Leopold I, Holy Roman Emperor

Leopold I (full name: Leopold Ignaz Joseph Balthasar Felician; Hungarian: I. Lipót; 9 June 1640 – 5 May 1705) was Holy Roman Emperor, King of Hungary, Croatia, and Bohemia. The second son of Ferdinand III, Holy Roman Emperor, by his first wife, Maria Anna of Spain, Leopold became heir apparent in 1654 by the death of his elder brother Ferdinand IV. Elected in 1658, Leopold ruled the Holy Roman Empire until his death in 1705, becoming the longest-ruling Habsburg emperor (at 46 years and 9 months).

Leopold's reign is known for conflicts with the Ottoman Empire in the east and rivalry with Louis XIV, a contemporary and first cousin, in the west. After more than a decade of warfare, Leopold emerged victorious from the Great Turkish War thanks to the military talents of Prince Eugene of Savoy. By the Treaty of Karlowitz, Leopold recovered almost all of the Kingdom of Hungary, which had fallen under Turkish power in the years after the 1526 Battle of Mohács.

Leopold fought three wars against France: the Franco-Dutch War, the Nine Years' War, and the War of the Spanish Succession. In this last, Leopold sought to give his younger son the entire Spanish inheritance, disregarding the will of the late Charles II. Leopold started a war that soon engulfed much of Europe. The early years of the war went fairly well for Austria, with victories at Schellenberg and Blenheim, but the war would drag on until 1714, nine years after Leopold's death, which barely had an effect on the warring nations. When peace returned, Austria could not be said to have emerged as triumphant as it had from the war against the Turks.

Leopold I
Benjamin von Block 001
Portrait by Benjamin von Block, 1672; notice the Habsburg lip on the Emperor
Reign18 July 1658 – 5 May 1705
Coronation1 August 1658, Frankfurt
PredecessorFerdinand III
SuccessorJoseph I
Born9 June 1640
Vienna, Austria
Died5 May 1705 (aged 64)
Vienna, Austria
Full name
Leopold Ignaz Joseph Balthasar Felician
FatherFerdinand III, Holy Roman Emperor
MotherMaria Anna of Austria
ReligionRoman Catholicism

Early years

Seal of Leopold I Holy Roman Emperor
Seal of Leopold I

Born on 9 June 1640 in Vienna, Leopold received a careful education by excellent teachers. From an early age Leopold showed an inclination toward learning.[1] He became fluent in several languages: Latin, Italian, German, French, and Spanish. In addition to German, Italian would be the most favored language at his court. Leopold was schooled in the classics, history, literature, natural science and astronomy, and was particularly interested in music, as was his father.[1]

Leopold had received an ecclesiastical education and was originally intended for the Church, until plans changed on 9 July 1654 when smallpox took his elder brother Ferdinand and made Leopold heir apparent.[2] Nonetheless, Leopold's church education had clearly marked him. Leopold remained influenced by the Jesuits and his education throughout his life, and was uncommonly knowledgeable for a monarch about theology, metaphysics, jurisprudence and the sciences. He also retained his interest in astrology and alchemy which he had developed under Jesuit tutors.[2] A deeply religious and devoted person, Leopold personified the pietas Austriaca, or the loyally Catholic attitude of his House. On the other hand, his piety and education may have caused in him a fatalistic strain which inclined him to reject all compromise on denominational questions, not always a positive characteristic in a ruler.[3]

Europe map 1648
Europe after the Peace of Westphalia in 1648

Leopold was said to have typically Habsburg physical attributes. Short, thin, and of sickly constitution, Leopold was cold and reserved in public, and socially awkward. However, he is also said to have been open with close associates. Coxe described Leopold in the following manner: "His gait was stately, slow and deliberate; his air pensive, his address awkward, his manner uncouth, his disposition cold and phlegmatic."[4] Spielman argues that his long-expected career in the clergy caused Leopold to have "early adopted the intense Catholic piety expected of him and the gentle manners appropriate to a merely supporting role. He grew to manhood without the military ambition that characterized most of his fellow monarchs. From the beginning, his reign was defensive and profoundly conservative."[5]

Hungary elected Leopold as its king in 1655, with Bohemia and Croatia following suit in 1656 and 1657 respectively. In July 1658, more than a year after his father's death, Leopold was elected Emperor at Frankfurt in spite of the French minister, Cardinal Mazarin, who sought to put the Imperial Crown on the head of Ferdinand Maria, Elector of Bavaria, or some other non-Habsburg prince. To conciliate France, which had considerable influence in German affairs thanks to the League of the Rhine, the newly elected Emperor promised not to assist Spain, then at war with France.[6] This marked the beginning of a nearly 47-year career filled with rivalry with France and its king, Louis XIV. The latter's dominant personality and power completely overshadowed Leopold, even to this day, but though Leopold did not lead his troops in person as Louis XIV did, he was no less a warrior-king given the greater part of his public life was directed towards the arrangement and prosecution of wars.

Second Northern War

Leopold's first war was the Second Northern War (1655–1660), in which King Charles X of Sweden tried to become King of Poland with the aid of allies including György II Rákóczi, Prince of Transylvania. Leopold's predecessor, Ferdinand III, had allied with King John II Casimir Vasa of Poland in 1656. In 1657, Leopold expanded this alliance to include Austrian troops (paid by Poland). These troops helped defeat the Transylvanian army, and campaigned as far as Denmark. The war ended with the Treaty of Oliwa in 1660.

Early wars against the Ottoman Empire

The Ottoman Empire often interfered in the affairs of Transylvania, always an unruly district, and this interference brought on a war with the Holy Roman Empire, which after some desultory operations really began in 1663. By a personal appeal to the diet at Regensburg Leopold induced the princes to send assistance for the campaign; troops were also sent by France, and in August 1664, the great Imperial general Raimondo Montecuccoli gained a notable victory at Saint Gotthard. By the Peace of Vasvár the Emperor made a twenty years' truce with the Sultan, granting more generous terms than his recent victory seemed to render necessary.

Wars against France

Pietro Liberi or Guido Cagnacci (attr.) - Emperor Leopold I in coronation armor
Leopold I, painted by Guido Cagnacci (1657-1658)

After a few years of peace came the first of three wars between France and the Empire. The aggressive policy pursued by Louis XIV towards the Dutch Republic had aroused the serious attention of Europe, and steps had been taken to check it. Although the French king had sought the alliance of several German princes and encouraged the Ottomans in their attacks on Austria the Emperor at first took no part in this movement. He was on friendly terms with Louis, to whom he was closely related and with whom he had already discussed the partition of the lands of the Spanish monarchy. Moreover, in 1671, he arranged with him a treaty of neutrality.

In 1672, however, he was forced to take action. He entered into an alliance for the defence of the United Provinces during the Franco-Dutch War; then, after this league had collapsed owing to the defection of the elector of Brandenburg, the more durable Quadruple Alliance was formed for the same purpose, including, besides the emperor, the king of Spain and several German princes, and the war was renewed. At this time, twenty-five years after the Peace of Westphalia, the Empire was virtually a confederation of independent princes, and it was very difficult for its head to conduct any war with vigor and success, some of its members being in alliance with the enemy and others being only lukewarm in their support of the imperial interests. Thus this struggle, which lasted until the end of 1678, was on the whole unfavourable to Germany, and the advantages of the Treaty of Nijmegen were mostly with France. It can however be argued that the imperial intervention saved the Netherlands from a complete French invasion.

Holy Roman Emperor
Leopold I Arms-imperial
Coats of arms

Almost immediately after the conclusion of peace Louis renewed his aggressions on the German frontier through the Réunions policy. Engaged in a serious struggle with the Ottoman Empire, the emperor was again slow to move, and although he joined the Association League against France in 1682 he was glad to make a truce at Regensburg two years later. In 1686 the League of Augsburg was formed by the emperor and the imperial princes, to preserve the terms of the treaties of Westphalia and of Nijmegen. The whole European position was now bound up with events in England, and the tension lasted until 1688, when William III of Orange won the English crown through the Glorious Revolution and Louis invaded Germany. In May 1689, the Grand Alliance was formed, including the emperor, the kings of England, Spain and Denmark, the elector of Brandenburg and others, and a fierce struggle against France was waged throughout almost the whole of western Europe. In general the several campaigns were favourable to the allies, and in September 1697, England, Spain and the United Provinces made peace with France at the Treaty of Rijswijk.

Leopold refused to assent to the treaty, as he considered that his allies had somewhat neglected his interests, but in the following month he came to terms and a number of places were transferred from France to Germany. The peace with France lasted for about four years and then Europe was involved in the War of the Spanish Succession. The king of Spain, Charles II, was a Habsburg by descent and was related by marriage to the Austrian branch, while a similar tie bound him to the royal house of France. He was feeble and childless, and attempts had been made by the European powers to arrange for a peaceable division of his extensive kingdom. Leopold refused to consent to any partition, and when in November 1700 Charles died, leaving his crown to Philippe de France, Duke of Anjou, a grandson of Louis XIV, all hopes of a peaceable settlement vanished. Under the guidance of William III a powerful league, a renewed Grand Alliance, was formed against France; of this the emperor was a prominent member, and in 1703 he transferred his claim on the Spanish monarchy to his second son, Charles. The early course of the war was not favorable to the Imperialists, but the tide of defeat had been rolled back by the great victory of Blenheim before Leopold died on 5 May 1705.

Internal problems

Trieste Piazza-della-Borsa
Leopold I column (1673) in Trieste

The emperor himself defined the guidelines of the politics. Johann Weikhard Auersperg was overthrown in 1669 as the leading minister. He was followed by Wenzel Eusebius Lobkowicz. Both had arranged some connections to France without the knowledge of the emperor. In 1674 also Lobkowicz lost his appointment.[7]

In governing his own lands Leopold found his chief difficulties in Hungary, where unrest was caused partly by his desire to crush Protestantism and partly by the so-called Magnate conspiracy. A rising was suppressed in 1671 and for some years Hungary was treated with great severity. In 1681, after another rising, some grievances were removed and a less repressive policy was adopted, but this did not deter the Hungarians from revolting again. Espousing the cause of the rebels the sultan sent an enormous army into Austria early in 1683; this advanced almost unchecked to Vienna, which was besieged from July to September, while Leopold took refuge at Passau. Realizing the gravity of the situation somewhat tardily, some of the German princes, among them the electors of Saxony and Bavaria, led their contingents to the Imperial Army, which was commanded by the emperor's brother-in-law, Charles, duke of Lorraine, but the most redoubtable of Leopold's allies was the king of Poland, John III Sobieski, who was already dreaded by the Turks. Austrian forces occupied the castle of Trebišov in 1675, but in 1682 Imre Thököly captured it and then fled from continuous Austrian attacks, so they blew the castle up, since then it is in ruins. They fled as supposedly Hungarian rebel troops under the command of Imre Thököly, cooperating with the Turks, and sacked the city of Bielsko in 1682. In 1692, Leopold gave up his rights to the property and he gave his rights to the property by a donation to Theresia Keglević.[8][9]

He also expelled Jewish communities from his realm, for example the Viennese Jewish community, which used to live in an area called "Im Werd" across the Danube river. After the expulsion of the Jewish population, with popular support, the area was renamed Leopoldstadt as a thanksgiving. But Frederick William I, Elector of Brandenburg, issued an edict in 1677, in which he announced his special protection for 50 families of these expelled Jews.

Success against the Turks and in Hungary

Atlas Van der Hagen-KW1049B10 050-De belegering van Wenen door de Turken in 1683.jpeg
The Battle of Vienna marked the historic end of the expansion of the Ottoman Empire into Europe.

On 12 September 1683, the allied army fell upon the enemy, who was completely routed, and Vienna was saved. The imperial forces, among whom Prince Eugene of Savoy was rapidly becoming prominent, followed up the victory with others, notably one near Mohács in 1687 and another at Zenta in 1697, and in January 1699, the sultan signed the treaty of Karlowitz by which he admitted the sovereign rights of the house of Habsburg over nearly the whole of Hungary (including Serbs in Vojvodina). As the Habsburg forces retreated, they withdrew 37,000 Serb families under Patriarch Arsenije III Čarnojević of the Serbian Patriarchate of Peć. In 1690 and 1691 Emperor Leopold I had conceived through a number of edicts (Privileges) the autonomy of Serbs in his Empire, which would last and develop for more than two centuries until its abolition in 1912. Before the conclusion of the war, however, Leopold had taken measures to strengthen his hold upon this country. In 1687, the Hungarian diet in Pressburg (now Bratislava) changed the constitution, the right of the Habsburgs to succeed to the throne without election was admitted and the emperor's elder son Joseph I was crowned hereditary king of Hungary.

The Holy Roman Empire

The Peace of Westphalia in 1648 had been a political defeat for the Habsburgs. It ended the idea that Europe was a single Christian empire; governed spiritually by the Pope and temporally by the Holy Roman Emperor. Moreover, the treaty was devoted to parceling out land and influence to the "winners", the anti-Habsburg alliance led by France and Sweden. However, the Habsburgs did gain some benefits out of the wars; the Protestant aristocracy in Habsburg territories had been decimated, and the ties between Vienna and the Habsburg domains in Bohemia and elsewhere were greatly strengthened. These changes would allow Leopold to initiate necessary political and institutional reforms during his reign to develop somewhat of an absolutist state along French lines. The most important consequences of the war was in retrospect to weaken the Habsburgs as emperors but strengthen them in their own lands. Leopold was the first to realize this altered state of affairs and act in accordance with it.[10]

Administrative reform

The reign of Leopold saw some important changes made in the constitution of the Empire. In 1663 the imperial diet entered upon the last stage of its existence, and became a body permanently in session at Regensburg. This perpetual diet would become a vital tool for consolidation of Habsburg power under Leopold.[11]

Political changes

In 1692, the duke of Hanover was raised to the rank of an elector, becoming the ninth member of the electoral college. In 1700, Leopold, greatly in need of help for the impending war with France, granted the title of king in Prussia to the elector of Brandenburg. The net result of these and similar changes was to weaken the authority of the emperor over the members of the Empire and to compel him to rely more and more upon his position as ruler of the Austrian archduchies and of Hungary and Bohemia.

Character and overall assessment

Leopold was a man of industry and education, and during his later years, he showed some political ability. Regarding himself as an absolute sovereign, he was extremely tenacious of his rights. Greatly influenced by the Jesuits, he was a staunch proponent of the Counter-Reformation. In person, he was short, but strong and healthy. Although he had no inclination for a military life, he loved exercise in the open air, such as hunting and riding; he also had a taste and talent for music and composed several Oratorios and Suites of Dances.

Perhaps due to inbreeding among his progenitors, the hereditary Habsburg jaw was most prominent in Leopold. Because his jaw was depicted unusually large on a 1670 silver coin, Leopold was nicknamed "the Hogmouth"; however, most collectors do not believe the coin was an accurate depiction.

Private life

Jan Thomas - Leopold I as Acis in the play "La Galatea"
Leopold I in costume as Acis in La Galatea (1667, by Jan Thomas van Ieperen).
Detail sarcophagus Leopold I Kaisergruft Vienna
Detail of sarcophagus of Leopold I, Kapuzinergruft, Vienna, Austria

In 1666, he married Margaret Theresa of Spain (1651–1673), daughter of King Philip IV of Spain, who was both his niece and his first cousin. She was depicted in Diego Velázquez' paintings sent from the court of Madrid to Leopold as he waited in Vienna for his fiancée to grow up. Leopold and Margaret Theresa had four children:

  1. Archduke Ferdinand Wenzel (1667–1668)
  2. Archduchess Maria Antonia (1669–1692), who married Maximilian II Emanuel, Elector of Bavaria.
  3. Archduke Johann Leopold (1670)
  4. Archduchess Maria Anna Antonia (1672)

His second wife was Claudia Felicitas of Austria, who died in 1676 at the age of 22. Neither of their two daughters survived:

  1. Archduchess Anna Maria Josepha (1674)
  2. Archduchess Maria Josepha Clementina (1675–1676)

His third wife was Eleonor Magdalene of Neuburg. They had the following children:

  1. Joseph I, Holy Roman Emperor (1678–1711), who married Wilhelmine Amalia of Brunswick-Lüneburg
  2. Archduchess Maria Christina (1679)
  3. Archduchess Maria Elisabeth (1680–1741), Governor of the Austrian Netherlands
  4. Archduke Leopold Joseph (1682–1684)
  5. Archduchess Maria Anna (1683–1754) married John V of Portugal
  6. Archduchess Maria Theresa (1684–1696)
  7. Charles VI, Holy Roman Emperor (1685–1740), who married Elisabeth Christine of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel
  8. Archduchess Maria Josepha (1687–1703)
  9. Archduchess Maria Magdalena (1689–1743)
  10. Archduchess Maria Margaret (1690–1691)


Like his father, Leopold was a patron of music and a composer.[12] He continued to enrich the court's musical life by employing and providing support for distinguished composers such as Antonio Bertali, Giovanni Bononcini, Johann Kaspar Kerll, Ferdinand Tobias Richter, Alessandro Poglietti, and Johann Fux. Leopold's surviving works show the influence of Bertali and Viennese composers in general (in oratorios and other dramatic works), and of Johann Heinrich Schmelzer (in ballets and German comedies). His sacred music is perhaps his most successful, particularly Missa angeli custodis, a Requiem Mass for his first wife, and Three Lections, composed for the burial of his second wife.[13] Much of Leopold's music was published with works by his father, and described as "works of exceeding high merit."[14][15]


The full titulature of Leopold after he had become emperor went as follows: "Leopold I, by the grace of God elected Holy Roman Emperor, forever August, King of Germany, King of Hungary, King of Bohemia, Dalmatia, Croatia, Slavonia, Rama, Serbia, Galicia, Lodomeria, Cumania, Bulgaria, Archduke of Austria, Duke of Burgundy, Brabant, Styria, Carinthia, Carniola, Margrave of Moravia, Duke of Luxemburg, of the Upper and Lower Silesia, of Württemberg and Teck, Prince of Swabia, Count of Habsburg, Tyrol, Kyburg and Gorizia, Landgrave of Alsace, Marquess of the Holy Roman Empire, Burgovia, the Enns, the Upper and Lower Lusatia, Lord of the Marquisate of Slavonia, of Port Naon and Salines, etc. etc."



Hungarian Thaler of Leopold I minted in 1692. Latin inscription: Obverse, LEOPOLDVS D[EI] G[RATIA] RO[MANORVM] I[MPERATOR] S[EMPER] AVG[VSTVS] GER[MANIAE] HV[NGARIAE] BO[HEMIAE] REX; Reverse, ARCHIDVX AVS[TRIAE] DVX BVR[GVNDIAE] MAR[CHIO] MOR[AVIAE] CO[MES] TY[ROLIS] 1692, "Leopold, by the grace of God, Emperor of the Romans, Ever Augustus, King of Germany, Hungary, and Bohemia; Archduke of Austria, Duke of Burgundy, Margrave of Moravia, Count of Tyrol 1692"

Coin of Leopold I 3 Kreuzer 1670

Silver coin of Leopold I, 3 Kreuzer, dated 1670. The Latin inscription reads (obverse): LEOPOLDVS D[EI] G[RATIA] R[OMANORVM] I[MPERATOR] S[EMPER] A[VGVSTVS] G[ERMANIAE] H[VNGARIAE] B[OHEMIAE] REX (reverse):ARCHID[VX] AVS[TRIAE] DVX B[VRGVNDIAE] CO[MES] TYR[OLIS] 1670. In English: "Leopold, by the Grace of God, Emperor of the Romans, always August, King of Germany, Hungary, and Bohemia, Archduke of Austria, Duke of Burgundy, Count of Tyrol, 1670."

See also


  1. ^ a b John P. Spielman; Leopold I of Austria (1977)
  2. ^ a b Joseph A. Biesinger; "Germany: European nations" in Facts on File library of world history. pg 529.
  3. ^ Heide Dienst; Professor, Institute of Austrian History Research, University of Vienna.
  4. ^ Coxe, William (1853). History of the House of Austria: From the Foundation of the Monarchy by Rhodolph of Hapsburgh, to the Death of Leopold the Second: 1218 to 1792. London: Henry G. Bohn. p. 515.
  5. ^ John P. Spielman; "Europe, 1450 to 1789" in Encyclopedia of the Early Modern World
  6. ^ O'Connor 1978, p. 7-14.
  7. ^ Volker Press (1985), "Leopold I.", Neue Deutsche Biographie (NDB) (in German), 14, Berlin: Duncker & Humblot, pp. 257–257
  8. ^ Das Königreich Ungarn: Ein topograph.-hist.-statistisches Rundgemälde, d. Ganze dieses Landes in mehr denn 12,400 Artikeln umfassend, Band 3, Seite 271, J.C. von Thiele, 1833.
  9. ^ Henryk Rechowicz: Bielsko-Biała. Zarys Rozwoju miasta i powiatu. Katowice: Wydawnictwo "Śląsk", 1971.
  10. ^ Thomas Noble. "Western Civilization: Beyond Boundaries". Cengage Learning. 2008. p. 507-508.
  11. ^ Anton Schindling. "The Development of the Eternal Diet in Regensburg". The Journal of Modern History 58 (December 1986). p. S69.
  12. ^ Dalberg-Acton, John Emerich Edward; et al. (1912). The Cambridge Modern History: Volume V: The Age of Louis XIV. New York: The MacMillan Company. p. 341.
  13. ^ Schnitzler, Rudolf & Seifert, Herbert. "Leopold I". In Deane L. Root (ed.). Grove Music Online. Oxford Music Online. Oxford University Press. (subscription required)
  14. ^ (organization), Jstor (1892). "Musical times" (PDF). The Musical Times. 1892. Retrieved 2009-03-16.
  15. ^ Adler, Guido (1892). Musikalishe Werke der Kaiser Ferdinand III., Leopold I., and Joseph I.,. Vienna, Austria: Antaria & Company.
  16. ^ a b Eder, Karl (1961), "Ferdinand III.", Neue Deutsche Biographie (NDB) (in German), 5, Berlin: Duncker & Humblot, pp. 85–86; (full text online)
  17. ^ a b Wurzbach, Constantin, von, ed. (1861). "Habsburg, Maria Anna von Spanien" . Biographisches Lexikon des Kaiserthums Oesterreich [Biographical Encyclopedia of the Austrian Empire] (in German). 7. p. 23 – via Wikisource.
  18. ^ a b Eder, Karl (1961), "Ferdinand II.", Neue Deutsche Biographie (NDB) (in German), 5, Berlin: Duncker & Humblot, pp. 83–85; (full text online)
  19. ^ a b Wurzbach, Constantin, von, ed. (1861). "Habsburg, Maria Anna von Bayern" . Biographisches Lexikon des Kaiserthums Oesterreich [Biographical Encyclopedia of the Austrian Empire] (in German). 7. p. 23 – via Wikisource.
  20. ^ a b Wurzbach, Constantin, von, ed. (1861). "Habsburg, Philipp III." . Biographisches Lexikon des Kaiserthums Oesterreich [Biographical Encyclopedia of the Austrian Empire] (in German). 7. p. 120 – via Wikisource.
  21. ^ a b Wurzbach, Constantin, von, ed. (1861). "Habsburg, Margaretha (Königin von Spanien)" . Biographisches Lexikon des Kaiserthums Oesterreich [Biographical Encyclopedia of the Austrian Empire] (in German). 7. p. 13 – via Wikisource.



  • Crankshaw, Edward, The Habsburgs: Portrait of a Dynasty (New York, The Viking Press, 1971).
  • Frey, Linda; Frey, Marsha (1978). "A Question of Empire: Leopold I and the War of Spanish Succession, 1701–1715". Austrian History Yearbook. 14: 56–72. doi:10.1017/s0067237800009061.
  • Frey, Linda; Frey, Marsha (1978). "The Latter Years of Leopold I and his Court, 1700–1705: A Pernicious Factionalism". Historian. 40 (3): 479–491. doi:10.1111/j.1540-6563.1978.tb01904.x.
  • Frey, Linda and Marsha Frey. A Question of Empire: Leopold I and the War of Spanish Succession, 1701–1705 (1983)
  • Goloubeva, Maria. The Glorification of Emperor Leopold I in Image, Spectacle and Text (Mainz, 2000) (Veröffentlichungen des Instituts für Europäische Geschichte. Abteilung für Universalgeschichte, 184).
  • Kampmann, Christoph (2012). "The English Crisis, Emperor Leopold, and the Origins of the Dutch Intervention in 1688". Historical Journal. 55 (2): 521–532. doi:10.1017/S0018246X1200012X.
  • O'Connor, John T. (1978). Negotiator out of Season. Athens, GA: University of Georgia Press. ISBN 0-8203-0436-0.

External links

Leopold I, Holy Roman Emperor
Born: 9 June 1640 Died: 5 May 1705
Regnal titles
Title last held by
Ferdinand III
Holy Roman Emperor
King of the Romans

Succeeded by
Joseph I
Preceded by
Ferdinand III
King of Hungary
with Ferdinand III (1655–1658)
King of Bohemia
with Ferdinand III (1656–1658)
Archduke of Austria
King of Croatia
Duke of Teschen

Preceded by
Sigismund Francis
Archduke of Further Austria
Preceded by
Michael II Apafi
Prince of Transylvania
Succeeded by
Francis II Rákóczi
1658 Imperial election

The imperial election of 1658 was an imperial election held to select the emperor of the Holy Roman Empire. It took place in Frankfurt on July 18.

1673 in France

Events from the year 1673 in France

1701 in France

Events from the year 1701 in France.

Archduchess Maria Josepha of Austria (1687–1703)

Maria Josepha of Austria (Maria Josepha Colletta Antonia; 6 March 1687 – 14 April 1703), was a daughter of Leopold I, Holy Roman Emperor and his third wife Eleonore Magdalene of the Palatinate.

Archduchess Maria Theresa of Austria (1684–1696)

Maria Theresa of Austria (22 August 1684 – 28 September 1696) was a daughter of Leopold I, Holy Roman Emperor and his third wife Eleonore Magdalene of the Palatinate.

Duchy of Montferrat

The Duchy of Montferrat was a state of the Holy Roman Empire in Northern Italy. It was created out of what was left of the medieval March of Montferrat after the last Palaeologus heir had died (1533) and the margraviate had been briefly controlled by Habsburg Spain (until 1536). After that brief interlude, it passed to the Gonzaga dukes of Mantua. In 1574 Emperor Maximilian II raised Montferrat to the status of a duchy.

At that time, the state of Montferrat had an area of 2750 km², and consisted of two separate parts bordered by the Duchy of Savoy, the Duchy of Milan, and the Republic of Genoa. Its capital was Casale Monferrato.

With the War of the Mantuan Succession (1628–1631), a piece of the duchy passed to Savoy; the remainder passed to Savoy in 1708, as Leopold I, Holy Roman Emperor, gained possession of the principal Gonzaga territory, the Duchy of Mantua.

Frano Gundulić

Count Frano Gondola, Frano Điva Gundulić or Francesco Giovanni Gondola; (born 1633, Dubrovnik - died 1700, Vienna) was a member of an old noble family from Dubrovnik (then Republic of Ragusa), the House of Gundulić. He was a child of famous Croatian poet Ivan Gundulić and his wife Nika, née Sorkočević/Sorgo/ (†1644). He joined the Austrian Army where he served as a military officer.

In 1655 Frano participated on a diplomatic mission to Moscow. In his personal diary account he noted that the Russian Tzar Alexis I of Russia was very happy that one of the leading envoys was of Slavic descent ("od slovinskoga iesika") so that he could speak his own language without the use of interpreter.

Frano Gundulić wrote from Vienna on 22 May 1672 to his friend Marko Bassegli to ask him to get the Republic to name him Duke and as a result to name Trpanj Dukedom of St. Michael of Trpanj. This was necessary because of his position in Vienna. In February 1679, the Austrian companies became reduces since 12 in 6 companies and soon in 3 into the regiments Kaunitz and Hallewyl. However also still 1679 dissolved and together with move Gundulić divided into the regiments Mercy, Taaffe and Churprinz and was finally made Commandant of Kürassierregiment since 1682–1699.

He also participated in the Battle of Vienna under the Polish King Jan III Sobieski in 1683. He became Generalfeldwachtmeister on 27 July 1682 and Feldmarschall-Leutnant on September 4, 1685.

The family then obtained fiefdoms from Leopold I, Holy Roman Emperor. He first married Maria Bobali (daughter of Marin Bobali), who died soon with the first child. His second marriage was with the Countess Maria Victoria (Octavia) Strozzi on April 22, 1674 (d.d. 257, 80, folio 282 Neues Jahrbuch)., they had two children, Frano Gundulić,(+1717)k.k General der. Cav. and Šiško Gundulić,k.k Kriegsdiensten. He died in the Renngasse palace in Vienna 1700.

Golden bull

A golden bull or chrysobull was a decree issued by Byzantine Emperors and later by monarchs in Europe during the Middle Ages and Renaissance, most notably by the Holy Roman Emperors. The term was originally coined for the golden seal (a bulla aurea), attached to the decree, but came to be applied to the entire decree. Such decrees were known as golden bulls in western Europe and chrysobullos logos, or chrysobulls, in the Byzantine Empire (χρυσός, chrysos, being Greek for gold).

For nearly eight hundred years, they were issued unilaterally, without obligations on the part of the other party or parties. However, this eventually proved disadvantageous as the Byzantines sought to restrain the efforts of foreign powers to undermine the empire. During the 12th century, the Byzantines began to insert into golden bulls sworn statements of the obligations of their negotiating partners.Notable golden bulls included:

The Golden Bull of 1082, issued by Alexios I Komnenos to grant Venice merchants with free trading rights, exempt from tax, throughout the Byzantine Empire in return for their defense of the Adriatic Sea against the Normans.

The Golden Bull of 1136, issued by Pope Innocent II, more commonly known as the Bull of Gniezno.

The Golden Bull of Sicily, issued in 1212 by Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor.

The Golden Bull of 1213, issued by Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor.

The Golden Bull of 1213, issued by the papacy to recognize its agreement with John Lackland (more commonly known as King John of England).

The Golden Bull of 1214, issued by Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor to cede all German territories north of the rivers Elbe and Elde to King Valdemar the Victorious of Denmark.

The Golden Bull of Berne, supposedly issued by Frederick II in 1218, but now considered a forgery.

The Golden Bull of 1222, issued by King Andrew II of Hungary to confirm the rights of nobility and forced on him in much the same way King John of England was made to sign the Magna Carta.

The Golden Bull of 1224 (the Goldener Freibrief) issued by Andrew to grant certain rights to the Saxon inhabitants of Transylvania.

The Golden Bull of Rimini (1226), issued by Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor.

The Golden Bull of 1242 issued by King Béla IV to proclaim a free royal Borough (a free and royal city) for the inhabitants of Gradec (today's Zagreb) and Samobor in Croatia, during the Mongol invasion of Europe.

The Golden Bull of 1267, issued by King Bela IV of Hungary.

The Golden Bull of 1348, issued by King Charles I of Bohemia, later Holy Roman Emperor as Charles IV, to confer privileges and immunities on Charles University established by Pope Clement VI in Prague, one of the oldest universities in the world.

The Golden Bull of 1356 (one of the most famous golden bulls), issued by Holy Roman Emperor Charles IV for promulgation at the Diet of Nuremberg, to define (and to last more than four hundred years) the constitutional structure of the Holy Roman Empire.

The Golden Bull of 1702, issued by Leopold I, Holy Roman Emperor to establish the Akademia Leopoldina in the Silesian capital of Breslau (present name: Wrocław), the future University of Breslau (Universitas Vratislatensis).

Hours of James IV of Scotland

The Hours of James IV of Scotland, Prayer book of James IV and Queen Margaret (or variants) is an illuminated book of hours, produced in 1503 or later, probably in Ghent. It marks a highpoint of the late 15th century Ghent-Bruges school of illumination and is now in the Austrian National Library in Vienna (Österreichische Nationalbibliothek, Codex Vindobonensis 1897). It is thought to have been a wedding gift from James IV of Scotland or another Scottish nobleman to James's wife Margaret Tudor on the occasion of their marriage, perhaps finishing a book already started for another purpose. A number of artists worked on the extensive programme of decoration, so that "the manuscript in its entirety presents a rather odd picture of heterogeneity". The best known miniature, a full-page portrait of James at prayer before an altar with an altarpiece of Christ and an altar frontal with James's coat-of-arms, gave his name to the Master of James IV of Scotland, who is now generally identified as Gerard Horenbout, court painter to Margaret of Austria; he did only one other miniature in the book. The equivalent image of Margaret is the only image by another artist, using a rather generic face for the queen's portrait, and in a similar style to that of the Master of the First Prayer Book of Maximilian. Other artists worked on the other miniatures, which include an unusual series of unpopulated landscapes in the calendar - perhaps the Flemish artists were not sure how Scots should be dressed.

Drawings had evidently been sent to Flanders of James' portrait and the heraldry of the couple, but perhaps not of Margaret. Probably drawings were sent of the panel portraits in Edinburgh of James III of Scotland and his queen Margaret of Denmark by Hugo van der Goes, since the portrait miniatures show similar iconography. After she was widowed Margaret gave the book to her sister Mary Tudor, Queen of France, inscribing it (on f. 188): "Madame I pray your grace / Remember on me when ye / loke upon this bok / Your lofing syster / Margaret". By the time of Leopold I, Holy Roman Emperor in the late 17th century it had entered the library of the Austrian Habsburgs in Vienna. It was exhibited in London and Malibu in 2003-2004.

Infanta Margarita Teresa in a Blue Dress

Infanta Margarita Teresa in a Blue Dress is one of the best-known portraits by Spanish painter Diego Velázquez. Executed in oil on canvas, it measures 127 cm high by 107 cm wide and was one of Velázquez's last paintings, produced in 1659, a year before his death. It shows Margaret Theresa of Spain who also appears in the artist's Las Meninas. Currently, the painting is in the Kunsthistorisches Museum.

This is one of the several court portraits made by Velázquez on different occasions of Infanta Margaret Theresa who, at fifteen, married her uncle, Leopold I, Holy Roman Emperor. She's the little infanta who appears in Las Meninas (1656). These paintings show her in different stages of her childhood; they were sent to Vienna to inform Leopold of what his young fiancée looked like.

The Kunsthistorisches Museum in Vienna has two other paintings by Velázquez: Infanta Maria Teresa and Portrait of Prince Philip Prospero. However, this portrait of Infanta Margarita is possibly the best of the three.

In this portrait, Velázquez used the technique of loose brushstrokes that fuse into coherence only when viewed from a certain distance. The infanta, here eight years old, is shown with a solemn expression. She wears a blue silk dress which is adorned with silver borders after the Spanish fashion of the era; the most striking characteristic is the huge expanse of the voluminous crinoline which is accentuated by the trimmed borders and the wide lace collar. In one of her hands she holds a brown fur muff, perhaps a present from Vienna. The young girl, who is presented as pretty and appealing, has a pale countenance which is enhanced by the blue and silver tones. In the background, there is a high console table with a round mirror behind it.

Johann Michael Zächer

Johann Michael Zächer (1649 – 30 September 1712) was an Austrian composer.Zächer was born in Vienna. He was Domkapellmeister of St. Stephen's Cathedral, Vienna from 1679 and Kapellmeister to Eleonor Magdalene of Neuburg the dowager empress on the death of Leopold I, Holy Roman Emperor in 1705.

Joseph Ferdinand of Bavaria

Joseph Ferdinand Leopold of Bavaria (28 October 1692 – 6 February 1699) was the son of Maximilian II Emanuel, Elector of Bavaria (1679–1705, 1714–1726) and his first wife, Maria Antonia of Austria, daughter of Leopold I, Holy Roman Emperor, maternal granddaughter of King Felipe IV of Spain.

Laurențiu Man

Laurențiu Man was a Hungarian noble of Romanian origin who was in the service of Leopold I, Holy Roman Emperor.

Laurențiu Man entered in the service of the Habsburgs which gradually imposed their rule on the Principality of Transylvania and Varat Eyalet in the late of the 17th century. As a reward for his loyalty to the Habsburgs, Laurențiu Man was ennobled by the Emperor Leopold I on December 7, 1699 in Vienna. The diploma was signed by the Emperor Leopold I, the chancellor of Transylvania Sámuel Kálnoky, and Andreas Szentkereszty (1662–1736). The Diploma of ennoblement was composed, written, and read by Matte Benignissime. Man Noble's house was located in Badatson, just 5 km (3.1 mi) outside the capital of Krasna County, Szilágysomlyó. In addition to the aristocratic title of nobility for himself and his descendants, Laurențiu Man was also granted tax exemption for himself and his descendants in perpetuity. Laurențiu Man had one son Ilie (married to Nagy Viràgsi) and three grandsons: loan, Mihail, and Petru. Ioan Maniu (1833–1895) was one of his descendants.


Leopoldstadt (German pronunciation: [ˈleːopɔltˌʃtat] (listen); Austro-Bavarian: Leopoidstod, "Leopold-Town") is the 2nd municipal District of Vienna (German: 2. Bezirk). There are 103,233 inhabitants (as of 2016-01-01) over 19.27 km2 (7 sq mi). It is situated in the heart of the city and, together with Brigittenau (20th district), forms a large island surrounded by the Danube Canal and, to the north, the Danube. It is named after Leopold I, Holy Roman Emperor. Due to its relatively high percentage of Jewish inhabitants (38.5 per cent in 1923, i. e., before the Holocaust), Leopoldstadt gained the nickname Mazzesinsel ("Mázze Island"). This context was a significant aspect for the district twinning with the New York City borough Brooklyn in 2007.

List of ambassadors of Turkey to Austria

The Turkish Ambassador to Austria has his residence in Vienna.

Livio Odescalchi

Livio Odescalchi (March 10, 1652 - September 8, 1713), Duke of Bracciano, Ceri and Sirmium, was an Italian nobleman of the Odescalchi family.Livio Odescalchi was born in Rome in 1655, the son of Carlo Odescalchi (1607-1673) and Beatrice Cusani. His paternal uncle was Benedetto Odescalchi, who was elected to the papacy as Pope Innocent XI in 1676. Since Innocent wanted to put an end to the established nepotism of the Curia, he did not make his nephew a cardinal, but instead granted Livio his own personal fortune of some forty thousand crowns, and conferred upon him his own title as Duke of Ceri in 1678. Livio was however eventually made Gonfaloniere and Captain General of the Church by his uncle.Livio later helped Innocent finance the expedition led by John Sobieski that ended the Turkish siege at the Battle of Vienna in 1683. Odescalchi himself fought with distinction in the battle, and was made an Imperial Prince and given the title Duke of Sirmium (lat. Dux Sirmii), and also the possession of Ilok Castle, by the grateful Leopold I, Holy Roman Emperor. He was also made a Grandee of Spain.

In 1696 Odescalchi bought the title Duke of Bracciano from the Bracciano branch of the Orsini family, along with the famous castle.

He built a magnificent tomb in St. Peter's Basilica in Rome to honor his uncle, who died in 1689, which was finished by 1704. Due to his position as Captain General Livio would also play a significant role during the papal conclave of 1689, which elected Pietro Vito Ottoboni as Pope Alexander VIII.After Sobieski's death in 1696, Odescalchi was one of the candidates in the Polish election of 1697, but Augustus, Elector of Saxony was elected instead. His connection with Poland had predated the Siege of Vienna, as Odescalchi had been the patron of the painter Jerzy Siemiginowski-Eleuter when he was sent to Rome by Sobieski in 1677. When Sobieski's widow, Queen Maria Kazimiera visited Rome in 1699, she stayed at the Palazzo Odescalchi.Odescalchi died without a direct heir in 1713, and his titles and fortune were inherited by his relative Baldassare Erba-Odescalchi (1683-1746), the grandson of Alessandro Erba (1599-1670) and Lucrezia Odescalchi, the sister of Innocent XI and Carlo Odescalchi.

Marie Karoline von Fuchs-Mollard

Countess Marie Karoline von Fuchs-Mollard (14 January 1681 – 27 April 1754), known as Charlotte, was the governess of Maria Theresa of Austria.

Born in Vienna, Marie Karoline came to the imperial court as lady-in-waiting of the future queen consort of Portugal, Maria Anna of Austria, the daughter of Leopold I, Holy Roman Emperor. In 1710, she married Count Christoph Ernst von Fuchs, with whom she had two daughters.

Empress Elisabeth Christine entrusted the Countess with the education and upbringing of her daughter Maria Theresa, the heiress presumptive of the Habsburg dominions, when the girl was born in 1717. Countess Fuchs taught her etiquette and practically raised her. Maria Theresa developed a notably close relationship with Countess Fuchs.

When Maria Theresa succeeded her father as the ruler of Hungary, Bohemia and Austria, she gave Countess Fuchs a castle (Fuchsschlössl) and made her a chatelaine. When Countess Fuchs died in Vienna, Maria Theresa ordered that she be buried in the Imperial Crypt. Thus, the Countess has the honour of being the only non-Habsburg buried in the Imperial Crypt. The 150th anniversary of her death was celebrated by a special Mass in the Capucin Crypt.

Stefan Osmokruhović

Stefan Osmokruhović (German: Stefan Osmokruch, Serbian Cyrillic: Стефан Осмокруховић; fl. 1665–died in 1666) was the great judge (de. Grossrichter, sr. veliki sudac) of the Križevci captainate, who in 1665 led a revolt of the Grenz infantry soldiers in the Varaždin generalate of the Military Frontier against the Austrian officers, after the rights of the frontiersmen had been compromised. A Serb, Osmokruhović held secret meetings in the Slavonian Military Frontier, in which many Serbs took part in. He was also supported by the judges of Koprivnica and Ivanica, Ilija Romanović and Nikola Vuković, and they all sent letters to the Austrian Leopold I, Holy Roman Emperor about the issues in March 1666. Appointed the commander of the Varaždin frontiersmen themselves and named great judge (Veliki Sudac), he claimed to answer to no one besides the Austrian Emperor, and sought that the frontiersmen's right to ownership of the land between the Sava and Drava be recognized, among other issues. Austrian lieutenant general Fra Johann Josef Herberstein (1639-1689) went to Križevci and demanded that his candidate be accepted as great judge, but the candidate was murdered by the frontiersmen. The revolt was finally suppressed in 1666 by Herberstein, and Osmokruhović was sentenced to death.

Wolfgang Ebner

Wolfgang Ebner (1612–1665) was a German baroque composer. He was a Viennese court organist in the latter years of the reign of Ferdinand III, Holy Roman Emperor, and then of Leopold I, Holy Roman Emperor.

Ebner was born in Augsburg. He may have preceded Johann Heinrich Schmelzer as ballet master at the court. He died in Vienna.

Ancestors of Leopold I, Holy Roman Emperor
8. Charles II, Archduke of Austria[18]
4. Ferdinand II, Holy Roman Emperor[16]
9. Maria Anna of Bavaria[18] (= 15, ≠ 5)
2. Ferdinand III, Holy Roman Emperor
10. William V, Duke of Bavaria[19]
5. Maria Anna of Bavaria[16] (≠ 9, 15)
11. Renata of Lorraine[19]
1. Leopold I, Holy Roman Emperor
12. Philip II, King of Spain[20]
6. Philip III, King of Spain[17]
13. Anna of Austria[20]
3. Maria Anna of Spain
14. Charles II, Archduke of Austria[21] (= 8)
7. Margaret of Austria[17]
15. Maria Anna of Bavaria[21] (= 9, ≠ 5)
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