced to descend, many all the way back down to Base Camp. Climbers rarely get a second chance to return to the South Col in a specific expedition.
In 2005, Didier Delsalle of France landed a Eurocopter AS350 B3 helicopter on the South Col. Two days later he made the first helicopter landing on the summit of Mount Everest, a feat he subsequently repeated.In May 2019, the highest weather station in the world was installed at Everest, with one location at the South Col, and another on a place higher up on the peak known as the "The Balcony" as well as some other stations and locations. The weather stations are about 7 feet tall (2.136 meters) and weighs 110 pounds (about 50 kilograms).The Man Who Skied Down Everest
The Man Who Skied Down Everest is a documentary about Yuichiro Miura, a Japanese alpinist who skied down Mount Everest in 1970. The film was produced by Canadian film maker F. R. "Budge" Crawley. Miura skied 2,000 m (6,600 ft) in two minutes and 20 seconds and fell 400 m (1,320 ft) down the steep Lhotse face from the Yellow Band just below the South Col. He used a large parachute to slow his descent. He came to a full stop just 76 m (250 ft) from the edge of a bergschrund, a large, deep crevasse where the ice shears away from the stagnant ice on the rock face and begins to move downwards as a glacier.
The ski descent was the objective of The Japanese Everest Skiing Expedition 1970. Six members of this expedition died. At the same time, another independent Japanese expedition (called The Japanese Mount Everest Expedition 1970) undertook a combined ascent of (a) the normal route, including Naomi Uemura who made the summit, and (b) the first attempt at the South-West Face, the tall black face on the movie poster with the Y-shaped snowy gully. Two members of this second expedition died.Crawley won the Academy Award for Best Documentary Feature for this picture. The Academy Film Archive preserved The Man Who Skied Down Everest in 2010.Tony Hawk
Anthony Frank Hawk (born May 12, 1968) is an American professional skateboarder, actor and owner of the skateboard company Birdhouse. Hawk is well known for completing the first documented 900 and for his licensed video game titles, published by Activision, and is widely considered to be one of the most successful and influential pioneers of modern vertical skateboarding.In 2002, he created the "Boom Boom HuckJam", an extreme sports exhibition and tour that was launched in Las Vegas. Throughout his career, Hawk has made numerous appearances in films, other media, and his own series of video games. He has also been involved in various philanthropic activities, including his own Tony Hawk Foundation that helps to build skateparks in underprivileged areas. In 2014, Hawk was named one of the most influential skateboarders of all time by FoxWeekly.Western Cwm
The Western Cwm () is a broad, flat, gently undulating glacial valley basin terminating at the foot of the Lhotse Face of Mount Everest. It was named by George Mallory when he saw it in 1921 as part of the British Reconnaissance Expedition that was the first to explore the upper sections of Everest, searching for routes for future summit attempts; Cwm is Welsh for "valley".
The Western Cwm is traversed by climbers using the southeast route to the summit of Everest, and is typically accessed by climbing through the Khumbu Icefall. The central section is cut by massive lateral crevasses which bar entrance into the upper Western Cwm. In this section, climbers must cross to the far right, over to the base of Nuptse to a narrow passageway known as the Nuptse corner. From there, climbers can see the upper 2,400 m (7,900 ft) of Everest—the first glimpse of Everest's upper slopes since arriving at Base Camp.
The snow-covered, bowl-shaped slopes surrounding the Western Cwm reflect and amplify solar radiation, warming the valley basin despite its high elevation of 6,000 m (20,000 ft) through 6,800 m (22,300 ft). On a sunny windless day, temperatures can reach up to 35 °C (95 °F).
|Topography and landmarks|
|Mount Everest massif|