Lennon–McCartney

Lennon–McCartney (sometimes McCartney–Lennon) was the songwriting partnership between English musicians John Lennon (9 October 1940 – 8 December 1980) and Paul McCartney (born 18 June 1942) of the Beatles. It is one of the best known and is the most successful musical collaboration ever by records sold, with the Beatles selling over 600 million records worldwide as of 2004.[1] Between 5 October 1962 and 8 May 1970, the partnership published approximately 180 jointly credited songs, of which the vast majority were recorded by the Beatles, forming the bulk of their catalogue.

Unlike many songwriting partnerships that comprise separate lyricist and composer,[2] both Lennon and McCartney wrote words and music. Sometimes, especially early on, they would collaborate extensively when writing songs, working "eyeball to eyeball" as Lennon put it.[3] Later, it became more common for one of the two credited authors to write all or most of a song with limited input from the other. By an agreement made before the Beatles became famous, Lennon and McCartney were credited equally with songs that either one of them wrote while their partnership lasted.

Lennon–McCartney compositions have been the subject of numerous cover versions. According to Guinness World Records, "Yesterday" has been recorded by more musicians than any other song.[4]

Lennon-McCartney
John Lennon (left) and Paul McCartney (right) in 1964

Meeting

1964-Lennon-McCartney (cropped)
McCartney and Lennon, 1964

The pair met on 6 July 1957, at a local church fête, where Lennon was playing with his skiffle group the Quarrymen. McCartney, brought along by a mutual friend, Ivan Vaughan, impressed Lennon with his ability on the guitar and his version of Eddie Cochran's "Twenty Flight Rock". Soon afterward, Lennon asked McCartney if he would join the Quarrymen. McCartney accepted.[5][6] The duo's first musical idols were the Everly Brothers, Little Richard, Chuck Berry, Elvis Presley, Buddy Holly, and Smokey Robinson and the Miracles, and they learned many of their songs and imitated their sound.[7] Their first compositions were written at McCartney's home (20 Forthlin Road), at Lennon's aunt Mimi's house (251 Menlove Avenue), or at the Liverpool Institute.[8] They often invited friends—including George Harrison, Nigel Walley, Barbara Baker, and Lennon's art school colleagues—to listen to performances of their new songs.[9]

Writing chemistry

Lennon said the main intention of the Beatles' music was to communicate, and that, to this effect, he and McCartney had a shared purpose. Author David Rowley points out that at least half of all Lennon–McCartney lyrics have the words "you" and/or "your" in the first line.[10] In Lennon's 1980 Playboy interview, he said of the partnership,

[Paul] provided a lightness, an optimism, while I would always go for the sadness, the discords, the bluesy notes. There was a period when I thought I didn't write melodies, that Paul wrote those and I just wrote straight, shouting rock 'n' roll. But, of course, when I think of some of my own songs—"In My Life", or some of the early stuff, "This Boy"—I was writing melody with the best of them.[11]

Historian Todd Compton has noted that there is some truth to Lennon's statement regarding McCartney's optimism. However, it does not tell the whole story, as some of McCartney's most characteristic songs are tragic, or express themes of isolation, such as "Yesterday", "She's Leaving Home", "Eleanor Rigby" or "For No One".[12]

Although Lennon and McCartney often wrote independently—and many Beatles songs are primarily the work of one or the other—it was rare that a song would be completed without some input from both writers. In many instances, one writer would sketch an idea or a song fragment and take it to the other to finish or improve; in some cases, two incomplete songs or song ideas that each had worked on individually would be combined into a complete song. Often one of the pair would add a middle eight or bridge section to the other's verse and chorus.[13] George Martin attributed the high quality of their songwriting to the friendly rivalry between the two.[14] This approach of the Lennon–McCartney songwriting team—with elements of competitiveness and mutual inspiration as well as straightforward collaboration and creative merging of musical ideas—is often cited as a key reason for the Beatles' innovation and popular success.

As time went on, the songs increasingly became the work of one writer or the other, often with the partner offering up only a few words or an alternative chord. "A Day in the Life" is a notable and well-known example of a later Beatles song that includes substantial contributions by both Lennon and McCartney, where a separate song fragment by McCartney ("Woke up, fell out of bed, dragged a comb across my head ...") was used to flesh out the middle of Lennon's composition ("I read the news today, oh boy ..."). "Hey Jude" is another example of a later McCartney song that had input from Lennon: while auditioning the song for Lennon, when McCartney came to the lyric "the movement you need is on your shoulder", McCartney assured Lennon that he would change the line—which McCartney felt was nonsensical—as soon as he could come up with a better lyric. Lennon advised McCartney to leave that line alone, saying it was one of the strongest in the song.[15]

Credit variations and disputes

Joint credit

When McCartney and Lennon met as teenagers and began writing songs together, they agreed that all songs written by them (whether individually or jointly) should be credited to both of them.[16] The precise date of the agreement is unknown; however, Lennon spoke in 1980 of an informal agreement between him and McCartney made "when we were fifteen or sixteen".[17] Two songs written (primarily by Lennon) in 1957, "Hello Little Girl" and "One After 909", were credited to the partnership when published in the following decade.[18] The earliest Beatles recording credited to Lennon–McCartney to be officially released is "You'll Be Mine", recorded at home in 1960 and included on Anthology 1 35 years later.[19]

Some other compositions from the band's early years are not credited to the partnership. "In Spite of All the Danger", a 1958 composition that the band (then The Quarrymen) paid to record to disc, is attributed to McCartney and George Harrison. "Cayenne", recorded at the same time as "You'll Be Mine", is a solo McCartney composition. "Cry for a Shadow", recorded during the Beatles' sessions with Tony Sheridan in June 1961, was written by Lennon and Harrison.

By 1962, the joint credit agreement was in effect. From the time of the Beatles' first A&R audition in January that year, until Lennon's announcement in September 1969 that he was leaving the band, virtually all songs by McCartney or Lennon were published with joint credit. The only exceptions were a handful of the McCartney compositions released by other musicians (viz. "Woman" by Peter and Gordon in 1966, "Cat Call" by Chris Barber in 1967, and "Penina" by Carlos Mendes in 1969).

After the partnership had ended, Lennon and McCartney each gave multiple accounts of their individual contribution to each jointly credited song, and sometimes claimed full authorship. Often their memories of collaboration differed, but often their early and late interviews are in conflict.[20]

  • "Being for the Benefit of Mr. Kite" (1967) – In 1977, Lennon said he authored the song and took the words from a circus poster.[21] In 2013, McCartney recalled spending an afternoon with Lennon writing the song based on the poster: "I read, occasionally, people say, 'Oh, John wrote that one.' I say, 'Wait a minute, what was that afternoon I spent with him, then, looking at this poster?'"[22]
  • "Help!" (1965) – Often claimed by Lennon in his late interviews. McCartney claimed to have helped on the "countermelody", estimating the song as "70–30" to Lennon.[23][24][25] During an interview with Playboy in 1984, McCartney stated that "John and I wrote it at his house in Weybridge for the film [Help!]"[25] Lennon in fact described the song as co-written in 1965 interviews.[26]
  • "Eleanor Rigby" (1966) – In the 1997 biography Many Years from Now, McCartney recalled writing the music to "Eleanor Rigby" on a piano at Jane Asher's family home in Wimpole Street,[27] and then playing it to Donovan, who supported that the song lacked any serious lyrics at that point.[28] In 1972, Lennon said that he wrote 70 per cent of the lyrics,[29] but Pete Shotton, Lennon's childhood friend, remembered Lennon's contribution as being "absolutely nil".[30] In 1985, McCartney said that Lennon had contributed "about half a line" to the song, but elsewhere (including a 1966 interview) he describes finishing the song with more substantial collaboration with Lennon.[31] Harrison also contributed to this song. According to journalist Hunter Davies, the last verse was finished with all the Beatles giving suggestions in the studio.[32]
  • "In My Life" (1965) – In 1977, when shown a list of songs Lennon claimed writing on for the magazine Hit Parader, McCartney disputed only "In My Life".[21] Lennon said that McCartney helped only with "the middle eight" (a short section) of the song.[33] McCartney said that he wrote the entire melody, taking inspiration from Smokey Robinson songs.[34] A 2018 study that used bag-of-words modelling (here notes and chord snippets rather than words) to analyze the song indicated that the music was entirely composed by Lennon. Based on the analysis, mathematician Keith Devlin reported a .018% probability of McCartney writing the song.[35]
  • "Ticket to Ride" (1965) – Lennon said that McCartney's contribution was limited to "the way Ringo played the drums",[36] In Many Years from Now, McCartney said "we sat down and wrote it together ... give him 60 percent of it."[37]
  • "And Your Bird Can Sing" (1966) – McCartney claimed to have helped on the lyric, estimating the song as "80–20" to Lennon.[38] In his comment for the song's entry in Hit Parader, Lennon did not acknowledge any contributions from McCartney.[21]

Lennon–McCartney vs McCartney–Lennon

In October 1962, the Beatles released their first single in the UK, "Love Me Do", credited to "Lennon–McCartney". However, on their next three releases the following year (the single "Please Please Me", the Please Please Me LP, and the single "From Me to You"), the credit was given as "McCartney–Lennon".[39] With the "She Loves You" single, released in August 1963, the credit reverted to "Lennon–McCartney", and all subsequent official Beatles singles and albums list "Lennon–McCartney" (UK) or "J. Lennon/​P. McCartney" (US) as the author of songs written by the two.

In 1976 McCartney's band Wings released their live album Wings over America with songwriting credits for five Beatles songs reversed to place McCartney's name first. Neither Lennon nor Yoko Ono publicly "voiced a word of disapproval about it".[40] Many years after Lennon's death however, in the late 1990s, McCartney and Ono became involved in a dispute over the credit order.[41] McCartney's 2002 live album, Back in the U.S., also used the credit "Paul McCartney and John Lennon" for all of the Beatles songs.[42] When Ono objected to McCartney's request for the reversed credit to be used for the 1965 song "Yesterday", McCartney said that he and Lennon had agreed in the past that the credits could be reversed, if either of them wanted to, on any future releases. In 2003, he relented, saying, "I'm happy with the way it is and always has been. Lennon and McCartney is still the rock 'n' roll trademark I'm proud to be a part of – in the order it has always been."[41] An in-depth analysis of the legal issues was the subject of a 66-page article in the Pepperdine Law Review in 2006.[43]

Lennon–McCartney and others

A number of songs written primarily by the duo and recorded by the Beatles were credited as follows:

The German-language versions of "I Want to Hold Your Hand" and "She Loves You" were also credited to additional songwriters for assisting with the translation. "Komm, Gib Mir Deine Hand" was credited to Lennon–McCartney–Nicolas–Hellmer and "Sie Liebt Dich" was credited to Lennon–McCartney–Nicolas–Montague.

Legacy

Cultural impact

Lennon–McCartney, as well as other British Invasion songwriters, inspired changes to the music industry because they were bands that wrote and performed their own music. This trend threatened the professional songwriters that dominated the American music industry. Ellie Greenwich, a Brill Building songwriter, said, “When the Beatles and the entire British Invasion came in, we were all ready to say, ‘Look, it’s been nice, there’s no more room for us… It’s now the self-contained group- makes, certain type of material. What do we do?"[48]

Beatles catalogue

The Lennon–McCartney songwriting partnership makes up the majority of the Beatles' catalogue. The first two UK studio albums included 12 cover tunes and 15 Lennon–McCartney songs,[49][50] with one track ("Don't Bother Me") credited to George Harrison.[50] Their third UK album, A Hard Day's Night (1964), is the only original Beatles album made up entirely of Lennon–McCartney compositions.[51] The next album released, Beatles for Sale (1964), included six covers and eight Lennon–McCartney originals.[52] The subsequent release, Help! (1965), had two covers and two Harrison compositions along with ten Lennon–McCartney tracks; it was the last Beatles album to feature a non-original composition until Let It Be, which included an arrangement of the traditional Liverpool folk song "Maggie Mae". Among the songs in this post-Help! output, Harrison contributed between one and four songs per album, and Starr wrote two songs in total and received a joint credit with Lennon and McCartney for a third ("What Goes On"). In addition, "Flying" and "Dig It" were credited to all four Beatles. The rest of the catalogue came from Lennon and McCartney.

Lennon and McCartney gave songs to Starr to sing, and to Harrison before he started writing his own material. As for the songs they kept for themselves, each partner mostly sang his own composition, often with the other providing harmonies, or they shared lead vocal. If each contributed a fragment to make a whole song, he might sing his portion, as in the case of "I've Got a Feeling" and "A Day in the Life". "Every Little Thing" is a rare example of a Lennon–McCartney song in which one member of the partnership was primary composer (McCartney) but the other sang lead vocal (Lennon).[53][54] McCartney sings in unison with Lennon on the verses, but Lennon's vocal is more prominent. McCartney sings the high harmony on the chorus.

In January 2017, McCartney filed a suit in United States district court against Sony/ATV Music Publishing seeking to reclaim ownership of his share of the Lennon–McCartney song catalogue beginning in 2018. Under US copyright law, for works published before 1978 the author can reclaim copyrights assigned to a publisher after 56 years.[55][56] McCartney and Sony agreed to a confidential settlement in June 2017.[57]

Non-Beatles songs

Several songs credited to Lennon–McCartney were originally released by bands other than the Beatles, especially those managed by Brian Epstein. Recording a Lennon–McCartney song helped launch new performing-artists' careers. Many of the recordings below were included on the 1979 compilation album The Songs Lennon and McCartney Gave Away.[58] Beatles versions of some of these were recorded; some were not released until after their split, on compilations such as Live at the BBC (1994) and The Beatles Anthology (1995–96).

Year Artist Song Peak chart
position
Notes
1963 The Rolling Stones "I Wanna Be Your Man" UK #12 Beatles version released later in 1963 on With the Beatles
1963 Billy J. Kramer with The Dakotas "I'll Be on My Way" (B-side) Beatles version released on Live at the BBC
1963 Billy J. Kramer with The Dakotas "Bad to Me" UK #1 Beatles version released on iTunes download The Beatles Bootleg Recordings 1963
1963 Billy J. Kramer with The Dakotas "I Call Your Name" (B-side) Beatles version released on The Beatles' Second Album (US) and the Long Tall Sally EP (UK) in 1964
1963 Billy J. Kramer with The Dakotas "I'll Keep You Satisfied" UK #4
1964 Billy J. Kramer with The Dakotas "From a Window" UK #10
1963 Tommy Quickly "Tip of My Tongue"
1963 The Fourmost "Hello Little Girl" UK #9 Beatles version released on Anthology 1
1963 The Fourmost "I'm in Love" UK #17 Beatles version released on iTunes download The Beatles Bootleg Recordings 1963
1963 Cilla Black "Love of the Loved" UK #35 Beatles version released on I Saw Her Standing There
1964 Cilla Black "It's for You" UK #7
1968 Cilla Black "Step Inside Love" UK #8 Beatles version released on Anthology 3
1964 The Strangers with Mike Shannon "One and One Is Two" The song was rejected by Billy J. Kramer. The Strangers with Mike Shannon were South African.[59]
1964 Peter & Gordon "A World Without Love" UK #1
1964 Peter & Gordon "Nobody I Know" UK #10
1964 Peter & Gordon "I Don't Want to See You Again"
1964 The Applejacks "Like Dreamers Do" UK #20 Beatles version released on Anthology 1
1965 P.J. Proby "That Means a Lot" UK #30 Beatles version released on Anthology 2
1968 Black Dyke Mills Band "Thingumybob" Developed from an early version known as "Etcetera", demoed by Paul McCartney during a session for "Mother Nature's Son" on 20 August 1968.[60]
1969 Mary Hopkin "Goodbye" UK #2
1969 Plastic Ono Band "Give Peace a Chance" UK #2 Although composed alone by Lennon, McCartney was credited as co-composer on the single appearance and on Lennon's compilation albums Shaved Fish and The John Lennon Collection. The credit was revised in the 1990s to cite only Lennon.

Note that several songs released during this period were credited solely to Paul McCartney:

Year Artist Song Peak chart
position
Notes
1966 Peter & Gordon " Woman" UK #28; US #14 McCartney is credited as "Bernard Webb".
1966 The George Martin Orchestra The Family Way McCartney composed most of the music for this soundtrack.
1967 The Chris Barber Band "Catcall" Originally known as "Catswalk", performed from 1958 to 1962 and revisited during the Get Back sessions in January 1969.[61]
1969 Carlos Mendes "Penina"
1969 Badfinger "Come and Get It" UK #4 The original demo was included on Anthology 3.

Unreleased songs

The following compositions are believed to have been written by Lennon and McCartney, but never officially released by the Beatles or any other artist except as noted below. Many have appeared on Beatles bootlegs, an exception being "Carnival of Light".[62] The list of unreleased songs includes some of the earliest Lennon–McCartney joint works dating back to the Quarrymen, the group that evolved into the Beatles.[63] Several of these songs were revisited during the Get Back sessions of early 1969.[64]

Title Year Notes
"I Lost My Little Girl" 1956 First song written by McCartney. Performed by the Beatles (with Lennon on lead vocals) during the Get Back sessions.[65] A performance of this song can be heard on McCartney's 1991 album Unplugged (The Official Bootleg).
"Too Bad About Sorrows" 1957 One of the earliest Lennon–McCartney compositions. Briefly sung by Lennon during the Get Back sessions of 8 January 1969; sung by McCartney during Get Back sessions of 21 January 1969.[66][67][68]
"Just Fun" 1957 Played by the Quarrymen from 1957 to 1959; sung by McCartney during the Get Back sessions of 6 January 1969 and shown in the Let It Be film,[69] and briefly by Lennon on 8 January.[66][67][70][71]
"Keep Looking That Way" 1957 Played by the Quarrymen.[66]
"Looking Glass" 1957 Instrumental. Mentioned in 1969 film outtakes; unknown if performed during Get Back sessions.[72]
"That's My Woman" 1957 Played by the Quarrymen.[66][73]
"Thinking of Linking" 1957 Played by the Quarrymen; briefly sung by Lennon during the Get Back sessions on 29 January 1969;[66][74][75] performed by McCartney, Harrison and Starr for The Beatles Anthology.
"Winston's Walk" 1957 Instrumental.[76][77]
"Years Roll Along" 1957 Played by the Quarrymen.[66][76]
"Because I Know You Love Me So" 1960 Country-influenced duets briefly sung by Lennon and McCartney during the Get Back sessions on 3 January 1969.[78][79]
"I'll Wait Till Tomorrow" 1960
"I've Been Thinking That You Love Me" 1960 Briefly performed during the Get Back sessions on 3 January 1969.[78][79]
"Won't You Please Say Goodbye" 1960 Briefly sung by Lennon during the Get Back sessions on 3 January 1969.[78][79]
"Some Days" 1960 Speculative titles based on taped works-in-progress.[76][80] "You'll Be Mine", also recorded at the time, was released on Anthology 1.
"You Must Write Everyday" 1960
"Well Darling" 1960
"Come on People" 1960
"I Don't Know" 1960
"I Fancy Me Chances" 1962 Performed live in 1962 and briefly during the Get Back sessions; the latter was released as "Fancy My Chances with You" on the bonus disc of Let It Be... Naked.[81][82]
"Pinwheel Twist" 1962 Performed live in 1962.[81]
"Carnival of Light" 1967 Recorded on 5 January 1967; nearly 14-minute-long experimental collage.[62][83]
"Shirley's Wild Accordion" 1967 Recorded on 12 October 1967; instrumental intended for Magical Mystery Tour film.[84]
"Etcetera" 1968 Recorded by McCartney on 20 August 1968, with "Mother Nature's Son" and "Wild Honey Pie".[85]
"Commonwealth" 1969 Improvised studio jam satirising Enoch Powell's claim in a 1968 speech that immigration into the UK would cause a race war. Sung by McCartney during the Get Back sessions on 9 January 1969.[70][86][87]
"Song of Love" 1969 Sung by McCartney; performed during the Get Back sessions on 14 January 1969.[88]
"Watching Rainbows" 1969 Sung by Lennon; performed during the Get Back sessions on 14 January 1969.[88][89]
"Madman" 1969 Sung by Lennon; performed during the Get Back sessions on 14 and 21 January 1969.[88][90]

See also

Notes and references

  1. ^ "Beatles' remastered box set, video game out". CNNMoney.com. 9 September 2009. Retrieved 1 December 2011.
  2. ^ Such as Jerry Leiber and Mike Stoller, Rodgers and Hammerstein, Hal David and Burt Bacharach, Elton John and Bernie Taupin.
  3. ^ Sheff 2000, p. 137.
  4. ^ "Most Recorded Song". Guinness World Records. Archived from the original on 10 September 2006. Retrieved 12 May 2009.
  5. ^ Burlingame, Jeff. John Lennon "Imagine." Berkeley Heights: Enslow Publishers, 2011. Print.
  6. ^ Conord, Bruce W. John Lennon. New York: Chelsea House Publishers, 1994. Print.
  7. ^ Spitz 2005, pp. 131–32.
  8. ^ Miles 1997, p. 34.
  9. ^ Spitz 2005, p. 135.
  10. ^ Rowley 2008, p. 3.
  11. ^ Sheff 2000, p. 136. "In My Life" was the main song on which Lennon and McCartney disagreed, see below..
  12. ^ Compton 2017, p. 382.
  13. ^ Miles 1997, p. 107.
  14. ^ Coleman, Ray (1992). Lennon. New York, New York: HarperCollins. pp. 363–364. ISBN 0-06-098608-5.
  15. ^ The Beatles Anthology documentary
  16. ^ Garcia, Gilbert (27 January 2003). "The ballad of Paul and Yoko". salon.com. Archived from the original on 19 June 2009. Retrieved 13 December 2009.
  17. ^ Sheff 2000, p. 214.
  18. ^ MacDonald 2005, p. 53.
  19. ^ Unterberger 2006, pp. 5–6.
  20. ^ Compton 2017, pp. 5-8.
  21. ^ a b c "Lennon–McCartney Songalog: Who Wrote What" (PDF). Hit Parader. Vol. Winter 1977 [reprint of April 1972] no. 101. pp. 38–41. Retrieved 6 June 2017.
  22. ^ Vozick-Levinson, Simon (25 July 2013). "Q&A: Paul McCartney Looks Back on His Latest Magical Mystery Tour". Rolling Stone. Retrieved 27 July 2013.
  23. ^ MacDonald 2005, p. 153.
  24. ^ Miles 1997, p. 199.
  25. ^ a b Goodman 1984, p. 2.
  26. ^ Compton 2017, pp. 106.
  27. ^ Miles 1997, p. 281.
  28. ^ Miles 1997, pp. 281–82.
  29. ^ Miles 1997, p. 283.
  30. ^ Miles 1997, p. 284.
  31. ^ Compton 2017, pp. 146.
  32. ^ Compton 2017, pp. 144, 146.
  33. ^ Miles 1997, p. 278.
  34. ^ Miles 1997, p. 277.
  35. ^ Simon, Scott; Wharton, Ned (11 August 2018). "A Songwriting Mystery Solved: Math Proves John Lennon Wrote 'In My Life'". NPR.org. Retrieved 13 August 2018.
  36. ^ Sheff 2000, p. 196.
  37. ^ Miles 1997, p. 193.
  38. ^ MacDonald 2005, p. 199.
  39. ^ Lewisohn 1988, pp. 23, 32.
  40. ^ "The Ballad of Paul and Yoko". 27 January 2003.
  41. ^ a b "McCartney makes up with Ono". BBC News. 1 June 2003.
  42. ^ Lister, David (28 December 2002). "Let it be, Sir Paul (as someone or other once said)". The Independent. London.
  43. ^ Landes, Ezra D. (2006). "I Am the Walrus – No. I Am!: Can Paul McCartney Transpose the Ubiquitous 'Lennon–McCartney' Songwriting Credit to Read 'McCartney/Lennon?" An Exploration of the Surviving Beatle's Attempt to Re-Write Music Lore, as it Pertains to the Bundle of Intellectual Property Rights". Pepperdine Law Review. 34: 185.
  44. ^ Lewisohn 1988, p. 28.
  45. ^ "Magical Mystery Tour - The Beatles". AllMusic. Retrieved 2 August 2016.
  46. ^ "Dig It - The Beatles | Song Info | AllMusic". AllMusic. Retrieved 2 August 2016.
  47. ^ "Ultra Rare Trax, Vol. 5 - The Beatles". AllMusic. Retrieved 2 August 2016.
  48. ^ Inglis, Ian (2000). The Beatles, Popular Music and Society. New York: St. Martin's Press. p. 53. ISBN 0-312-22236-X.
  49. ^ Erlewine, Stephen Thomas. "Overview of Please Please Me". Allmusic. Retrieved 14 December 2009.
  50. ^ a b Erlewine, Stephen Thomas. "Review of With the Beatles". Allmusic. Retrieved 14 December 2009.
  51. ^ "Overview of A Hard Day's Night". Allmusic.
  52. ^ "Overview of Beatles for Sale". Allmusic.
  53. ^ MacDonald 2005, p. 128.
  54. ^ Pollack, Alan W. (1992). "Notes on 'Every Little Thing'". soundscapes.info. Retrieved 21 April 2016.
  55. ^ "We can't work it out: Paul McCartney to sue Sony for rights to Beatles classics". The Guardian. Retrieved 29 August 2018.
  56. ^ "Beatles song rights dispute: Paul McCartney and Sony ATV work it out". The Guardian. Retrieved 29 August 2018.
  57. ^ "Sony and Paul McCartney Settle The Beatles Copyright Suit". Fortune. 30 June 2017. Retrieved 29 August 2018.
  58. ^ Calkin, Graham. "The Songs Lennon and McCartney Gave Away". JPGR. Retrieved 14 December 2009.
  59. ^ Winn 2008, p. 120.
  60. ^ "The Beatles Bible".
  61. ^ "Beatles Wiki".
  62. ^ a b Shea & Rodriguez 2002, p. 301.
  63. ^ Everett 2001, p. 25.
  64. ^ Everett 2001, p. 27.
  65. ^ "Watch the Lost Beatles". NPR's Online Music Show. Retrieved 1 November 2006.
  66. ^ a b c d e f MacDonald 2007, p. 77.
  67. ^ a b Sulpy & Schweighardt 1999, p. 119.
  68. ^ Unterberger 2006, p. 248.
  69. ^ "1957 - Early Beatles Songs".
  70. ^ a b Unterberger 2006, p. 242.
  71. ^ Fricke, David (10 August 2016). "Paul McCartney Looks Back: The Rolling Stone Interview". Rolling Stone.
  72. ^ Everett 2001, pp. 26–7.
  73. ^ Everett 2001, p. 372.
  74. ^ Sulpy & Schweighardt 1999, p. 297.
  75. ^ Unterberger 2006, p. 260.
  76. ^ a b c Everett 2001, pp. 25–6.
  77. ^ Unterberger 2006, p. 12.
  78. ^ a b c Sulpy & Schweighardt 1999, p. 37.
  79. ^ a b c Unterberger 2006, pp. 236–7.
  80. ^ Wiener 1994, p. 424.
  81. ^ a b MacDonald 2007, p. 78.
  82. ^ Unterberger 2006, p. 254.
  83. ^ Unterberger 2006, p. 187.
  84. ^ Unterberger 2006, p. 189.
  85. ^ Unterberger, Richie. "rumored". richieunterberger.com. Retrieved 14 May 2016.
  86. ^ Sulpy & Schweighardt 1999, pp. 157–8.
  87. ^ MacDonald 2007, p. 334.
  88. ^ a b c Unterberger 2006, p. 247.
  89. ^ Sulpy & Schweighardt 1999, p. 201.
  90. ^ Sulpy & Schweighardt 1999, pp. 201–2.

Bibliography

  • Compton, Todd (2017). Who Wrote the Beatle Songs? A History of Lennon-McCartney. San Jose: Pahreah Press. ISBN 978-0-9988997-0-1.
  • Everett, Walter (2001). The Beatles As Musicians: The Quarry Men through Rubber Soul. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-514105-4.
  • Goodman, Joan (1984). "Playboy Interview With Paul and Linda McCartney". Beatles Interview Database. Retrieved 6 December 2009.
  • Lewisohn, Mark (1988). The Beatles Recording Sessions. New York: Harmony Books. ISBN 0-517-57066-1.
  • MacDonald, Ian (2005). Revolution in the Head: The Beatles' Records and the Sixties (Second Revised ed.). London: Pimlico (Rand). ISBN 1-84413-828-3.
  • MacDonald, Ian (2007). Revolution in the Head: The Beatles' Records and the Sixties. Chicago: Chicago Review Press. ISBN 978-1-55652-733-3.
  • Miles, Barry (1997). Paul McCartney: Many Years From Now. New York: Henry Holt and Company. ISBN 0-8050-5249-6.
  • Rowley, David (2008). Help! 50 Songwriting, Recording and Career Tips used by the Beatles. Matador. ISBN 978-1-906221-37-9.
  • Shea, Stuart; Rodriguez, Robert (2002). Fab Four FAQ: Everything Left to Know About the Beatles ... and More!. New York: Hal Leonard Corporation. ISBN 978-1-4234-2138-2.
  • Sheff, David (2000). All We Are Saying: The Last Major Interview with John Lennon and Yoko Ono. New York: St. Martin's Press. ISBN 0-312-25464-4.
  • Spitz, Bob (2005). The Beatles: The Biography. Boston: Little, Brown. ISBN 0-316-80352-9.
  • Sulpy, Doug; Schweighardt, Ray (1999). Get Back: The Unauthorized Chronicle of the Beatles' 'Let It Be' Disaster. New York: St. Martin's Griffin. ISBN 978-0-312-19981-4.
  • Unterberger, Richie (2006). Unreleased Beatles Music and Film. San Francisco: Backbeat Books. ISBN 978-0-87930-892-6.
  • Wiener, Allen J. (1994). The Beatles: The Ultimate Recording Guide. Holbrook, Mass.: Adams Media. ISBN 978-1-55850-414-1.
  • Winn, John C. (9 December 2008). Way Beyond Compare: The Beatles' Recorded Legacy, 1957–1965. Three Rivers Press. ISBN 978-0-307-45157-6.

External links

Amoeba's Secret

Amoeba's Secret is an EP by Paul McCartney recorded during a secret performance at Amoeba Music in Hollywood, California, on 27 June 2007.The EP reached 119 on the Billboard 200 albums chart, despite relatively little promotion. The low-resolution album art is intentional, as to make the EP resemble a bootleg recording. The back of the sleeve features an incomplete word search whose letters contain hidden details of the recording.

Beatlemania (musical)

Beatlemania was a Broadway musical revue focused on the music of The Beatles as it related to the events and changing attitudes of the tumultuous 1960s. A "rockumentary," advertised as "Not the Beatles, but an incredible simulation," it ran from 1977 to 1979 for a total of 1,006 performances.

Come Together

"Come Together" is a song by the English rock band the Beatles, written primarily by John Lennon and credited to Lennon–McCartney. The song is the opening track on their 1969 album Abbey Road and was also released as a single coupled with "Something". The song reached the top of the charts in the United States and peaked at No. 4 in the United Kingdom.

Golden Slumbers

"Golden Slumbers" is a song by the English rock band the Beatles from their 1969 album Abbey Road. Written by Paul McCartney and credited to Lennon–McCartney, it is the sixth song of the album's climactic B-side medley. The song is followed by "Carry That Weight" and begins the progression that leads to the end of the album. The two songs were recorded together as a single piece, and both contain strings and brass arranged and scored by producer George Martin.

I'll Keep You Satisfied

"I'll Keep You Satisfied" is a song attributed to Lennon-McCartney, but it was mostly written by Paul McCartney. It was released as a single by Billy J. Kramer with the Dakotas on 1 November 1963. It reached number 4 and spent 13 weeks in the UK charts, kept off the top spot by the Beatles' "She Loves You" (another Lennon–McCartney composition) and "You'll Never Walk Alone". The song hit #30 in the 1964 US charts.

I Will

"I Will" is a song by the English rock band the Beatles, from their 1968 double album The Beatles (also known as "the White Album"). It was written by Paul McCartney (credited to Lennon–McCartney) and features him on lead vocal, guitar, and "vocal bass".

If I Fell

"If I Fell" is a song by English rock band the Beatles which first appeared in 1964 on the album A Hard Day's Night in the United Kingdom and United States, and on the North American album Something New. It was credited to Lennon–McCartney, but John Lennon often stated that he wrote it. "That's my first attempt at a ballad proper. ... It shows that I wrote sentimental love ballads way back when", Lennon stated in his 1980 Playboy interview. However, Paul McCartney stated that he contributed to the song: "We wrote 'If I Fell" together."

In My Life

"In My Life" is a song by the English rock band the Beatles from their 1965 album Rubber Soul. It was written mainly by John Lennon and credited to Lennon–McCartney. Paul McCartney and Lennon later disagreed over the extent of their respective contribution to that song, specifically the melody. George Martin contributed the piano solo bridge, which was sped up to sound like a harpsichord.

The song inspired more pop music producers to use harpsichords in their arrangements. Rolling Stone magazine ranked "In My Life" number 23 on its list of "The 500 Greatest Songs of All Time", as well as fifth on their list of the Beatles' "100 Greatest Songs". The song placed second on CBC's 50 Tracks. Mojo magazine named it the best song of all time in 2000. It's one of the most well known Beatles songs about nostalgia.

Julia (Beatles song)

"Julia" is a song by the English rock band the Beatles, performed as a solo work by John Lennon. The song was written by Lennon (though credited to Lennon–McCartney) regarding his mother Julia Lennon, who died in 1958 at age 44.

The track is the final song on side two (disc one on CD) of the band's 1968 double album, The Beatles (also known as "the White Album") and was the last song recorded for the album. It was also released as the "B side" of the Beatles single "Ob-La-Di, Ob-La-Da" in 1976.

List of songs recorded by the Beatles

The Beatles were an English rock band from Liverpool who recorded hundreds of songs during their career. The group's "main catalogue" – songs released between 1962 and 1970 – consists of 213 songs (some of which exist in different versions): 188 originals and 25 covers. Since their break-up, over 100 more songs by the group have been officially released, which include live songs the group never recorded in-studio and numerous outtakes. The band also recorded several songs that remain unreleased. Throughout their career, every band member contributed to songwriting. Their primary songwriters were the partnership of John Lennon and Paul McCartney, who composed the majority of the group's songs; lead guitarist George Harrison wrote 22 songs, while drummer Ringo Starr wrote two songs and was credited as co-writer for four others. Lead vocals were also shared by the group, with Starr usually contributing vocals to one song per album.

The columns Song, Core catalogue release and Year show the song title, the release that appears in the Beatles' "core catalogue", and the year in which the song was released.

The tracks from Magical Mystery Tour are shown as a single entity. Although originally released in the UK as a double-EP which only includes the tracks from the film, the 11-track US album was imported to the UK shortly after its initial release.

Live Phish Volume 13

Live Phish Vol. 13 was recorded live at the Glens Falls Civic Center in Glens Falls, New York on Halloween night, 1994. It was released on October 29, 2002, along with Volume 14, Volume 15, and Volume 16.

It marks the first of six Halloween shows in which Phish dressed up in a "musical costume" by performing an album from another artist in its entirety. The band took votes from fans via snail mail (50 votes), leading to a complete performance of the 30-song, self-titled Beatles double album, also known as the White Album, sandwiched in between two sets of Phish's own music. The album's final number, "Good Night", is not included on this release, as it was not actually played by Phish, but rather the studio recording was played over the PA at the conclusion of the set.

Phish took few liberties in covering the album with the exception of "Don't Pass Me By" and "Birthday". "Don't Pass Me By" was played in double-time while "Birthday" was slowed down and played in a minor key without lyrics as the band presented a birthday cake on stage to Phish road manager Brad Sands. "Helter Skelter" concludes with the line "I've got blisters on my fingers" sung in barbershop harmony.

The concert had a stated start time of 9:30 p.m. and ended at 3:20 a.m. - the longest Phish concert up to that point. This is also the longest volume in the Live Phish Series consisting of material from one night (Volume 16 is the longest including filler) clocking in at just over four hours.

This album is one of 10 "live jam releases of this century" according to the August 2006 issue of Guitar One magazine.

Live in Los Angeles (Paul McCartney album)

Live in Los Angeles is a promotional live album by Paul McCartney recorded during a secret performance on 27 June 2007 at Amoeba Music in Hollywood, California. The album was released only in the United Kingdom and Ireland through a special promotion run by The Mail on Sunday and the Irish Sunday Mail.

Martha My Dear

"Martha My Dear" is a song by the English rock band the Beatles from their 1968 double album The Beatles (also known as "the White Album"). Credited to Lennon–McCartney, the song was solely written by Paul McCartney about his Old English Sheepdog, Martha, he owned at the time.

Oh! Darling

"Oh! Darling" is a song by the English rock band the Beatles, composed by Paul McCartney (credited to Lennon–McCartney), and appearing as the fourth song on the 1969 album Abbey Road. Its working title was "Oh! Darling (I'll Never Do You No Harm)". Although not issued as a single in either the United Kingdom or the United States, a regional subsidiary of Capitol successfully edited it as a single in Central America, having "Maxwell's Silver Hammer" as its B-side. It was also issued as a single in Portugal. Apple Records released "Oh! Darling" in Japan with "Here Comes the Sun" in June 1970.

Paul Is Live

Paul Is Live is a live album by Paul McCartney, released in 1993 during his New World Tour in support of the album Off the Ground. The album cover is based on that of Beatles' 1969 album Abbey Road and contains multiple references to the "Paul is dead" conspiracy theory.

Thank You Girl

"Thank You Girl" is a song recorded by the English rock band the Beatles, written by John Lennon and Paul McCartney (Lennon–McCartney), and issued as the B-side of the single "From Me to You", which was recorded on the same day (5 March 1963). While not released on an LP in the United Kingdom until Rarities in 1978, the song was the second track on The Beatles' Second Album in the United States. As the B-side of the single "Do You Want to Know a Secret", it hit No. 35 on the Billboard Hot 100 in the spring of 1964.

Things We Said Today

"Things We Said Today" is a song by English rock band the Beatles written by Paul McCartney and credited to Lennon–McCartney. It was composed for the film A Hard Day's Night but was eventually not included. It does appear on the soundtrack album. It was also released as the B-side of the single "A Hard Day's Night" in the UK.

What Goes On (Beatles song)

"What Goes On" is a song by the English rock band the Beatles, featured as the eighth track on their 1965 album Rubber Soul. The song was later released as the B-side of the US single "Nowhere Man", and then as the tenth track on the North America-only album Yesterday and Today. It is the only song by the band credited to Lennon–McCartney–Starkey.

Yes It Is

"Yes It Is" is a song by the English rock band the Beatles. Written by John Lennon (credited to Lennon–McCartney) it was first released in 1965 as the B-side to "Ticket to Ride". It features some of the Beatles' most complex and dissonant three-part vocal harmonies and showcases George Harrison's early use of volume pedal guitar. Ian MacDonald describes the song as having "rich and unusual harmonic motion."

History
Live performances
Associated places
Associated companies
Lists
Related media
Other topics

Languages

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.