Length between perpendiculars

Length between perpendiculars (often abbreviated as p/p, p.p., pp, LPP, LBP or Length BPP) is the length of a ship along the waterline from the forward surface of the stem, or main bow perpendicular member, to the after surface of the sternpost, or main stern perpendicular member. When there is no sternpost, the centerline axis of the rudder stock is used as the aft end of the length between perpendiculars.[1]

Measuring to the stern post or rudder stock was believed to give a reasonable idea of the ship's carrying capacity, as it excluded the small, often unusable volume contained in her overhanging ends. On some types of vessels this is, for all practical purposes, a waterline measurement. In a ship with raked stems, naturally that length changes as the draught of the ship changes, therefore it is measured from a defined loaded condition.

Ship size (side view)
graphical representation of the dimensions used to describe a ship.

See also

.

References

  1. ^ Perpendiculars and Length Between Perpendiculars
  • Hayler, William B.; Keever, John M. (2003). American Merchant Seaman's Manual. Cornell Maritime Pr. ISBN 0-87033-549-9.
  • Turpin, Edward A.; McEwen, William A. (1980). Merchant Marine Officers' Handbook (4th ed.). Centreville, MD: Cornell Maritime Press. ISBN 0-87033-056-X.

External links

Arabe-class destroyer

The Arabe-class destroyers was a group of twelve destroyers built for the French Navy during the First World War. All the ships were built in Japan, as an export version of the Kaba class, and were named after ethnic groups within the French Empire at the time.

Challenger-class cruiser

The Challenger-class cruisers were a pair of second-class protected cruisers built for the Royal Navy in the first decade of the 20th century. One ship, HMS Encounter, was later transferred to the Royal Australian Navy.

Forward-class cruiser

The Forward-class cruiser was a pair of scout cruisers built for the Royal Navy in the first decade of the 20th century. Both ships participated in World War I; the vessels consisted of HMS Forward and HMS Foresight. Both ships survived the war, but were scrapped shortly after its end.

HMS Appledore (1919)

HMS Appledore was a Hunt-class minesweeper of the Aberdare sub-class built for the Royal Navy during World War I. She was not finished in time to participate in the First World War and was sold into civilian service in 1920.

HMS Badminton (1918)

HMS Badminton was a Hunt-class minesweeper of the Aberdare sub-class built for the Royal Navy during World War I. She was not finished in time to participate in the First World War and was sold for scrap in 1928.

HMS James Watt

HMS James Watt was a 91-gun steam and sail-powered second rate ship of the line. She had originally been ordered as one of a two ship class, with her sister HMS Cressy, under the name HMS Audacious. She was renamed on 18 November 1847 in honour of James Watt, the inventor of the steam engine. She was the only Royal Navy ship to bear this name. Both ships were reordered as screw propelled ships, James Watt in 1849, and Cressy in 1852. James Watt became one of the four-ship Agamemnon-class of ships of the line. They were initially planned as 80-gun ships, but the first two ships built to the design, HMS Agamemnon and James Watt, were rerated on 26 March 1851 to 91 guns ships, later followed by the remainder of the class.

The ship had an overall length of 265 feet 3 inches, length between perpendiculars of 230 feet, and beam of 55 feet 5 inches. Her displacement was 3083 tons and her screw was driven by a 600 hp engine. She was built at the Royal Dockyard, Pembroke Dock, launched on 23 April 1853 and commissioned at Plymouth in January 1854 by Captain George Elliot. She served in the Baltic campaigns of 1854 and 1855, despite the poor performance of the ship, and the dissatisfaction of Vice-Admiral Charles Napier. Her machinery, taken second hand from the iron frigate HMS Vulcan, was found to be unsatisfactory. By 1856 alterations to the machinery had cost £5,706, and from 1856 to 1857 she was commanded by Captain Talavera Anson. She was sold for breaking up to Castle, of Charlton in January 1875.

HMS Leamington (1918)

HMS Leamington was a Hunt-class minesweeper of the Aberdare sub-class built for the Royal Navy during World War I. She was not finished in time to participate in the First World War and was sold for scrap in 1928.

HMS Recruit (1896)

HMS Recruit was a Clydebank three-funnel, 30-knot destroyer ordered by the Royal Navy under the 1895–1896 Naval Estimates. She was the fifth ship to carry this name since it was introduced in 1806 for an 18-gun brig-sloop, sold in 1822.

HMS Swindon (1918)

HMS Swindon was a Hunt-class minesweeper of the Aberdare sub-class built for the Royal Navy during World War I. She was not finished in time to participate in the First World War and was sold into civilian service in 1921.

Italian ship Etna (A 5326)

Etna is an auxiliary ship that entered service with the Marina Militare in 1998.

She is designed to support fleet operations with fuel and dry stores.Etna is the Italian single vessel of Etna class with a sister ship, HS Prometheus, was built under licence in Greece and entered service with the Hellenic Navy in 2003.

LBP

LBP may refer to:

Low back pain, a common muscle disorder

Length between perpendiculars, a measure of a ship's length

Lebanese pound, the currency of Lebanon

Lester B. Pearson, 14th Canadian Prime Minister and Nobel Peace Prize winner

Lester B. Pearson Collegiate Institute, highschool in Toronto named after Lester B. Pearson

LittleBigPlanet, a puzzle platform video game series

Lok Bhalai Party, an Indian religional political party

Lok Biradari Prakalp, a NGO in Maharashtra, India

Local binary patterns, a type of visual descriptor

Lipopolysaccharide binding protein, a soluble protein that binds and presents bacterial lipopolysaccharide to cell surface pattern recognition receptors CD14 and TLR4, for the sake of eliciting an immune response.

LPP

LPP may refer to:

LPP (company), a Polish clothing retailer

LPP (gene)

Labor-Progressive Party, Canadian Communist Party from 1943 to 1959

Laboratoire de Phonétique et Phonologie, a French laboratory

Labour Party Pakistan

Latvia's First Party

Legitimate peripheral participation, how newcomers become old-timers in a community of practice

Length between perpendiculars, a ship measurement

License Program Product, a complete software product collection

Living Planet Programme, ESA Earth observation programme

Ljubljanski potniški promet, a public transport company in Slovenia

Lappeenranta Airport in Finland, by IATA code

Lynestrenol phenylpropionate, a progestin that was never marketed

Length overall

Length overall (LOA, o/a, o.a. or oa) is the maximum length of a vessel's hull measured parallel to the waterline. This length is important while docking the ship. It is the most commonly used way of expressing the size of a ship, and is also used for calculating the cost of a marina berth (for example, £2.50 per metre LOA).

LOA is usually measured on the hull alone. For sailing ships, this may exclude the bowsprit and other fittings added to the hull. This is how some racing boats and tall ships use the term LOA. However, other sources may include bowsprits in LOA. Confusingly, LOA has different meanings. "Sparred length", "Total length including bowsprit", "Mooring length" and "LOA including bowsprit" are other expressions that might indicate the full length of a sailing ship.

Often used to distinguish between the length of a vessel including projections (e.g. bow sprits, etc.) from the length of the hull itself, the Length on Deck or LOD is often reported. This is especially useful for smaller sailing vessels, as their LOA can be significantly different from their LOD.

Sentinel-class cruiser

The Sentinel-class cruiser was a pair of scout cruisers built for the Royal Navy in the first decade of the 20th century. Both ships participated in World War I and were scrapped shortly after its end.

Tactical diameter

The tactical diameter of a ship is the distance:

travelled on sea surface

during a turning circle test

with maximum rudder angle

by the center of gravity of a ship

taken perpendicular to the initial track followed at approach speed

when the heading has changed by 180°The ratio of the tactical diameter divided by the ship's length between perpendiculars gives a dimensionless parameter which can be used to compare ships maneuverability.

Type 595 ocean surveillance ship

Type 595 ocean surveillance ship is the first purposely designed and purposely built ocean surveillance ship developed in China for its People's Liberation Army Navy{PLAN). Despite over four decades of service, this type of ship still remain active, albeit on a much less scale.

The design of Type 595 mid-sized ocean surveillance ship was completed in May 1965 by the 708th Institute of China State Shipbuilding Corporation, which is also more commonly known as China Shipbuilding and Oceanic Engineering Design Academy (中国船舶及海洋工程设计研究) nowadays. Original plan was to have construction of this type of ship immediately follows the completion of design, but due to political turmoil in China, namely, Cultural Revolution, construction was delayed and it was not until nearly one and half a year later in September 1967, when construction of the first unit finally begun. Both units planned were completed by the early 1970s and entered service with PLAN. Type 595 is equipped with all electric drive auxiliary propulsion system at low speed to eliminate internal noise generated by the engine so that the sonar system onboard can work better in comparison to diesel engine. The ship are named as Xiangyanghong (向阳红, meaning facing the sun in red) series. Specification:

Length (m): 65.22

Length between perpendiculars (m): 58

Depth (m): 4.8

Beam (m): 10.2

Draft (m): 3.6

Displacement (t): 1165

Max speed (kn): 15

Cruise speed (kn): 12

Range (nmi): 3000

Crew: 82

Main propulsion: two 8350Z-1 diesel engine @ 773 kW (1060 hp) each, @ 360 rpm

Auxiliary propulsion: two 56 kW DC electric motor

Type 645 oceanographic research ship

Type 645 oceanographic research ship is an oceanographic ship developed by China for the People's Liberation Army Navy (PLAN) and other Chinese civilian establishments. A total of three were completed, with one in PLAN and the rest in civilian service.

Type 645 was an experimental program of the Fourth five-year plan of China and designed by the 2nd Directorate of 708th Institute of China State Shipbuilding Corporation, which is also more commonly known as China Shipbuilding and Oceanic Engineering Design Academy (中国船舶及海洋工程设计研究) nowadays. Construction begun in October 1977 and the ship was launched in October 1978, entering service with PLAN in December 1978. There are a total of twelve laboratories on board totaling 257 square meters. Deployment proved that the design was successful, and two more units were built for civilian use, named as Xiangyanghong (向阳红, meaning facing the sun in red in Chinese) 14 and Xiangyanghong 16 respectively. However, on May 2, 1993, Xiangyanghong 16 was rammed and sunk by a Cypriot cargo ship more than nine time of its size (38000 ton) in East China Sea, with lost of three crew members. The hull of Type 645 is used for Type 813 spy ship. The name of the unit in PLAN service is Nan-Diao (南调) 350, meaning South Investigate 350. In 2006, the ship went through an 11-month-long refit to be converted by Shanghai Lifeng Shipyard (上海立丰船厂) of China Shipping Group at Shanghai as the mother ship of Jiaolong (submersible). After conversion, the name of the ship reverted to its original name Xiangyanghong 9 (向阳红, meaning Facing the Sun in Red). Some oceanographic research capability is retained after the conversion in that three laboratories were retained on board. The homeport of Xiangyanghong 9 is in Qingdao. Two additional ships, Xiangyanghong 14 and Xiangyanghong 16 were also built but both went to civilian service, and latter sunk on May 2, 1993 after being hit by a 38000-ton Cypriot LNG carrier near Jeju Island. Specification:

Length (m): 112.05

Length between perpendiculars (m): 97.55

Depth (m): 8.2

Width (m): 15.2

Draft (m): 5.5

Displacement (t): 4435

Speed (kn): 19.35

Range (nmi): 10000 @ 17 kn

Endurance (day): 60

Crew: 150

Main propulsion: two 9ESDZ43/82B low speed diesel engines @ 3308 kW (4500 hp) w/ 200 rpm

Auxiliary propulsion: four 6260GZC-II, TFH-400/10 @ 70 kW (640 hp) w/ 600 rpm

Waterline length

A vessel's waterline length (abbreviated to LWL) is the length of a ship or boat at the level where it sits in the water. The LWL will be shorter than the length of the boat overall (LOA) as most boats have bows and stern and stern protrusions that make the LOA greater than the LWL. As a ship becomes more loaded, it will sit lower in the water and its ambient waterline length may change; but the registered LWL it is measured from a default load condition.

This measure is significant in determining a several of a vessel's properties, such as how much water it displaces, where the bow and stern waves occur, hull speed, amount of bottom-paint needed, etc. Traditionally, a stripe called the "boot top" is painted around the hull just above the waterline.

In sailing boats, longer waterline length will usually enable a greater maximum speed, because it allows greater sail area, without increasing beam or draft. Greater beam and draft produces a larger wetted surface, thereby causing higher hull drag. A boat's maximum speed, also known as theoretical hull speed, can be calculated using the formula: Vmax (in knots) = square root of LWL (in feet) x 1.34.

Length
Breadth
Depth
Volume
Capacity
Weight
Stability
Limits

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