Leucophrys or Leukophrys (Ancient Greek: Λευκόφρυς) was a town of the ancient Ionia, and earlier of Caria in the plain of the Maeander river. It was on the borders of a lake, whose water was hot and in constant commotion.[1] The town possessed a very revered sanctuary of Artemis; hence surnamed Artemis Leucophryene or Leucophryne.[2][3][4] The poet Nicander spoke of Leucophrys as a place distinguished for its fine roses.[5] Xenophon records that, in 398 BCE, Leucophrys was the site to which the Greek troops, under the command of the Spartan Dercylidas withdrew after the meeting between them and the troops of Achaemenid Empire led by the satraps Tissaphernes and Pharnabazus II. The next day in the place they had agreed to, they negotiated peace. The Persians would allow the Greek cities to be autonomous and the Greek army and the Laconian harmosts would return across the Aegean Sea.[6]

Its site was later occupied by Magnesia ad Maeandrum.[7][8]


  1. ^ Xenophon. Hellenica. 4.8.17, 3.2.19.
  2. ^ Pausanias. Description of Greece. 1.26.4.
  3. ^ Strabo. Geographica. xiv. p. 647. Page numbers refer to those of Isaac Casaubon's edition.
  4. ^ Tacitus. Annals. 3.62.
  5. ^ Athenaeus. Deipnosophistae. 15.683.
  6. ^ Xenophon. Hellenica. 3.2.14-19.
  7. ^ Richard Talbert, ed. (2000). Barrington Atlas of the Greek and Roman World. Princeton University Press. p. 61, and directory notes accompanying.
  8. ^ Lund University. Digital Atlas of the Roman Empire.

 This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainSmith, William, ed. (1854–1857). "Leucophrys". Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography. London: John Murray.

Coordinates: 37°51′03″N 27°31′40″E / 37.8507°N 27.52785°E

Bewick's wren

The Bewick's wren (Thryomanes bewickii) is a wren native to North America. At about 14 cm (5.5 in) long, it is grey-brown above, white below, with a long white eyebrow. While similar in appearance to the Carolina wren, it has a long tail that is tipped in white. The song is loud and melodious, much like the song of other wrens. It lives in thickets, brush piles and hedgerows, open woodlands and scrubby areas, often near streams. It eats insects and spiders, which it gleans from vegetation or finds on the ground.Its historic range was from southern British Columbia, Nebraska, southern Ontario, and southwestern Pennsylvania, Maryland, south to Mexico, Arkansas and the northern Gulf States. However, it is now extremely rare east of the Mississippi River.

Brown-capped vireo

The brown-capped vireo (Vireo leucophrys) is a small passerine bird. It breeds in highlands from southern Mexico south to northwestern Bolivia. It is sometimes considered to be conspecific with the similar warbling vireo.

The adult brown-capped vireo is 12–12.7 cm in length and weighs 12 g. It has olive-green upperparts and a brown crown. There is a brown line from the bill through the eyes, and a white supercilium. The face and throat are off-white, and the underparts are otherwise yellow with some olive on the flanks. Young birds are buff-brown above with a weaker supercilium.

The brown-capped vireo has a sharp twiist call and the song is a rich warbled here you see me hear me sing so sweet, reminiscent of that of the warbling vireo.This vireo occurs in the canopy and middle levels of light woodland, the edges of forest, and other semi-open habitats at altitudes from 500 to 2500 m. Brown-capped vireos feed on caterpillars and other insects gleaned from tree foliage. They also eat small fruits. They will join mixed-species feeding flocks.

The nest is undescribed.

Buffy-crowned wood partridge

The buffy-crowned wood partridge (Dendrortyx leucophrys) is a species of bird in the Odontophoridae family. It is found in Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, and Nicaragua. Its natural habitat is subtropical or tropical moist montane forests. Small groups forage in underbrush, secondary growth, near forest clearings and coffee plantations. The species local name is "chir-ras-qua" after its noisy call. It has a chicken-like appearance due to its long tail and legs. Its pale iris and streaked neck differentiates it from other quail like birds.


Sylvietta, the crombecs, is a genus of African warblers. Formerly placed in the massively paraphyletic Sylviidae, it is now considered to belong to a newly recognized family found only in Africa, Macrosphenidae.

It contains the following species:

Green crombec, Sylvietta virens

Lemon-bellied crombec, Sylvietta denti

White-browed crombec, Sylvietta leucophrys

Chapin's crombec, Sylvietta (leucophrys) chapini - possibly extinct (late 20th century?)

Northern crombec, Sylvietta brachyura

Philippa's crombec, Sylvietta philippae

Red-capped crombec, Sylvietta ruficapilla

Red-faced crombec, Sylvietta whytii

Somali crombec, Sylvietta isabellina

Long-billed crombec, Sylvietta rufescens


Dendrortyx is a genus of bird in the Odontophoridae family. It contains the following species:

Bearded wood partridge (Dendrortyx barbatus)

Buffy-crowned wood partridge (Dendrortyx leucophrys)

Long-tailed wood partridge (Dendrortyx macroura)

Grey-breasted wood wren

The grey-breasted wood wren (Henicorhina leucophrys) is a species of bird in the Troglodytidae family.

It is found at low levels in wooded montane areas of Bolivia, Peru, Ecuador, Colombia, Venezuela, Panama, Costa Rica, Nicaragua, Honduras, El Salvador, Guatemala and Mexico.

It prefers humid regions. It is generally fairly common.


Henicorhina is the wood wren genus; these are birds in the family Troglodytidae. It contains the following species:

Bar-winged wood wren, Henicorhina leucoptera

Grey-breasted wood wren, Henicorhina leucophrys

Hermit wood wren, Henicorhina anachoreta

White-breasted wood wren, Henicorhina leucosticta

Munchique wood wren, Henicorhina negretiThese species live in South and Central America.

Lesser shortwing

The lesser shortwing (Brachypteryx leucophris) is a species of chat. This species is now classified in the family Muscicapidae.

It is found in south-eastern Asia, Sumatra, Java and the Lesser Sundas. Its natural habitat is subtropical or tropical moist montane forests.


Ochthoeca is a genus of South American birds in the tyrant flycatcher family Tyrannidae.

The genus contains eight species:

Slaty-backed chat-tyrant, Ochthoeca cinnamomeiventris

Blackish chat-tyrant, Ochthoeca nigrita

Maroon-belted chat-tyrant, Ochthoeca thoracica

Rufous-breasted chat-tyrant, Ochthoeca rufipectoralis

Brown-backed chat-tyrant, Ochthoeca fumicolor

D'Orbigny's chat-tyrant, Ochthoeca oenanthoides

White-browed chat-tyrant, Ochthoeca leucophrys

Piura chat-tyrant, Ochthoeca piuraeThe genus Ochthoeca formerly included some species that are now placed in the genus Silvicultrix.

Plain-backed pipit

The plain-backed pipit or plain pipit (Anthus leucophrys) is a medium-sized passerine bird which is a resident breeder in Africa south of the Sahara Desert.

It is found in open habitats, especially short grassland and cultivation. It builds its cup-shaped nest on the ground and usually lays three eggs. Like other pipits, this species is insectivorous.

The plain-backed pipit is a large pipit at 17 cm, but is otherwise an undistinguished looking species, faintly streaked grey-brown above and pale below with light breast streaking. It has a strong white supercilium, and dark moustachial stripes. It has long legs and tail, and a long dark bill. Sexes are similar, but juveniles have warmer brown upperparts.

Some care must be taken to distinguish this species from wintering tawny pipits, Anthus campestris. The plain-backed pipit is sturdier and darker than the Tawny, and stands more upright. Perhaps the best distinction is the characteristic "ssissik" call, quite different from the tawny pipit's "tchilip".

Ringed teal

The ringed teal (Callonetta leucophrys) is a small duck of South American forests. It is the only species of the genus Callonetta. Usually placed with the dabbling ducks (Anatinae), this species may actually be closer to shelducks and belong in the subfamily Tadorninae; its closest relative is possibly the maned duck.

White-browed antbird

The white-browed antbird (Myrmoborus leucophrys) is a species of perching bird in the family Thamnophilidae. It is found in Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Peru, Suriname, and Venezuela. Its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical moist lowland forests and subtropical or tropical moist montane forests.

White-browed chat-tyrant

The white-browed chat-tyrant (Ochthoeca leucophrys) is a species of bird in the family Tyrannidae. It is found in the Puna grassland.

Its natural habitat is subtropical or tropical high-altitude shrubland.

White-browed crombec

The white-browed crombec (Sylvietta leucophrys) is a species of African warbler, formerly placed in the family Sylviidae. The enigmatic Chapin's crombec might be a distinct species, or a subspecies Sylvietta leucophrys chapini of the present species.

The white-browed crombec is found in Burundi, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Kenya, Rwanda, Tanzania, and Uganda.

White-browed scrub robin

The white-browed scrub robin (Cercotrichas leucophrys), also known as the red-backed scrub-robin, is a species of bird in the family Muscicapidae. It is native to sub-Saharan Africa, especially East and southern Africa. Within range, its Turdus-like song is one of the often-heard sounds of the bush. The flitting of the tail is characteristic of this species, but also of some near relatives.

White-crowned sparrow

The white-crowned sparrow (Zonotrichia leucophrys) is a species of passerine bird native to North America. A medium-sized member of the American sparrow family, this species is marked by a grey face and black and white streaking on the upper head. It breeds in brushy areas in the taiga and tundra of the northernmost parts of the continent and in the Rocky Mountains and Pacific coast. While southerly populations in the Rocky Mountains and coast are largely resident, the breeding populations of the northerly part of its range are migratory and can be found as wintering or passage visitors through most of North America south to central Mexico.

White-striped warbler

The white-striped warbler (Myiothlypis leucophrys) is a species of bird in the Parulidae family.

It is endemic to Brazil.

Its natural habitat is subtropical or tropical moist lowland forests.

White-throated tyrannulet

The white-throated tyrannulet (Mecocerculus leucophrys) is a species of bird in the family Tyrannidae.

It is found in Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Venezuela. Its natural habitat is subtropical or tropical moist montane forests.

Willie wagtail

The willie (or willy) wagtail (Rhipidura leucophrys) is a passerine bird native to Australia, New Guinea, the Solomon Islands, the Bismarck Archipelago, and Eastern Indonesia. It is a common and familiar bird throughout much of its range, living in most habitats apart from thick forest. Measuring 19–21.5 cm (7 1⁄2–8 1⁄2 in) in length, the willie wagtail is contrastingly coloured with almost entirely black upperparts and white underparts; the male and female have similar plumage.

Three subspecies are recognised; Rhipidura leucophrys leucophrys from central and southern Australia, the smaller R. l. picata from northern Australia, and the larger R. l. melaleuca from New Guinea and islands in its vicinity. It is unrelated to the true wagtails of the genus Motacilla; it is a member of the fantail genus Rhipidura and is a part of a "core corvine" group that includes true crows and ravens, drongos and birds of paradise. Within this group, fantails are placed either in the family Dicruridae, alongside drongos, or in their own small family, Rhipiduridae.

The willie wagtail is insectivorous and spends much time chasing prey in open habitat. Its common name is derived from its habit of wagging its tail horizontally when foraging on the ground. Aggressive and territorial, the willie wagtail will often harass much larger birds such as the laughing kookaburra and wedge-tailed eagle. It has responded well to human alteration of the landscape and is a common sight in urban lawns, parks, and gardens. It was widely featured in Aboriginal folklore around the country as either a bringer of bad news or a stealer of secrets.

Black Sea
Central Anatolia
Eastern Anatolia


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