A letter to the editor (sometimes abbreviated LTTE or LTE) is a letter sent to a publication about issues of concern from its readers. Usually, letters are intended for publication. In many publications, letters to the editor may be sent either through conventional mail or electronic mail.
Letters to the editor are most frequently associated with newspapers and newsmagazines. However, they are sometimes published in other periodicals (such as entertainment and technical magazines), and radio and television stations. In the latter instance, letters are sometimes read on the air (usually, on a news broadcast or on talk radio). In that presentation form, it can also be described as viewer mail or listener mail, depending on the medium.
In academic publishing, letters to the editor of an academic journal are usually open postpublication reviews of a paper, often critical of some aspect of the original paper. The authors of the original paper sometimes respond to these with a letter of their own. Controversial papers in mainstream journals often attract numerous letters to the editor. Good citation indexing services list the original papers together with all replies. Depending on the length of the letter and the journal's style, other types of headings may be used, such as peer commentary. There are some variations on this practice. Some journals request open commentaries as a matter of course, which are published together with the original paper, and any authors' reply, in a process called open peer commentary. The introduction of the "epub ahead of print" practice in many journals now allows unsolicited letters to the editor (and authors' reply) to appear in the same print issue of the journal, as long as they are sent in the interval between the electronic publication of the original paper and its appearance in print.
The subject matter of letters to the editor vary widely. However, the most common topics include:
LTEs always have been a feature of American newspapers. Much of the earliest news reports and commentaries published by early-American newspapers were delivered in the form of letters, and by the mid-18th century, LTEs were a dominant carrier of political and social discourse. Many influential essays about the role of government in matters such as personal freedoms and economic development took the form of letters — consider Cato's Letters or Letters from a Farmer in Pennsylvania, which were widely reprinted in early American newspapers. Through the 19th century, LTEs were increasingly centralized near the editorials of newspapers, so that by the turn of the 20th century LTEs had become permanent fixtures of the opinion pages.
Modern LTE forums differ little from those earlier counterparts. A typical forum will include a half-dozen to a dozen letters (or excerpts from letters). The letters chosen for publication usually are only a sample of the total letters submitted, with larger-circulation publications running a much smaller percentage of submissions and small-circulation publications running nearly all of the relatively few letters they receive. Editors generally read all submissions, but in general most will automatically reject letters that include profanity, libelous statements, personal attacks against individuals or specific organizations, that are unreasonably long (most publications suggest length limits ranging from 200 to 500 words) or that are submitted anonymously.
The latter criterion is a fairly recent development in LTE management. Prior to the Cold War paranoia of the mid-20th century, anonymous LTEs were common; in fact, the right to write anonymously was central to the free-press/free-speech movement (as in the 1735 trial against John Peter Zenger, which started with an anonymous essay). By the 1970s, editors had developed strong negative attitudes toward anonymous letters, and by the end of the 20th century, about 94 percent of newspapers automatically rejected anonymous LTEs. Some newspapers in the 1980s and '90s created special anonymous opinion forums that allowed people to either record short verbal opinions via telephone (which were then transcribed and published) or send letters that were either unsigned or where the author used a pseudonym. Although many journalists derided the anonymous call-in forums as unethical (for instance, someone could make an unfounded opinion without worry of the consequences or having to back the comment up with hard facts), defenders argued that such forums upheld the free-press tradition of vigorous, uninhibited debate similar to that found in earlier newspapers.
Although primarily considered a function of print publications, LTEs also are present in electronic media. In broadcast journalism, LTEs have always been a semi-regular feature of 60 Minutes and the news programs of National Public Radio. LTE's also are widespread on the Internet in various forms.
By the early 21st century, the Internet had become a delivery system for many LTEs via e-mail and news Web sites (in fact, after several envelopes containing a powder suspected to be anthrax were mailed to lawmakers and journalists, several news organizations announced they would only accept e-mail LTEs). Because the Internet broadly expanded the potential readership of editorials and opinion columns at small newspapers, their controversial editorials or columns could sometimes attract much more e-mail than they were used to handling — so much so that a few newspapers had their e-mail servers crash.
Editors are a frequent target of letter-writing campaigns, also called “astroturfing,” or “fake grass-roots” operations where sample letters are distributed on the Internet or otherwise, to be copied or rewritten and submitted as personal letters.
Although LTE management gets little attention in trade journals, one organization, the National Conference of Editorial Writers, often includes essays on LTE management in its newsletter, The Masthead, and at its annual meetings. Among the NCEW's strongest champions for LTEs was Ronald D. Clark of the St. Paul Pioneer Press, who wrote, "Consider letters as a barometer of how well (you are) engaging readers or viewers. The more you receive, the more you're connecting. The fewer you receive, the stronger the sign that you're putting the masses to sleep."
On the other hand many editors will allow the publication of anonymous letters where the details of name and address of the author are not printed, but are disclosed to the editor. This can promote a debate of issues that are personal, contentious or embarrassing, yet are of importance to raise in a public debate.
Sometimes a letter to the editor in a local newspaper, such as the Dear IRS letter written by Ed Barnett to the Wichita Falls Times Record News in Wichita Falls, Texas, will end up receiving attention from the national media.
Submitting a letter under a false name to shill in support or to criticize an opponent can have significant consequences. For example, Canadian politician Paul Reitsma's career ended in scandal in 1999, after he signed letters addressed to newspapers as "Warren Betanko" praising himself and attacking his political opponents. His local paper wrote a front-page story under the headline of "MLA Reitsma is a liar and we can prove it."
In 1966 Israel, the Herut Party of then opposition leader Menachem Begin was shaken by scandal when letters sharply attacking Begin, which had been published in major dailies, were proven to have been authored by Begin's rivals for the party leadership and sent to the papers under various aliases and false names. As a result, the rivals were discredited and eventually expelled from the party, which helped buttress Begin's leadership position up to win the 1977 general elections and become Prime Minister of Israel.
The Saxby Gale was a tropical cyclone which struck eastern Canada's Bay of Fundy region on the night of October 4–5, 1869. The storm was named for Lieutenant Stephen Martin Saxby, a naval instructor who, based on his astronomical studies, had predicted extremely high tides in the North Atlantic Ocean on October 1, 1869, which would produce storm surges in the event of a storm.1964 California Proposition 14
California Proposition 14 was a November 1964 ballot proposition that amended the California state constitution, nullifying the Rumford Fair Housing Act. Proposition 14 was declared unconstitutional by the California Supreme Court in 1966. The decision of the California Supreme Court was affirmed by the U.S. Supreme Court in 1967 in Reitman v. Mulkey.Political science research has tied white support for Proposition 14 to "racial threat theory", which holds that an increase in the racial minority population triggers a fearful and discriminatory response by the dominating racial majority.Aeronomy
Aeronomy is the meteorological science of the upper region of the Earth's or other planetary atmospheres, which relates to the atmospheric motions, its chemical composition and properties, and the reaction to it from the environment from space. The term aeronomy was introduced by Sydney Chapman in a Letter to the Editor of Nature entitled Some Thoughts on Nomenclature in 1946. Studies within the subject also investigate the causes of dissociation or ionization processes.Today the term also includes the science of the corresponding regions of the atmospheres of other planets. Aeronomy is a branch of atmospheric physics. Research in aeronomy requires access to balloons, satellites, and sounding rockets which provide valuable data about this region of the atmosphere. Atmospheric tides dominate the dynamics of the mesosphere and lower thermosphere, essential to understanding the atmosphere as a whole. Other phenomena studied are upper-atmospheric lightning discharges, such as red sprites, sprite halos or blue jets.Australian Aborigines' League
The Australian Aborigines' League was established in Melbourne, Australia, in 1934 by William Cooper and others, including Margaret Tucker, Eric Onus, Anna and Caleb Morgan, and Shadrach James.In a Letter to the Editor of the West Australian, the Hon. Secretary of the Australian Aborigines League, William Cooper wrote that, "The plea of our league is "a fair deal for the dark race."An early initiative by the League was to petition King George V for Indigenous Australians to be represented in the Australian Parliament, among other requests. 1,814 signatures were collected on the petition, although it was reported that William Cooper believed many Aboriginal people living on missions were too afraid to add their signature.In 1938 it joined the New South Wales based Aborigines Progressive Association in staging a Day of Mourning on Australia Day (26 January) in Sydney to draw attention to the treatment of Aborigines and to demand full citizenship and equal rights. Mr. W. Ferguson, organising secretary of the Aborigines' Progressive Association of New South Wales, said of the planned national day of mourning: "The aborigines do not want protection... We have been protected for 150 years, and look what has become of us. Scientists have studied us and written books about us as though we were some strange curiosities, but they have not prevented us from contracting tuberculosis and other diseases, which have wiped us out in thousands."On 6 December 1938, following the Kristallnacht pogrom in Germany, a delegation of League members, led by Cooper, went to the German Consulate in Melbourne with a petition protesting against the “cruel persecution of the Jewish people by the Nazi government of Germany”.The League was less active after Cooper’s death in 1941 but was revived after the Second World War by Douglas Nicholls and by Eric and Bill Onus. In the 1960s it became the Victorian branch of the Aborigines Advancement League.Bat Boy (character)
Bat Boy is a fictional creature who made numerous appearances in the American supermarket tabloid Weekly World News. The Weekly World News published patently fabricated stories which were purported to be factual. Within the pages of the paper, Bat Boy is described as a creature who is 'half human and half bat'. His pursuers, according to Weekly World News, are scientists and United States government officials; he is frequently captured, then later makes a daring escape. The original scientist who found him was named Dr. Ron Dillon. Another WWN character, Matthew Daemon, S.O.S. (Seeker of Obscure Supernaturals), crossed paths with him in several stories.
Bat Boy was created by former Weekly World News editor Dick Kulpa and writer Bob Lind. He debuted as a cover story on June 23, 1992. The original front-page photo of Bat Boy, showing his grotesque screaming face, was the second-best selling issue in the tabloid's history, and he has since evolved into a pop-culture icon. He became the tabloid's de facto mascot of sorts. The story of Bat Boy was turned into an Off-Broadway musical, Bat Boy: The Musical.Daily Trojan
The Daily Trojan, or "DT," is the student newspaper of the University of Southern California. The newspaper is a forum for student expression and is written, edited, and managed by university students. The paper is intended to inform USC students, faculty, and staff on the latest news and provide opinion and entertainment. Student writers, editors, photographers and artists can develop their talents and air their opinions while providing a service to the campus community through the Daily Trojan. Readers can interact with the Daily Trojan by commenting on articles online or writing a letter to the editor.Hebephilia
Hebephilia is the strong, persistent sexual interest by adults in pubescent (early adolescent) children (especially those showing Tanner stages 2-3 of development), which is typically ages 11–14. It differs from pedophilia (the primary or exclusive sexual interest in prepubescent children), and from ephebophilia (the primary sexual interest in later adolescents, typically ages 15–19). While individuals with a sexual preference for adults may have some sexual interest in pubescent-aged individuals, researchers and clinical diagnoses have proposed that hebephilia is characterized by a sexual preference for pubescent rather than adult partners.Hebephilia is approximate in its age range because the onset and completion of puberty vary. On average, girls begin the process of puberty at age 10 or 11 while boys begin at age 11 or 12. Partly because puberty varies, some definitions of chronophilias (sexual preference for a specific physiological appearance related to age) show overlap between pedophilia, hebephilia and ephebophilia. For example, the DSM-5 extends the prepubescent age to 13, the ICD-10 includes early pubertal age in its definition of pedophilia, and some definitions of ephebophilia include age 14.
Proposals for categorizing hebephilia have argued that separating sexual attraction to prepubescent children from sexual attraction to early-to-mid or late pubescents is clinically relevant. According to research by Ray Blanchard et al. (2009), male sex offenders could be separated into groups by victim age preference on the basis of penile plethysmograph response patterns. Based on their results, Blanchard suggested that the DSM-5 could account for these data by subdividing the existing diagnosis of pedophilia into hebephilia and a narrower definition of pedophilia. Psychologist Bruce Rind and sociologist Richard Yuill published criticism of the classification of hebephilia as a mental disorder, though their view is that Blanchard et al. successfully established hebephilia as a "genuine sexual preference." They suggested that if hebephilia were listed in the DSM-5, that it be coded as a non-disordered condition that results in significant social problems in present-day society. Blanchard's proposal to add hebephilia to the DSM-5 proved controversial, and was not adopted.Holy cow (expression)
"Holy cow!" (and similar) is an exclamation of surprise used mostly in the United States, Canada, Australia, and England and is a minced oath or euphemism for "Holy Christ!"
The expression dates to at least 1905, and its earliest known appearance was in a tongue-in-cheek letter to the editor: "A lover of the cow writes to this column to protest against a certain variety of Hindu oath having to do with the vain use of the name of the milk producer. There is the profane exclamations, "holy cow!" and, "By the stomach of the eternal cow!"" The phrase appears to have been adopted as a means to avoid penalties for using obscene or indecent language and may have been based on a general awareness of the holiness of cows in some religious traditions.From the Dictionary of American Slang (1960):
Expressions such as "Holy buckets!", "Holy underwear!", etc. also employ a play-on-words, "holy" implying "riddled with holes". Paul Beale, however, revised Eric Partridge's A Dictionary of Catch Phrase and cites a different origin:
The phrase "Holy cow!" was used by baseball players at least as early as 1913 and probably much earlier. It became associated with several American baseball broadcasters. The phrase may have originated with reporter and broadcaster Halsey Hall who worked in Minneapolis, Minnesota from 1919 until his death in 1977. According to Paul Dickson, New Orleans radio announcer Jack Holiday also used the phrase on broadcasts of the minor-league New Orleans Pelicans in the 1930s. Harry Caray was the broadcaster for the St. Louis Cardinals (1945–1969), Oakland Athletics (1970), Chicago White Sox (1971–1981), and Chicago Cubs (1982–1997), and he began using it early in his career in order to prevent himself from lapsing into vulgarity. New York Yankees shortstop and announcer Phil Rizzuto was also well-known for the phrase; when the Yankees honored him following his retirement, the ceremony included a real cow with a halo prop on its head. 1950s Milwaukee Braves broadcaster Earl Gillespie was also known for this expression.
The comic book series Common Grounds was based on the mini-comic Holey Crullers, named after its setting in a coffee and doughnut shop called Holey Crullers.John Becker (politician)
John Becker is a Republican member of the Ohio House of Representatives for the 65th district. He was elected to his first term in November 2012, defeating Democrat Steve Myers with 68.7% of the vote.Becker has also served as a Republican State Central Committee and Clermont County Republican Central Committee member and is a tax accountant and utility consultant. He is married with one child.Becker claims to be the most conservative politician in the Ohio legislature. He introduced bills in 2013 to allow state employees to carry guns on the job in most state buildings and to prohibit law enforcement agencies from destroying firearms confiscated by the police.In 2003, before his election to the legislature, Becker wrote a letter to the editor of the Cincinnati Enquirer pointing out that as Massachusetts had recently allowed same-sex marriage, the federal government to amend the Constitution to prohibit such unions, or failing that expel Massachusetts from the Union. The previous year, in another such letter, he proposed allowing Alaska to leave the Union so that it would be free to produce more oil.Lifeboat sketch
Monty Python's Lifeboat (Cannibalism) sketch appeared on Monty Python's Flying Circus in Episode 26. It was also performed on the album, Another Monty Python Record, retitled "Still No Sign Of Land". The sketch was inspired by the famous 1884 English criminal law case of R v Dudley and Stephens which involved survival cannibalism among castaways after a shipwreck.The sketch features five sailors in a lifeboat, and features several resets where the characters mess up their lines and the whole sketch has to be restarted. The characters, trapped on the lifeboat and starving, decide to resort to cannibalism.
The Captain volunteers himself as victim, but is snubbed by two sailors, who are put off by the Captain's "gammy leg" and who would rather eat the flattered Johnson. All the sailors then begin bickering about who should be eaten first, on the grounds of who's too lean, not kosher, etc.
The argument ends with the planned menu: "Look. I tell you what. Those who want to can eat Johnson. And you, sir, can have my leg. And we make some stock from the Captain, and then we'll have Johnson cold for supper." As a nice addition to the meal, they then conjure up avocados and canned peaches, and call a waitress to their boat to take their order, followed by the studio audience booing.
The sketch is followed by the announcer reading a letter to the editor saying, "Dear Sir, I am glad to hear that your studio audience disapproves of the last skit as strongly as I. As a naval officer I abhor the implication that the Royal Navy is a haven for cannibalism. It is well known that we have the problem relatively under control, and that it is the R.A.F. who now suffer the largest casualties in this area. And what do you think the Argylls ate in Aden? Arabs? Yours etc. Captain B. J. Smethwick in a white wine sauce with shallots, mushrooms and garlic."The letter is followed by a highly cannibalistic Terry Gilliam animated cartoon, a brief plea for decency from Terry Jones in a false moustache, and finally the equally offensive "Undertakers sketch".Living It Up
Living It Up is a 1954 American comedy film starring the team of Dean Martin and Jerry Lewis and released by Paramount Pictures.
The film was directed by Norman Taurog and produced by Paul Jones. The screenplay by Jack Rose and Melville Shavelson was based on the 1953 musical Hazel Flagg by Ben Hecht, which was in turn based on the story "Letter to the Editor" by James H. Street.
An earlier film based on Street's story, Nothing Sacred, had been made in 1937 by Selznick International Pictures (released through United Artists) with Carole Lombard and Fredric March, and directed by William A. Wellman. The 1954 version had original music by Walter Scharf, cinematography by Daniel L. Fapp, art direction by Albert Nozaki and Hal Pereira, and costume design by Edith Head.
Living It Up also features Janet Leigh, Edward Arnold, Fred Clark, Sheree North, and Sig Ruman.Mount Shuksan
Mount Shuksan is a glaciated massif in the North Cascades National Park. Shuksan rises in Whatcom County, Washington immediately to the east of Mount Baker, and 11.6 miles (18.7 km) south of the Canada–US border. The mountain's name Shuksan is derived from the Lummi word [šéqsən], said to mean "high peak". The highest point on the mountain is a three sided peak known as Summit Pyramid.The mountain is composed of Shuksan greenschist, oceanic basalt that was metamorphosed when the Easton terrane collided with the west coast of North America, approximately 120 million years ago. The mountain is an eroded remnant of a thrust plate formed by the Easton collision.
Mount Shuksan may be one of the most photographed mountains in the Cascade Range. Photographs with its reflection in Picture Lake near Mount Baker Ski Area are particularly common. The Mount Baker Highway, State Route 542, is kept open during the winter to support the ski area; in late summer, the road to Artist Point allows visitors to travel a few miles higher for a closer view of the peak.
Sulphide Creek Falls, one of the tallest waterfalls in North America, plunges off the southeastern flank of Mount Shuksan. There are four other tall waterfalls that spill off Mount Shuksan and neighboring Jagged Ridge and Seahpo Peak, mostly sourced from small snowfields and glaciers.
The traditional name of Mount Shuksan in the Nooksack language is Shéqsan ("high foot") or Ch’ésqen ("golden eagle").The first ascent of Mount Shuksan is usually attributed to Asahel Curtis and W. Montelius Price on September 7, 1906. However, in a letter to the editor of the Mazamas club journal, C. E. Rusk attributed the first ascent to Joseph Morowits in 1897 and also stated that he would have attempted it in 1903 if he had not been sure that it had already been climbed.Open letter
An open letter is a letter that is intended to be read by a wide audience, or a letter intended for an individual, but that is nonetheless widely distributed intentionally.Open letters usually take the form of a letter addressed to an individual but provided to the public through newspapers and other media, such as a letter to the editor or blog. Especially common are critical open letters addressed to political leaders.
Currently there are very few sites solely specialising in publishing open letters. However, there are community sites where visitors can publish their own letters and promote them to a wider audience. Sociological or historical research on open letters are also not found, although sociologists, anthropologists and historians have written open letters.Letters patent are another form of open letter in which a legal document is both mailed to a person by the government and publicized so that all are made aware of it. Open letters can also be addressed directly to a group rather than any individual.Position paper
A position paper is an essay that presents an arguable opinion about an issue – typically that of the author or some specified entity. Position papers are published in academia, in politics, in law and other domains. The goal of a position paper is to convince the audience that the opinion presented is valid and worth listening to. Ideas for position papers that one is considering need to be carefully examined when choosing a topic, developing an argument, and organizing the paper.
Position papers range from the simplest format of a letter to the editor, through to the most complex in the form of an academic position paper. Position papers are also used by large organizations to make public the official beliefs and recommendations of the group.Syrian Support Group
The Syrian Support Group (SSG) was a Washington, D.C.-based non-governmental organization that was founded in December 2011 in response to the actions of the Syrian government in the Syrian civil war. The group shut down its operations in August, 2014. The Syrian Support Group was the only organization legally permitted by the U.S. government to provide support directly to the Free Syrian Army (FSA). The Syrian Support Group provided non-lethal aid to units of the FSA which it determined had no affiliation with extremist groups such as the Al-Nusra Front.The Daily Item (Sunbury)
The Daily Item is a daily newspaper in Sunbury, Pennsylvania, covering the Central Susquehanna Valley Region. It is owned by Community Newspaper Holdings Inc.
The Sunbury Daily (founded 1872) and The Evening Item (1893) merged July 1, 1936. Publishing five afternoons per week, The Daily Item was owned by the Dewart family and other local investors until April 15. 1970, when Ottaway Community Newspapers purchased it. Ottaway streamlined and upgraded the newspaper. It built new presses in 1979 and introduced Saturday and Sunday morning editions in the late 1980s. In 2001, the paper bought The Danville News.Community Newspaper Holdings bought The Daily Item and The Danville News in late 2006 from Ottaway Community Newspapers, a division of Dow Jones & Company.In May 2015, the newspaper published a letter to the editor calling for the execution of US President Barack Obama. The newspaper later apologized.The East Hampton Star
The East Hampton Star is a weekly, privately owned newspaper published each Thursday in East Hampton, New York. It is one of the few independent, family-owned newspapers still existing in the United States. The owners live in East Hampton Town.
The newspaper was founded by George Burling in 1885. His naming of the paper, using East Hampton as two words, created the modern spelling of the town's name. (It had been one word, "Easthampton", similar to neighboring Southampton.)The Boughton family started publishing the paper in 1890 when Edward S. Boughton became publisher. It stayed in that family until 1935 when the Rattray family under Arnold E. Rattray began publishing it. Five members of the Rattray family have run the paper: Arnold, Jeannette, Everett (their son), Helen S. Rattray (who has been publisher since 1980) and David E. Rattray, the current editor. Jennifer Landes is the arts editor.The broadsheet is regularly filled with several pages of letters to the editor, because of its policy to publish "every letter to the editor it receives exclusively, with the exception of those sent anonymously, or those judged to be proselytizing, an invasion of privacy, libelous, or obscene." It is one of the first and only newspapers in the nation to print all letters received (that meet these requirements). The paper has reported on emerging issues surrounding development, land preservation, and historic preservation, and it contributes to East Hampton's level of civic activism and engagement in these matters.The Universe (student newspaper)
The Universe (formerly The Daily Universe) is the official student newspaper for Brigham Young University (BYU) and was started in 1956. It was first titled White and Blue (1898-1921), then later became the Y News (1921-1948) then the Brigham Young Universe (1948-1956) and finally to The Daily Universe. The Universe is part of a larger news organization called BYU NewsNet, which was the first integrated (Web, radio, newspaper, and television) news organization in the world.The paper was printed Monday through Friday, except during school breaks and some holidays. It was distributed free of charge on BYU campus and is sent around the world to alumni and friends of the university for a small fee. On January 12, 2012, the BYU Communications Department announced the newspaper's move to digital. Beginning in 2012, content continued to be published online daily while the print newspaper began being published only once a week. Other articles can be found on the website of The Daily Universe.The editors, writers, photographers and copy editors are all students, some paid, some reporting for a journalism class. The opinion pieces in the paper are overseen by an editorial board that includes student staff, professional staff, university professors and local professionals.
One of the paper's most popular features is the letter to the editor section, which routinely becomes a forum for campus issues or ideas. Some issues are argued back and forth for weeks. Topics include parking on campus, Right v. Left politics, dating, the wearing of socks with sandals, and various mistakes stemming from the student editors' collective inexperience.Third Avenue
Third Avenue is a north-south thoroughfare on the East Side of the New York City borough of Manhattan.
Its southern end is at Astor Place and St. Mark's Place. It transitions into Cooper Square, and further south, the Bowery, Chatham Square, and Park Row. The Manhattan side ends at East 128th Street. Third Avenue is two-way from Cooper Square to 24th Street, but since July 17, 1960 has carried only northbound (uptown) traffic while in Manhattan; in the Bronx, it is again two-way. However, the Third Avenue Bridge carries vehicular traffic in the opposite direction, allowing only southbound vehicular traffic, rendering the avenue essentially non-continuous to motor vehicles between the boroughs.
The street leaves Manhattan and continues into the Bronx across the Harlem River over the Third Avenue Bridge north of East 129th Street to East Fordham Road at Fordham Center, where it intersects with U.S. 1. It is one of the four streets that form The Hub, a site of both maximum traffic and architectural density, in the South Bronx.Like most urban streets, Third Avenue was unpaved until the late 19th century. In May 1861, according to a letter to the editor of The New York Times, the street was the scene of practice marching for the poorly equipped troops in the 7th New York Volunteer Infantry Regiment: "The men were not in uniform, but very poorly dressed, — in many cases with flip-flap shoes. The business-like air with which they marched rapidly through the deep mud of the Third-avenue was the more remarkable."