Leslie Stephen

Sir Leslie Stephen, KCB, FBA (28 November 1832 – 22 February 1904) was an English author, critic, historian, biographer, and mountaineer, and father of Virginia Woolf and Vanessa Bell.

Sir Leslie Stephen

Leslie Stephen c1860
Stephen c. 1860
Born28 November 1832
Died22 February 1904 (aged 71)
NationalityEnglish
Spouse(s)
Children
Parent(s)
Relatives

Life

Sir Leslie Stephen came from a distinguished intellectual family,[1] and was born at 14 (later renumbered 42) Hyde Park Gate, Kensington in London, the son of Sir James Stephen and (Lady) Jane Catherine (née Venn) Stephen. His father was Colonial Undersecretary of State and a noted abolitionist. He was the fourth of five children, his siblings including James Fitzjames Stephen (1829–1894) and Caroline Emelia Stephen (1834–1909).

His family had belonged to the Clapham Sect, the early 19th century group of mainly evangelical Christian social reformers. At his father's house he saw a good deal of the Macaulays, James Spedding, Sir Henry Taylor and Nassau Senior. Leslie Stephen was educated at Eton College, King's College London and Trinity Hall, Cambridge, where he graduated B.A. (20th wrangler) in 1854 and M.A. in 1857. He was elected a fellow of Trinity Hall in 1854 and became a junior tutor in 1856.[2] In 1859 he was ordained but his study of philosophy, together with the religious controversies surrounding the publication of The Origin of Species (1859) by Charles Darwin, caused him to lose his faith in 1862, and in 1864 he resigned from his positions at Cambridge, and moved to London. He recounted some of his experiences in a chapter in his Life of Fawcett as well as in some less formal Sketches from Cambridge: By a Don (1865). These sketches were reprinted from the Pall Mall Gazette, to the proprietor of which, George Murray Smith, he had been introduced by his brother.[1]

Marriage

(1) Harriet (Minny) Thackeray 1867–1875

Harriet and Leslie Stephen 1867
Harriet and Leslie Stephen, 1867
Harriet Marian Thackeray Stephen, Kensal Green Cemetery
Harriet's grave, Kensal Green Cemetery

The family connections included that of William Makepeace Thackeray. His brother, Fitzjames had been a friend of Thackeray's and assisted in the disposition of his estate when he died in 1863. His sister Caroline met Thackeray's daughters, Anny (1837–1919) and Minny (Harriet Marian Thackeray 1840–1875) when they were mutual guests of Julia Margaret Cameron (of whom, see later). This led to an invitation to visit from Leslie Stephen's mother, Lady Stephen, where the sisters met him. They also met at George Murray Smith's house at Hampstead. Minny and Leslie became engaged on 4 December 1866 and married on 19 June 1867. After the wedding they travelled to the Swiss Alps and northern Italy, and on return to England lived at the Thackeray sister's home at 16 Onslow Gardens with Anny, who was a novelist. In the spring of 1868 Minny miscarried but recovered sufficiently for the couple to tour the eastern United States. Minny miscarried again in 1869, but became pregnant again in 1870 and on 7 December gave birth to their daughter, Laura Makepeace Stephen (1870–1945). Laura was premature, weighing three pounds. In March 1873 Thackeray and the Stephens moved to 8 Southwell Gardens. The couple travelled extensively, and by 1875 Minny was pregnant again, but this time was in poor health. On 27 November she developed convulsions, and died the following day of eclampsia.[3]

After Minny's death, Leslie Stephen continued to live with Anny, but they moved to 11 Hyde Park gate South in 1876, next door to her widowed friend and collaborator, Julia Duckworth. Leslie Stephen and his daughter were also cared for by his sister, the writer Caroline Emelia Stephen, although Leslie described her as "Silly Milly" and her books as "little works".[4][5][3] Meanwhile, Anny was falling in love with her younger cousin Richmond Ritchie, to Leslie Stephen's consternation. Ritchie became a constant visitor and they became engaged in May 1877, and were married on 2 August. At the same time Leslie Stephen was seeing more and more of Julia Duckworth.

(2) Julia Duckworth 1878–1895

Julia Duckworth in Garden, by Julia Margaret Cameron
Julia Duckworth by Julia Margaret Cameron, 1872

His second marriage was to Julia Prinsep Duckworth (née Jackson, 1846–1895). Julia had been born in India and after returning to England she became a model for Pre-Raphaelite painters such as Edward Burne-Jones.[6] In 1867 she had married Herbert Duckworth (1833 − 1870) by whom she had three children prior to his death in 1870.

Leslie Stephen and Julia Duckworth were married on 26 March 1878. They had four children:

In May 1895, Julia died of influenza, leaving her husband with four young children aged 11 to 15 (her children by her first marriage being adult by then).[7]

Career

In the 1850s, Stephen and his brother James Fitzjames Stephen were invited by Frederick Denison Maurice to lecture at The Working Men's College. Leslie Stephen became a member of the College's governing College Corporation.[8]

Stephen was an Honorary Fellow of Trinity Hall, Cambridge, and received the honorary degree Doctor of Letters (D. Litt.) from the University of Cambridge and from the University of Oxford (November 1901[9]). While at Cambridge, Stephen became an Anglican clergyman. In 1865, having renounced his religious beliefs, and after a visit to the United States two years earlier, where he had formed lasting friendships with Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr., James Russell Lowell and Charles Eliot Norton, he settled in London and became a journalist, eventually editing the Cornhill Magazine in 1871 where R. L. Stevenson, Thomas Hardy, W. E. Norris, Henry James, and James Payn figured among his contributors.

In his spare time, he participated in athletics and mountaineering. He also contributed to the Saturday Review, Fraser, Macmillan, the Fortnightly, and other periodicals. He was already known as a climber, as a contributor to Peaks, Passes and Glaciers (1862), and as one of the earliest presidents of the Alpine Club, when, in 1871, in commemoration of his own first ascents in the Alps, he published The Playground of Europe, which immediately became a mountaineering classic, drawing—together with Whymper's Scrambles Amongst the Alps—successive generations of its readers to the Alps.

During the eleven years of his editorship, in addition to three volumes of critical studies, he made two valuable contributions to philosophical history and theory. The first was The History of English Thought in the Eighteenth Century (1876 and 1881). This work was generally recognised as an important addition to philosophical literature and led immediately to Stephen's election at the Athenaeum Club in 1877. The second was The Science of Ethics (1882). It was extensively adopted as a textbook on the subject and made him the best-known proponent of evolutionary ethics in late-nineteenth-century Britain. He was elected a member of the American Antiquarian Society in 1901.[10]

Stephen also served as the first editor (1885–91) of the Dictionary of National Biography.

He was appointed a Knight Commander of the Order of the Bath (KCB) in the 1902 Coronation Honours list published on 26 June 1902.[11][12]

Mountaineering

Sir Leslie Stephen by George Frederic Watts 1878.jpeg
Leslie Stephen painted by George Frederic Watts, 1878.

Stephen was one of the most prominent figures in the golden age of alpinism (the period between Wills's ascent of the Wetterhorn in 1854 and Whymper's ascent of the Matterhorn in 1865) during which many major alpine peaks saw their first ascents. Joining the Alpine Club in 1857 (the year of its formation), Stephen made the first ascent, usually in the company of his favourite Swiss guide Melchior Anderegg, of the following peaks:

  • Wildstrubel – 11 September 1858 with T. W. Hinchliff and Melchior Anderegg
  • Bietschhorn – 13 August 1859 with Anton Siegen, Johann Siegen and Joseph Ebener
  • Rimpfischhorn – 9 September 1859 with Robert Living, Melchior Anderegg and Johann Zumtaugwald
  • Alphubel – 9 August 1860 with T. W. Hinchliff, Melchior Anderegg and Peter Perren
  • Blüemlisalphorn – 27 August 1860 with Robert Living, Melchior Anderegg, F. Ogi, P. Simond and J. K. Stone
  • Schreckhorn – 16 August 1861 with Ulrich Kaufmann, Christian Michel and Peter Michel
  • Monte Disgrazia – 23 August 1862 with E. S. Kennedy, Thomas Cox and Melchior Anderegg
  • Zinalrothorn – 22 August 1864 with Florence Crauford Grove, Jakob Anderegg and Melchior Anderegg
  • Mont Mallet – 4 September 1871 with G. Loppe, F. A. Wallroth, Melchior Anderegg, Ch. and A. Tournier

He was President of the Alpine Club from 1865–68.

List of selected publications

  • The Poll Degree from a Third Point of View (1863).
  • The "Times" on the American War: A Historical Study (1865).
  • Sketches from Cambridge (1865).
  • The Playground of Europe (1871).
  • Essays on Free Thinking and Plain Speaking (1873).
  • Hours in a Library (3 vols., 1874–1879).
  • The History of English Thought in the Eighteenth Century (2 vols., 1876).
  • Samuel Johnson (1878).
  • Swift (1882).
  • The Science of Ethics (1882).
  • Life of Henry Fawcett (1885).[13]
  • An Agnostic's Apology and Other Essays (London: Smith, Elder and Company, 1893).
  • Sir Victor Brooke, Sportsman and Naturalist (1894).
  • The Life of Sir James Fitzjames Stephen, Bart., K.C.S.I. (1895).
  • Social Rights and Duties (1896).
  • Studies of a Biographer (4 volumes, 1898–1902).
  • The English Utilitarians (1900).
  • George Eliot (London: Macmillan, 1902).
  • English Literature and Society in the Eighteenth Century (Ford Lectures) (London: Duckworth and Company, 1903, 1904).
  • Hobbes (1904).
  • Stephen, Leslie (1977). Bell, Alan S, ed. Sir Leslie Stephen's Mausoleum Book. Clarendon Press. ISBN 978-0-19-812084-1.

Death

The grave of Sir Leslie Stephen, Highgate Cemetery, London
Leslie Stephen's grave, Highgate Cemetery

He died in Kensington and is buried in the eastern section of Highgate Cemetery in the raised section alongside the northern path. His daughter, Virginia Woolf, was badly affected by his death and she was cared for by his sister, Caroline.[4] Woolf in 1922 created a detailed psychological portrait of him in the fictional character of Mr. Ramsay in her classic novel, To the Lighthouse, (as well as of her mother as Mrs. Ramsay). (Ref: The Diaries and Letters of Virginia Woolf) His probate is worded: STEPHEN sir Leslie of 22 Hyde Park-gate Middlesex K.C.B. probate London 23 March to George Herbert Duckworth and Gerald de L'Etang Duckworth esquires Effects £15715 6s. 6d.[14]

Family tree

For Family Trees of the Stephens, Thackerays and Jacksons, see Bicknell (1996)[15] and Bloom and Maynard (1994).[16]

References

  1. ^ a b Luebering 2006.
  2. ^ ACAD & STFN850L.
  3. ^ a b Bicknell 1996.
  4. ^ a b Lewis, Alison M (Spring 2001). "Caroline Stephen and her niece, Virginia Woolf". JOURNAL OF THE FELLOWSHIP OF QUAKERS IN THE ARTS (21). Retrieved 10 December 2015.
  5. ^ Bloom & Maynard 1994.
  6. ^ Smith College libraries biography of Julia Prinsep Stephen
  7. ^ Gérin 1981, p. 178.
  8. ^ J. F. C. Harrison, A History of the Working Men's College (1854–1954), Routledge Kegan Paul (1954)
  9. ^ "University intelligence". The Times (36623). London. 27 November 1901. p. 6.
  10. ^ American Antiquarian Society Members Directory
  11. ^ "The Coronation Honours". The Times (36804). London. 26 June 1902. p. 5.
  12. ^ "No. 27453". The London Gazette. 11 July 1902. p. 4441.
  13. ^ "Review: Life of Henry Fawcett by Leslie Stephen". Westminster Review. 125: 83–95. 1886.
  14. ^ Archives 2018.
  15. ^ Bicknell 1996, p. 1.
  16. ^ Bloom & Maynard 1994, p. xx.
  17. ^ Bell 1972, Family Tree pp. x–xi
  18. ^ Venn 1904.

Bibliography

Websites

Anne Thackeray Ritchie

External links

External images

1700 in Ireland

Events from the year 1700 in Ireland.

1727 in Ireland

Events from the year 1727 in Ireland.

Alphubel

The Alphubel (4,206 m) is a mountain of the Swiss Pennine Alps, located between the valleys of Zermatt and Saas in the canton of Valais. It is part of the Mischabel range, which culminates at the Dom (4,545 m). The summit of the Alphubel consists of a large ice-covered plateau, part of the Fee Glacier on its east side. The west side of the mountain is more rocky and much steeper. It overlooks the Weingartensee.

The nearest settlements are Täsch (north of Zermatt) and Saas-Fee.

The first ascent of the mountain was by Leslie Stephen and T. W. Hinchliff with guides Melchior Anderegg and Peter Perren on 9 August 1860, starting at Täsch and via the south-east ridge and the Alphubeljoch.

Bietschhorn

The Bietschhorn (3,934 m) is a mountain in canton Wallis to the south of the Bernese Alps in Switzerland. The northeast and southern slopes of the mountain are part of the Jungfrau-Aletsch Protected Area (formerly Jungfrau-Aletsch-Bietschhorn) listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site that also includes the Jungfrau and the Aletsch Glacier. The Bietschhorn is located on the south side of the Lötschental valley and form part of the UNESCO World Heritage Region at the north end of the Bietschtal valley and Baltschiedertal valley. Most climbers approach the mountain from either the Bietschhornhütte or the Baltschiederklause.

It was first climbed on 13 August 1859 by Leslie Stephen, with guides Anton Siegen, Johann Siegen and Joseph Ebener. An account of this first ascent was published by Leslie Stephen in his book The Playground of Europe (1871).

Bregaglia Range

The Bregaglia Range (commonly the Bregaglia) is a small group of mostly granite mountains in Graubünden, Switzerland and the Province of Sondrio, northern Italy. It derives its name from the partly Swiss, partly Italian valley, the Val Bregaglia, and is known as Bergell in German. Other names which are applied to the range include the Val Masino Alps and, to describe the main ridge, Masino-Bregaglia-Disgrazia. Vicosoprano (1,067 m) is the main settlement in the Swiss part of the range.

The range is a popular mountaineering destination, and includes such peaks as Monte Disgrazia, Piz Cengalo and Piz Badile. Well-known mountaineers who are associated with the area and have made significant first ascents in the range include Leslie Stephen, D. W. Freshfield, W. A. B. Coolidge, Christian Klucker, Paul Güssfeldt and Riccardo Cassin.

A cable-car service runs from Pranzaira to the Albigna lake, and the Albigna hut (2,331 m) is a further 30–45-minute walk up the east side of the barrage.

English Men of Letters

English Men of Letters was a series of literary biographies written by leading literary figures of the day and published by Macmillan, under the general editorship of John Morley. The original series was launched in 1878, with Leslie Stephen's biography of Samuel Johnson, and ran until 1892. A second series, again under the general editorship of Morley, was published between 1902 and 1919.

Golden age of alpinism

The golden age of alpinism was the decade in mountaineering between Alfred Wills's ascent of the Wetterhorn in 1854 and Edward Whymper's ascent of the Matterhorn in 1865, during which many major peaks in the Alps saw their first ascents.

Julia Stephen

Julia Prinsep Stephen (née Jackson; 7 February 1846 – 5 May 1895) was a celebrated English woman, noted for her beauty as a Pre-Raphaelite model and philanthropist. She was the wife of the agnostic biographer Leslie Stephen and mother of Virginia Woolf and Vanessa Bell, members of the Bloomsbury Group.

Julia Jackson was born in Calcutta to an Anglo-Indian family, and when she was two her mother and her two sisters moved back to England. She became the favourite model of her aunt, the celebrated photographer Julia Margaret Cameron, who made more than 50 portraits of her. Through another maternal aunt, she became a frequent visitor at Little Holland House, then home to an important literary and artistic circle, and came to the attention of a number of Pre-Raphaelite painters who portrayed her in their work. Married to Herbert Duckworth, a barrister, in 1867 she was soon widowed with three infant children. Devastated, she turned to nursing, philanthropy and agnosticism, and found herself attracted to the writing and life of Leslie Stephen, with whom she shared a mutual friend in Anny Thackeray, his sister-in-law.

After Leslie Stephen's wife died in 1875 he became close friends with Julia and they married in 1878. Julia and Leslie Stephen had four further children, living at 22 Hyde Park Gate, South Kensington, together with his seven year old handicapped daughter. Many of her seven children and their descendants became notable. In addition to her family duties and modelling, she wrote a book based on her nursing experiences, Notes from Sick Rooms, in 1883. She also wrote children's stories for her family, eventually published posthumously as Stories for Children and became involved in social justice advocacy. Julia Stephens had firm views on the role of women, namely that their work was of equal value to that of men, but in different spheres, and she opposed the suffrage movement for votes for women. The Stephens entertained many visitors at their London home and their summer residence at St Ives, Cornwall. Eventually the demands on her both at home and outside the home started to take their toll. Julia Stephen died at her home following an episode of influenza in 1895, at the age of 49, when her youngest child was only 11. The writer, Virginia Woolf, provides a number of insights into the domestic life of the Stephens in both her autobiographical and fictional work.

L. Stephen Coles

Leslie Stephen Coles (January 19, 1941 – December 3, 2014) was the co-founder and executive director of the Gerontology Research Group where he conducted research on supercentenarians and on aging. He was also a visiting scholar in the computer science department at the University of California, Los Angeles and an assistant researcher in the Department of Surgery, at the David Geffen School of Medicine. Coles had an M.D. and Ph.D..

Leslie Stephen-Smith

Leslie Stephen-Smith (13 October 1904 — 22 May 1988) was an English-born New Zealand cricketer. He was a wicket-keeper who played for Auckland. He was born in Marlow and died in Auckland.

Stephen-Smith made two first-class appearances for the team during the 1931-32 season. He made two scores of 9 runs on his debut first-class appearance, against Otago, and scored 10 runs in two innings in his second and final first-class appearance, just a week later, against Canterbury.

Leslie Stephen Wright

Leslie Stephen Wright (1913–1997) was an American educator. He served as the President of Samford University in Birmingham, Alabama from 1958 to 1983.

Leslie Stevens

For the editor of the United Kingdom Dictionary of National Biography and father of Virginia Woolf, see Sir Leslie Stephen.Leslie Clark Stevens IV (February 3, 1924 – April 24, 1998) was an American producer, writer, and director. He created two television series for the ABC network, The Outer Limits (1963–1965) and Stoney Burke (1962–63), and Search (1972–73) for NBC. Stevens was the director of the horror film Incubus (1966), which stars William Shatner, and was the second film to use the Esperanto language. He wrote an early work of New Age philosophy, est: The Steersman Handbook (1970).

Melchior Anderegg

Melchior Anderegg (28 March 1828 – 8 December 1914), from Zaun, Meiringen, was a Swiss mountain guide and the first ascensionist of many prominent mountains in the western Alps during the golden and silver ages of alpinism. His clients were mostly British, the most famous of whom was Leslie Stephen, the writer, critic and mountaineer; Anderegg also climbed extensively with members of the Walker family, including Horace Walker and Lucy Walker, and with Florence Crauford Grove. His cousin Jakob Anderegg was also a well-known guide.

Monte Disgrazia

Monte Disgrazia (3,678 m) is a mountain in the Bregaglia range in the Italian Alps. It is the highest peak in the Val Masino group, situated south of the Bernina Range.

It has five glaciers and five wild ridges and is a demanding climb.

The first ascent was by Leslie Stephen, E. S. Kennedy and Thomas Cox with guide Melchior Anderegg on 23 August 1862. Their route over the Preda Rossa glacier and the northwest ridge is the easiest one and has remained the normal climbing route.

Noel Annan, Baron Annan

Noel Gilroy Annan, Baron Annan, OBE (25 December 1916 – 21 February 2000) was a British military intelligence officer, author, and academic. During his military career, he rose to the rank of colonel and was appointed to the Order of the British Empire as an Officer (OBE). He was provost of King's College, Cambridge, 1956–66, provost of University College London, 1966–78, vice-chancellor of the University of London, and a member of the House of Lords.

Annan's publications include Leslie Stephen (1951)—awarded the James Tait Black Memorial Prize, Roxburgh of Stowe (1965), Our Age (1990), described by Professor John Gray in the New Statesman as a "marvellous compendium of the higher gossip", Changing Enemies (1995), and The Dons (1999). His best-known essay is "The Intellectual Aristocracy", which illustrates, according to Robert Fulford in the National Post, the "web of kinship that united British intellectuals (the Darwins, Huxleys, Macaulays, etc.) in the 19th and early 20th centuries."

Rimpfischhorn

The Rimpfischhorn (4,199 m) is a mountain in the Pennine Alps of Switzerland.

The first ascent of the mountain was by Leslie Stephen and Robert Living with guides Melchior Anderegg and Johann Zumtaugwald on 9 September 1859. Their route of ascent was from Fluh Alp via the Rimpfischwänge.

The Hand of Ethelberta

The Hand of Ethelberta: A Comedy in Chapters is a novel by Thomas Hardy, published in 1876. It was written, in serial form, for the Cornhill Magazine, which was edited by Leslie Stephen, a friend and mentor of Hardy's. Unlike the majority of Hardy's fiction, the novel is a comedy, with both humour and a happy ending for the major characters and no suicides or tragic deaths. The late nineteenth century novelist George Gissing, who knew Hardy, considered it 'surely old Hardy's poorest book'.

Thoby Stephen

Julian Thoby Stephen (9 September 1880 – 20 November 1906), known as the Goth, was the brother of Vanessa Bell and Virginia Woolf, both prominent members of the Bloomsbury Group, and of Adrian Stephen.

Thoby Stephen was the eldest son of Leslie Stephen and Julia Prinsep Stephen. The result of his mother's second marriage, he was also a half-brother of George and Gerald Duckworth, her sons with Herbert Duckworth, her first husband.

Stephen was educated at Clifton College, after failing to gain a place at Eton. However, this did not hold him back, since he won an exhibition to Trinity College, Cambridge, from Clifton. He was a friend of Lytton Strachey, who was enchanted by his masculinity and introduced him to the "Reading Club". He was described as "over six feet tall and of somewhat ponderous build".

Stephen is credited with starting the Bloomsbury Group's Thursday evening gatherings.He was expected to distinguish himself, but he contracted typhoid at the age of 26 while on holiday in Greece, and died shortly after he was brought back to England.

Vanessa Bell's eldest son, the poet Julian Bell, was named after him.Woolf's 1931 novel The Waves is considered by some critics to make significant reference to Thoby Stephen.

Virginia Woolf

Adeline Virginia Woolf (; née Stephen; 25 January 1882 – 28 March 1941) was an English writer, considered one of the most important modernist 20th-century authors and also a pioneer in the use of stream of consciousness as a narrative device.

Woolf was born into an affluent household in South Kensington, London, the seventh child in a blended family of eight. Her mother, Julia Prinsep Jackson, celebrated as a Pre-Raphaelite artist's model, had three children from her first marriage, while Woolf's father, Leslie Stephen, a notable man of letters, had one previous daughter. The Stephens produced another four children, including the modernist painter Vanessa Bell. While the boys in the family received college educations, the girls were home-schooled in English classics and Victorian literature. An important influence in Virginia Woolf's early life was the summer home the family used in St Ives, Cornwall, where she first saw the Godrevy Lighthouse, which was to become iconic in her novel To the Lighthouse (1927).

Woolf's childhood came to an abrupt end in 1895 with the death of her mother and her first mental breakdown, followed two years later by the death of her stepsister and surrogate mother, Stella Duckworth. From 1897 to 1901, she attended the Ladies' Department of King's College London, where she studied classics and history and came into contact with early reformers of women's higher education and the women's rights movement. Other important influences were her Cambridge-educated brothers and unfettered access to her father's vast library.

Encouraged by her father, Woolf began writing professionally in 1900. Her father's death in 1905 caused another mental breakdown for Woolf. Following his death, the Stephen family moved from Kensington to the more bohemian Bloomsbury, where they adopted a free-spirited lifestyle. It was in Bloomsbury where, in conjunction with the brothers' intellectual friends, the Stephens formed the artistic and literary Bloomsbury Group.

Following her 1912 marriage to Leonard Woolf, the couple founded the Hogarth Press in 1917, which published much of her work. The couple rented a home in Sussex and moved there permanently in 1940. Throughout her life, Woolf was troubled by bouts of mental illness. She was institutionalized several times and attempted suicide at least twice. Her illness is considered to have been bipolar disorder, for which there was no effective intervention during her lifetime. At age 59, Woolf committed suicide in 1941 by putting rocks in her coat pockets and drowning herself in a river.

During the interwar period, Woolf was an important part of London's literary and artistic society. In 1915 she published her first novel, The Voyage Out, through her half-brother's publishing house, Gerald Duckworth and Company. Her best-known works include the novels Mrs Dalloway (1925), To the Lighthouse (1927) and Orlando (1928). She is also known for her essays, including A Room of One's Own (1929), in which she wrote the much-quoted dictum, "A woman must have money and a room of her own if she is to write fiction."

Woolf became one of the central subjects of the 1970s movement of feminist criticism and her works have since garnered much attention and widespread commentary for "inspiring feminism." Her works have been translated into more than 50 languages. A large body of literature is dedicated to her life and work, and she has been the subject of plays, novels and films. Woolf is commemorated today by statues, societies dedicated to her work and a building at the University of London.

Stephen Family Tree[17][18]
Robert Wilberforce
1728–1768
Elizabeth Bird
1730–1798
m.(1) 1783
Anna Stent
1758–1790
James Stephen
1758–1832
m.(2) 1800
Sarah Wilberforce
1757–1816
William Wilberforce
1759–1833
John Venn
1759–1813
m. 1789
Katherine King
1760–1803
William Makepeace Thackeray
1811–1863
m. 1836
Isabella Gethin Shawe
1816–1893
James
1789–1859
1814
Jane Catherine Venn
1793–1875
m. 1877
Richmond Ritchie
Annie
1837–1919
m.(1)
Harriet Marian Thackeray
1840–1875
Leslie
1832−1904
m.(2) 1878
Julia Duckworth
1846–1895
James Fitzjames
1829–1894
Caroline
1834–1909
Laura
1870–1945
4
see Julia Stephen
Novels
Short stories
Drama
Biographies
Essays
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