Lenapehoking

Lenapehoking is a term for the lands historically inhabited by the Native American people known as the Lenape (named the Delaware people or Delaware Nation by early European settlers) in what is now the Mid-Atlantic United States. Much of this land is now heavily urbanized and suburbanized.

Although the Delaware historically accommodated the colonies of New Sweden and New Netherlands,[1] by the early 18th century, English settlers had depopulated or ruthlessly displaced most surviving tribal peoples.[1]

Lenapehoking
Map showing the Lenapehoking region

Origin and Meaning

Lenape speakers in Oklahoma called this territory "Lenapehoking," meaning 'in the land of the Lenape' (see the Talk section). This term has gained widespread acceptance and is found widely in recent literature on the Lenape, including in the websites of Lenape people.

Range and bounds

At the time of the arrival of the Europeans in the 16th and 17th centuries, the Lenape homeland ranged along the Atlantic's coast from western Connecticut to Delaware, which generally encompassed the territory adjacent to the Delaware and lower Hudson river valleys, as well the hill-and-ridge dominated territory between them. Relatives of the Algonquian Amerindians whose territories ranged along the entire coast from beyond the Saint Lawrence River in today's Canada, and the tribes throughout all of New England,[1] down into northern South Carolina,[1] the Delaware Confederation[a] stretched from the southern shores of modern-day Delaware along the Atlantic seaboard into western Long Island and Connecticut, then extended westwards across the Hudson water gap into the eastern Catskills part of the Appalachians range around the headwaters of the Delaware River and along both banks of its basin down to the mouth of the Lehigh.

Inland, the tribe had to deal with the fierce and territorial Susquehannocks; the Delawares' territory has generally been plotted with boundaries[b] along mountain ridges[c] topped by the drainage divides between the right bank tributaries of the Delaware River on the east—and on the west and south—the left bank tributaries of the Susquehanna and Lehigh Rivers; bounds which included the Catskills, northern parts of eastern Pennsylvania down through the entire Poconos along the left bank Lehigh River. The Schuylkill River and its mouth (future Philadelphia area counties) or right bank Lehigh was contested hunting grounds, generally shared with the Susquehannock and the occasional visit by a related Potomac tribe when there wasn't active tribal warfare. The greater Philadelphia area was known to host European to Indian contacts from the Dutch traders contacts with the Susquehanna (1600), English traders (1602), and both tribes with New Netherlands traders after 1610

Along the left bank Delaware valley, the territory extended to all of present-day New Jersey, and the southern counties of New York State, including Rockland, Orange, Westchester, and Putnam Counties, Nassau County, and the five boroughs of New York City.[d]

Today's ranges

Today, some Native Americans, but not limited to the Lenape (Delaware) tribes, live in the Northeast Corridor or Eastern Seaboard. Many of them first arrived in the 1920s to 1960s from the Haudenosaunee Confederacy employed as skyscraper construction workers, where they were nicknamed "Mohawks" (many belonged to the Mohawk Tribe) and played an important role in building the skyline of Philadelphia and New York City. In the University City section of West Philadelphia, there has been some political activity by Urban Indian residents of the area, who adapted the namesake Lenapehoking to where they live.

Lenape people today control lands within Oklahoma (Delaware Nation and Delaware Tribe of Indians), Wisconsin (Stockbridge-Munsee Community), and Ontario (Munsee-Delaware Nation, Moravian of the Thames First Nation, and Delaware of Six Nations).

Lenape place names

Lenape place names are used throughout the region.

New York

Manhattan

  • Manhattan is derived from Manna-hata, a Dutch version of a Lenape place-name. The name Manhattan derives from the word Manna-hata, as written in the 1609 logbook of Robert Juet, an officer on Henry Hudson's yacht Halve Maen (Half Moon).[2] A 1610 map depicts the name Manahata twice, on both the west and east sides of the Mauritius River (later named the North River, and now called the Hudson River). The word Manhattan has been translated as "island of many hills" from the Lenape language.[3] The Encyclopedia of New York City offers other derivations, including from the Munsee dialect of Lenape: manahachtanienk ("place of general inebriation"), manahatouh ("place where timber is procured for bows and arrows"), or menatay ("island").[4] / *Nora Thompson Dean (Touching Leaves Woman): "place that is an island," from Lenape Menating. [5]

Staten Island

  • Aquehonga - name for Staten Island
  • Manacknong - name for Staten Island
  • Shawkopoke - habitation site and cultivated area along Great Kills Harbor

Brooklyn

  • Nayack or Wichquawanck - habitation in Bay Ridge near the present location of the Verrazano Narrows Bridge
  • Gowanus Canal - originally named by early settlers as "Gowanes Creek" after Gouwane, sachem of the local Lenape tribe called the Canarsee, who lived and farmed along the shores of the creek.[6]
  • Sassian - habitation site in present Red Hook

Queens

  • Rockaway, evolved from the Lenape word "reckowacky", which apparently referred to "a sandy place."[7]
  • Maspeth originally Mas-pet were a part of the Rockaway band that lived along Maspeth Creek.[8]

Rockland County

  • Monsey - from the name of the Munsees, northern branch of the Lenapes

New Jersey

  • Absecon - meaning: "place of swans"[9]
  • Assunpink Creek - meaning: "Stony Creek"[9] / *Nora Thompson Dean (Touching Leaves Woman): "rocky place that is watery," from Lenape Ahsenping. [10]
  • Communipaw (in downtown Jersey City) - "riverside landing place"[9]
  • Cushetunk - "place of hogs"[9]
  • Hackensack - "stream flowing into another on a plain/ in a swamp/ in a lowland"[9] / *Nora Thompson Dean (Touching Leaves Woman): "place of sharp ground," from Lenape Ahkinkeshaki. [11]
  • Hoboken - "where pipes are traded" / *Nora Thompson Dean (Touching Leaves Woman): "tobacco pipe," from Lenape Hupoken. [12]
  • Hohokus - "red cedars"[9]
  • Hopatcong - "pipe stone" (NOT "honey waters of many coves" as early 20th-century boosters would have it)[13]
  • Kittatinny - "great hill" or "endless mountain" / *Nora Thompson Dean (Touching Leaves Woman): "big mountain," from Lenape Kitahtene. [14]
  • Mahwah - "meeting place"
  • Manahawkin - "place where there is good land" / *Nora Thompson Dean (Touching Leaves Woman): "where the land slopes," from Lenape Menahoking. [15]
  • Manalapan - municipality's name is said to have come from Lenape and is said to mean "land of good bread"
  • Mantoloking - said to be either "frog ground", "sandy place" or "land of sunsets"
  • Manasquan - "Man-A-Squaw-Han", meaning "stream of the island of squaws" / *Nora Thompson Dean (Touching Leaves Woman): "place to gather grass," from Lenape Menaskung. [16]
  • Mantua - said to have come from the "Munsees", North Jersey Lenapes, but the township is in South Jersey.[9]
  • Matawan - "hill on either side"[9]
  • Metuchen - "dry firewood"[9]
  • Minisink - "from the rocky land", is the old name for the Munsee, and the name of an ancient Lenape trade route that ran along a good part of what is now US Highway 46 in Northern New Jersey
  • Musconetcong
  • Netcong - Abbreviation of "Musconetcong".
  • Parsippany - original form was "parsipanong", which means "the place where the river winds through the valley"[9]
  • Passaic - "valley" or "river flowing through a valley"[9] / *Nora Thompson Dean (Touching Leaves Woman): "valley," from Lenape Pahsaek. [17]
  • Peapack - "place of water roots"[9]
  • Raritan - original form was Naraticong - may have meant "river behind the island" or "forked river".[9]
  • Scheyichbi. Meaning of name varies.[9] notes two possible meanings: the land that the Lenapes called their country, or "land of the shell money (wampum)".[9]
  • Secaucus - "black snakes".[9]
  • Weehawken - "place of gulls".[9]

Pennsylvania

  • Aquashicola Creek - derived from the Lenape, meaning "where we fish with the bushnet."[18]
  • Cacoosing Creek- derived from the Lenape word "kukhus", meaning "owl"[19]
  • Buckwampum Mountain - located in eastern Springfield Township, Bucks County, means "a round bog".[20]
  • Catasauqua - "thirsty ground"[21]
  • Catawissa - "growing fat"[22]
  • Chinquapin - The name is taken from a small nut-bearing tree or shrub, resembling the American Chestnut.
  • Cocalico- "where the snakes collect in dens to pass the winter"[23]
  • Cohocksink Creek - from a Lenape word for "pine lands."[24]
  • Cohoquinoque Creek- derived from a Lenni-Lenape word for "the grove of long pine trees."
  • Connoquenessing - "a long way straight"[25] (This Lenape placename does not occur within the bounds of Lenapehoking, as defined by the map accompanying this article.)
  • Conococheague Creek - "water of many turns"
  • Conodoguinet Creek - "A Long Way with Many Bends"
  • Conshohocken - original form "Gueno-sheiki-hacking", meaning pleasant valley.[26] / *Nora Thompson Dean (Touching Leaves Woman): "elegant land," from Lenape Kanshihaking. [27]
  • Hokendauqua Creek - From Lenape words: Haki, or land, and undoech-wen, or to come for some purpose, Meaning: "Searching for land"
  • Kingsessing - "a place where there is a meadow"
  • Kittatinny - "great mountain" / *Nora Thompson Dean (Touching Leaves Woman): "big mountain," from Lenape Kitatene. [28]
  • Karakung - "clay creek"
  • Lahaska - derived from "Lahaskeke" meaning "the place of much writing,"[20]
  • Lackawanna - "forks of a stream" / *Nora Thompson Dean (Touching Leaves Woman): "sandy creek; sandy river," from Lenape Lekaohane. [29] (This Lenape placename does not occur within the bounds of Lenapehoking, as defined by the map accompanying this article.)
  • Lehigh County - from Lenape word "Lechauwekink" meaning "at the forks of a path or stream"
  • Lycoming - "great stream"[30] (This Lenape placename does not occur within the bounds of Lenapehoking, as defined by the map accompanying this article.)
  • Macungie - derived from Maguntsche, meaning "bear swamp" or "feeding place of the Bears."
  • Mahoning Creek - from Lenape word: Mahonink, meaning: "at the mineral lick" referring to a place frequented by deer, elk and other animals
  • Manatawny Creek - "place where we drank"[31]
  • Manayunk - "place where we go to drink"[26] / *Nora Thompson Dean (Touching Leaves Woman): "place to drink," from Lenape Meneyung. [32]
  • Mauch Chunk Creek - from Lenape word: "Machk-tschunk" meaning: "at the bear mountain"[33] / *Nora Thompson Dean (Touching Leaves Woman): "where the hills are clustered," from Lenape Menangahchung. [34]
  • Maxatawny - from Lenape word Machksit-hanne meaning: "bear path stream"[33]
  • Monocacy - from Lenape word Menagassi meaning: "stream with several large bends"[33]
  • Moselem - "trout stream"[35]
  • Moshannon Creek - derived from "Moss-Hanne", meaning "moose stream"[36] (This Lenape placename does not occur within the bounds of Lenapehoking, as defined by the map accompanying this article.)
  • Moyamensing - place of judgment, located in the south part of Philadelphia
  • Muckinipattis Creek - "deep running water"
  • Neshaminy Creek - from Lenape word: "Nischam-hanne" meaning: "two streams" or "double stream"[20]
  • Nesquehoning Creek - from Lenape word: Neska-honi, meaning: "black mineral lick"[33]
  • Nittany - "single mountain"[37] (This Lenape placename does not occur within the bounds of Lenapehoking, as defined by the map accompanying this article.)
  • Nockamixon Township - from Lenape word: "Nochanichsink" meaning: "where there are three houses"[20]
  • Ockanickon Scout Reservation - named after a Lenape chief who assisted William Penn in the exploration of the Bucks County area.[38]
  • Okehocking Historic District - an 18th-century Indian Land Grant by William Pennto the Okehocking band of Lenape (Delaware) Indians in 1703.[39]
  • Ontelaunee - little daughter of a great mother[40]
  • Passyunk - a Philadelphia neighborhood and former township named for a Lenape village (compare to Passaic, New Jersey)[41] / *Nora Thompson Dean (Touching Leaves Woman): "in the valley," from Lenape Pahsayung. [42]
  • Paxtang - "where the waters stand"[43] (This Lenape placename does not occur within the bounds of Lenapehoking, as defined by the map accompanying this article.)
  • Paunacussing Creek - means "where the powder was given to us."[20]
  • Pennypack Creek - "downward-flowing water" - a creek in and near Philadelphia.[44]
  • Perkasie - derived from Poekskossing, meaning "where the hickory nuts were cracked."[20]
  • Perkiomen Creek - derived from "Pakihmomink" meaning "where the cranberries grow" - a creek in central Montgomery County, Pennsylvania.[20]
  • Pocono - from Lenape word Poco-hanne "a stream between mountains"[33]
  • Poquessing Creek - "place of the mice"[20]
  • Punxsutawney - "Punkwsutènay" meaning "town of the sandflies" (This Lenape placename does not occur within the bounds of Lenapehoking, as defined by the map accompanying this article.)
  • Saucon Creek - from Lenape word Sacunk meaning: "the mouth of a stream"[33] (This Lenape placename does not occur within the bounds of Lenapehoking, as defined by the map accompanying this article.)
  • Shackamaxon - which means place of the council and is on the site of Penn Treaty Park in Philadelphia.[45]
  • Skippack - from Lenape word Skappeu-hacki meaning: "wet land"[33]
  • Susquehanna River - from (Lenape: Siskëwahane) "mile wide, foot deep" (This Lenape placename does not occur within the bounds of Lenapehoking, as defined by the map accompanying this article.)
  • Tamaqua - from Lenape word: "Tamaqua" meaning: "beaver"[33]
  • Tatamy - from Lenape name: Chief Moses Tatamy who lived in the region and died in 1761
  • Tohickon Creek - "the stream over which we pass by means of a bridge of drift-wood" or simply "deer-bone--creek."[20]
  • Towamencin - a township in Montgomery County, Pennsylvania, means "Poplar Tree" [46]
  • Towamensing- "fording place at the falls"[33]
  • Tulpehocken - "land of turtles", the name of a creek and a SEPTA train station and street in Philadelphia[47] / *Nora Thompson Dean (Touching Leaves Woman): "turtle land," from Lenape Tulpehaking. [48]
  • Unami Creek - From Lenape word: Unami meaning "person from down river"[33]
  • Wissahickon - "yellow stream" or "catfish stream" - a creek in and near Philadelphia.[49]
  • Wyomissing - meaning "the land of flats" - a borough in Berks County Pennsylvania[33]
  • Youghiogheny - "four streams" or "winding stream" (This Lenape placename does not occur within the bounds of Lenapehoking, as defined by the map accompanying this article.)

See also

Lenapehoking
Sticker

Notes

  1. ^ The Delaware peoples organized themselves into divisions. Tribal government was through the appointment of Sachems (chieftains) by the tribal matriarchs. A Sachem could also come about by merit, these were generally earned in acts of warfare.[1]
  2. ^ Natural barriers to foot travel predominate defining the limits of cultures without written languages. In tribal North America, between rivals and deadly enemies, hunting ranges devoid of permanent settlements were the rule, but summer hunting or fishing camps with temporary shelters were also common—as were the peaceful visits and trading along people historians have incorrectly painted as eternally at war. Games and competitions, trade and social visits were far more common, even among supposed hated enemies than were periods of warfare.[1]
  3. ^ Given the foot-and-birch-bark-canoe-travel technology of the era, anyone familiar with hunting in the Appalachian topographies, would find this eminently sensible. Topping any ridge away from a major stream would be a climb only be undertaken if crossing into another drainage catchment. Canoe navigable streams occur only after waters have had time to gather and possibly dam up in broader valleys carved by glaciers or spring floods and beaver dams, so are well away from the boundaries marked logically atop drainage divides and their characteristic small steep rock strewn streams that were difficult to walk, and impassible by valuable & fragile birch bark canoes. The implication is the drainage divide areas, were little visited and unpopulated areas between tribes since they were difficult to travel into, across, or out of—the reader is reminded the nature of the forests in North America ran to tree sizes we rarely see today in isolated specimens with trunks starting over two feet in diameter. Only where a mountain pass, such as the gaps of the Allegheny was part of the goal, were such remote areas commonly visited before the extensive trapping and hunting beginning with the Beaver Wars period.
  4. ^ Along with New York City, Newark, Trenton, Princeton, Philadelphia, Wilmington, Delaware, Atlantic City, and numerous other urban and suburban areas are in Lenapehoking today, as are the Jersey Shore, Pine Barrens, the Sourland Mountains, the Delaware Valley, Poconos, and parts of the Catskills.

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f Editor: Alvin M. Josephy, Jr., by The editors of American Heritage Magazine (1961). "The American Heritage Book of Indians". In pages 168–189 (ed.). ,. American Heritage Publishing Co., Inc. LCCN 61-14871.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link)
  2. ^ Full Text of Robert Juet's Journal: From the collections of the New York Historical Society, Second Series, 1841 log book Archived 2009-05-18 at the Wayback Machine, Newsday. Accessed May 16, 2007.
  3. ^ Holloway, Marguerite (May 16, 2004). "Urban tactics; I'll Take Mannahatta". The New York Times. Retrieved April 30, 2007. He could envision what Henry Hudson saw in 1609 as he sailed along Mannahatta, which in the Lenape dialect most likely meant island of many hills.
  4. ^ "More on the names behind the roads we ride" Archived 2007-08-07 at the Wayback Machine, The Record (Bergen County), April 21, 2002. Accessed 2007-10-26. "The origin of Manhattan probably is from the language of the Munsee Indians, according to the Encyclopedia of New York City. It could have come from manahachtanienk, meaning place of general inebriation, or manahatouh, meaning place where timber is procured for bows and arrows, or menatay, meaning island."
  5. ^ Kraft, Herbert C.; Kraft, John T. (1985). The Indians of Lenapehoking (First ed.). South Orange, NJ: Seton Hall University Press. p. 45. ISBN 0-935137-00-9
  6. ^ The Gowanus Dredgers Canoe Club, "Gowanus Canal History Archived 2007-09-28 at the Wayback Machine", accessed May 12, 2004, revised April 2, 2004
  7. ^ William Martin Beauchamp: Aboriginal place names of New York (1907); p.179 [1]
  8. ^ History of Long island from its discovery and settlement to the present time. Volume 1 By Benjamin Franklin Thompson, Charles Jolly Werner (1918)[2]
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q indian.htm Archived 2007-01-06 at the Wayback Machine
  10. ^ Kraft, Herbert C.; Kraft, John T. (1985). The Indians of Lenapehoking (First ed.). South Orange, NJ: Seton Hall University Press. p. 45. ISBN 0-935137-00-9
  11. ^ Kraft, Herbert C.; Kraft, John T. (1985). The Indians of Lenapehoking (First ed.). South Orange, NJ: Seton Hall University Press. p. 45. ISBN 0-935137-00-9
  12. ^ Kraft, Herbert C.; Kraft, John T. (1985). The Indians of Lenapehoking (First ed.). South Orange, NJ: Seton Hall University Press. p. 45. ISBN 0-935137-00-9
  13. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2009-07-08. Retrieved 2009-05-30.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  14. ^ Kraft, Herbert C.; Kraft, John T. (1985). The Indians of Lenapehoking (First ed.). South Orange, NJ: Seton Hall University Press. p. 45. ISBN 0-935137-00-9
  15. ^ Kraft, Herbert C.; Kraft, John T. (1985). The Indians of Lenapehoking (First ed.). South Orange, NJ: Seton Hall University Press. p. 45. ISBN 0-935137-00-9
  16. ^ Kraft, Herbert C.; Kraft, John T. (1985). The Indians of Lenapehoking (First ed.). South Orange, NJ: Seton Hall University Press. p. 45. ISBN 0-935137-00-9
  17. ^ Kraft, Herbert C.; Kraft, John T. (1985). The Indians of Lenapehoking (First ed.). South Orange, NJ: Seton Hall University Press. p. 45. ISBN 0-935137-00-9
  18. ^ The origin of certain place names in the United States By Henry Gannett
  19. ^ "Lenapenation - Preserving Tradition With Technology" (PDF). LenapeNation.org. Archived from the original (PDF) on March 29, 2016. Retrieved February 13, 2017.
  20. ^ a b c d e f g h i RESEARCH OF Donald R. Repsher, of Bath, PennsylvaniaFriend and Brother of the Lenape Archived 2014-08-10 at the Wayback Machine
  21. ^ "Catasauqua - Tales of the Towpath". DelawareAndLehigh.org. Retrieved February 13, 2017.
  22. ^ Nude Walker: A Novel By Bathsheba Monk
  23. ^ Names which the Lenni Lennape Or Delaware Indians Gave to Rivers, Streams ... edited by William Cornelius Reichel
  24. ^ Kyriakodis, Harry (2010-11-26). "Philadelphia's Willow Street: The Curious Curvaceous Chronicle of Cohoquinoque Creek (a.k.a. Pegg's Run)" (PDF). Philly H₂O. Retrieved 2018-10-21.
  25. ^ "History of Connoquenessing, Pa". Rays-place.com. Retrieved February 13, 2017.
  26. ^ a b "Lenapenation - Preserving Tradition With Technology". LenapeNation.org. Archived from the original on March 3, 2016. Retrieved February 13, 2017.
  27. ^ Kraft, Herbert C.; Kraft, John T. (1985). The Indians of Lenapehoking (First ed.). South Orange, NJ: Seton Hall University Press. p. 45. ISBN 0-935137-00-9
  28. ^ Kraft, Herbert C.; Kraft, John T. (1985). The Indians of Lenapehoking (First ed.). South Orange, NJ: Seton Hall University Press. p. 45. ISBN 0-935137-00-9
  29. ^ Kraft, Herbert C.; Kraft, John T. (1985). The Indians of Lenapehoking (First ed.). South Orange, NJ: Seton Hall University Press. p. 45. ISBN 0-935137-00-9
  30. ^ History of Lycoming County, Pennsylvania ... edited by John Franklin Meginness
  31. ^ The Centennial Celebration, 1776-1876 at Pottstown, Pa., July 4, 1876 and ... By L. H. Davis
  32. ^ Kraft, Herbert C.; Kraft, John T. (1985). The Indians of Lenapehoking (First ed.). South Orange, NJ: Seton Hall University Press. p. 45. ISBN 0-935137-00-9
  33. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k "Lenape language LEGACY". Mcall.com. Retrieved February 13, 2017.
  34. ^ Kraft, Herbert C.; Kraft, John T. (1985). The Indians of Lenapehoking (First ed.). South Orange, NJ: Seton Hall University Press. p. 45. ISBN 0-935137-00-9
  35. ^ The Story of Berks County (Pennsylvania) By A. E. Wagner, Francis Wilhauer Balthaser, D. K. Hoch
  36. ^ "PA DCNR - Black Moshannon State Park". State.pa.us. Retrieved February 13, 2017.
  37. ^ "Pennsylvania State University - All Things Nittany". PSU.edu. Retrieved February 13, 2017.
  38. ^ "Boy Scouts of America Camps". 205BSAShrewsburypa.org. Retrieved February 13, 2017.
  39. ^ OpenLibrary.org. "History of Delaware county, Pennsylvania (1862 edition)". OpenLibrary.org. Retrieved February 13, 2017.
  40. ^ The New England Magazine, Volume 37
  41. ^ "Timeline: From Weccacoe to South Philadelphia" (PDF). Phila Place. Historical Society of Pennsylvania. 2009-11-30.
  42. ^ Kraft, Herbert C.; Kraft, John T. (1985). The Indians of Lenapehoking (First ed.). South Orange, NJ: Seton Hall University Press. p. 45. ISBN 0-935137-00-9
  43. ^ History of Dauphin County, Pennsylvania, Volume 1 By Luther Reily Kelker
  44. ^ "Pennypack Creek - Philadelphia, PA - Wikipedia Entries on Waymarking.com". Waymarking.com. Retrieved February 13, 2017.
  45. ^ "Penn Treaty Museum". PennTreatyMuseum.org. Retrieved February 13, 2017.
  46. ^ Specht, J. Henry (1974). A History of Towamencin Township. Lansdale PA. pp. 1–69.
  47. ^ "Tulpehocken Creek". FoundationsOfAmerica.com. Retrieved February 13, 2017.
  48. ^ Kraft, Herbert C.; Kraft, John T. (1985). The Indians of Lenapehoking (First ed.). South Orange, NJ: Seton Hall University Press. p. 45. ISBN 0-935137-00-9
  49. ^ on, Best Books (1 January 1939). "Philadelphia, a Guide to the Nation's Birthplace". Best Books on. Retrieved February 13, 2017 – via Google Books.
Delaware Valley

The Delaware Valley is the valley through which the Delaware River flows. By extension, this toponym is commonly used to refer to Greater Philadelphia or Philadelphia metropolitan area ("the [Lower] Delaware Valley Metropolitan Area"), which straddles the Lower Delaware River just north of its estuary. The Delaware Valley Metropolitan Area is located at the southern part of the Northeast megalopolis and as such, the Delaware Valley can be described as either a metropolitan statistical area (MSA), or as a broader combined statistical area (CSA). The Delaware Valley Metropolitan Area is composed of several counties in southeastern Pennsylvania and southwestern New Jersey, one county in northern Delaware, and one county in northeastern Maryland. The MSA has a population of over 6 million, while the CSA has a population of over 7.1 million (as of the 2010 Census Bureau count). Philadelphia, being the region's major commercial, cultural, and industrial center, wields a rather large sphere of influence that affects the counties that immediately surround it.

Some of the Delaware Valley's most well-known contributions to human civilization involve the region's higher education and medical institutions. The Delaware Valley has been influential upon American history and industry. The region are leaders in higher education, biotechnology, medicine, tourism and many others. With a gross domestic product of $388 billion, Philadelphia ranks ninth among world cities and fourth in the nation.The area has hosted many people and sites significant to American culture and history, particularly in the arts, where Philadelphia alone has more outdoor sculptures and murals than any other American city, politics, including many influential people involved in politics such as Benjamin Franklin and the American Revolution. Philadelphia is famously known as "The Birthplace of America" as the Declaration of Independence and Constitution were both drafted and signed there. On December 7, 1787, Delaware became the first state to ratify the Constitution, and has since promoted itself as "The First State".The Delaware Valley was home to many other instrumental moments in the American Revolution, including the First and Second Continental Congress, the preservation of the Liberty Bell, the Battles of Germantown, Brandywine, and Red Bank, the Siege of Fort Mifflin, the winter of 1777–78 at Valley Forge, the Philadelphia Convention, and many others. Philadelphia was one of the nation's capitals in the Revolutionary War, and served as temporary U.S. capital while Washington, D.C., was under construction.

Today, the area is home to some of the most prestigious universities in the world, such as the University of Pennsylvania, Drexel University, Villanova University, Saint Joseph's University, University of Delaware, and Temple University. The Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania is consistently ranked as the best business school in the world.

Emily Johnson

Emily Johnson (born 1976, Soldotna, Alaska) is an American dancer, writer, and choreographer of Yup'ik descent. She is based in Minneapolis, where she is artistic director of her performance company, Emily Johnson/Catalyst. Johnson is a organizer for the First Nations Dialogues New York/Lenapehoking. She also works part-time at Birchbark Books, an independent bookstore owned by author Louise Erdrich.

Fort Christina

Fort Christina (also called Fort Altena) was the first Swedish settlement in North America and the principal settlement of the New Sweden colony. Built in 1638 and named after Queen Christina of Sweden, it was located approximately 1 mi (1.6 km) east of the present downtown Wilmington, Delaware, at the confluence of the Brandywine River and the Christina River, approximately 2 mi (3 km) upstream from the mouth of the Christina on the Delaware River.

Historic regions of the United States

This is a list of historic regions of the United States that existed at some time during the territorial evolution of the United States and its overseas possessions, from the colonial era to the present day. It includes formally organized territories, proposed and failed states, unrecognized breakaway states, international and interstate purchases, cessions, and land grants, and historical military departments and administrative districts. The last section lists informal regions from American vernacular geography known by popular nicknames and linked by geographical, cultural, or economic similarities, some of which are still in use today.

For a more complete list of regions and subdivisions of the United States used in modern times, see List of regions of the United States.

Index of New Jersey-related articles

The following is an alphabetical list of articles related to the U.S. state of New Jersey.

Joanne Barker

Joanne Barker (Lenape, citizen of the Delaware Tribe of Indians) became a faculty member within the American Indian Studies Department at San Francisco State University, in 2003. Much of her work focuses on indigenous feminism and the sovereignty and self determination of indigenous peoples. Her work takes a transnational approach, making connections between and across the borders of countries. Barker makes historical and scholarly connections between the oppression and resistance of marginalized communities. An example of this transnational approach can be seen by the work that Barker has done to show connections in the struggles of Palestinians in Israel and indigenous communities in the United States.

Lenape

The Lenape (English: or ), also called the Leni Lenape, Lenni Lenape and Delaware people, are an indigenous people of the Northeastern Woodlands, who live in Canada and the United States. Their historical territory included present-day New Jersey and eastern Pennsylvania along the Delaware River watershed, New York City, western Long Island, and the Lower Hudson Valley. Today, Lenape people belong to the Delaware Nation and Delaware Tribe of Indians in Oklahoma; the Stockbridge-Munsee Community in Wisconsin; and the Munsee-Delaware Nation, Moravian of the Thames First Nation, and Delaware of Six Nations in Ontario.

The Lenape have a matrilineal clan system and historically were matrilocal.

During the decades of the 18th century, most Lenape were pushed out of their homeland by expanding European colonies. Their dire situation was exacerbated by losses from intertribal conflicts. The divisions and troubles of the American Revolutionary War and United States' independence pushed them farther west. In the 1860s, the United States government sent most Lenape remaining in the eastern United States to the Indian Territory (present-day Oklahoma and surrounding territory) under the Indian removal policy. In the 21st century, most Lenape now reside in Oklahoma, with some communities living also in Wisconsin and Ontario.

List of councils (Boy Scouts of America)

The program of the Boy Scouts of America is administered through 272 local councils, with each council covering a geographic area that may vary from a single city to an entire state. Each council receives an annual charter from the National Council and is usually incorporated as a charitable organization. Most councils are administratively divided into districts that directly serve Scout units.

Councils fall into one of four regions: Western, Central, Southern, and Northeast. Each region is then subdivided into areas. The total number of councils depends on how they are counted:

There are 272 individual local councils

Direct Service covers units outside of local councils— although technically not a council it is assigned a council number

Greater New York Councils has five boroughs, each with an assigned council number

Michigan Crossroads Council has four field service councils, each with an assigned council number

Each of the four regions has an assigned council number

List of traditional territories of the indigenous peoples of North America

This list of traditional territories of the original peoples of North America gives an overview of the names of the indigenous "countries" of North America. In this sense, "country" refers to the name of the land...the ground...the territory of a nation, rather than the name of the nation ("tribe") itself. This article is only about the name for the land of a nation.

For example, the traditional territory (country/land) of the Ho-Chunk (Winnebago) Nation is called Waaziija, meaning "the Grand Pinery". In English, the land of an indigenous nation was historically, and sometimes still is, referred to as a "country", such as "(the) Winnebago country". Some Latinate forms exist in English such as "Iroquoia", "Huronia", and "Apacheria".

The distinction between nation and land is like the French people versus the land of France, the Māori people versus Aotearoa, or the Saami people versus Sápmi (Saamiland).

New York City

The City of New York, usually called either New York City (NYC) or simply New York (NY), is the most populous city in the United States. With an estimated 2017 population of 8,622,698 distributed over a land area of about 302.6 square miles (784 km2), New York is also the most densely populated major city in the United States. Located at the southern tip of the state of New York, the city is the center of the New York metropolitan area, the largest metropolitan area in the world by urban landmass and one of the world's most populous megacities, with an estimated 20,320,876 people in its 2017 Metropolitan Statistical Area and 23,876,155 residents in its Combined Statistical Area. A global power city, New York City has been described as the cultural, financial, and media capital of the world, and exerts a significant impact upon commerce, entertainment, research, technology, education, politics, tourism, art, fashion, and sports. The city's fast pace has inspired the term New York minute. Home to the headquarters of the United Nations, New York is an important center for international diplomacy.Situated on one of the world's largest natural harbors, New York City consists of five boroughs, each of which is a separate county of the State of New York. The five boroughs – Brooklyn, Queens, Manhattan, The Bronx, and Staten Island – were consolidated into a single city in 1898. The city and its metropolitan area constitute the premier gateway for legal immigration to the United States. As many as 800 languages are spoken in New York, making it the most linguistically diverse city in the world. New York City is home to more than 3.2 million residents born outside the United States, the largest foreign-born population of any city in the world. In 2017, the New York metropolitan area produced a gross metropolitan product (GMP) of US$1.73 trillion. If greater New York City were a sovereign state, it would have the 12th highest GDP in the world. New York is home to the highest number of billionaires of any city in the world.New York City traces its origins to a trading post founded by colonists from the Dutch Republic in 1624 on Lower Manhattan; the post was named New Amsterdam in 1626. The city and its surroundings came under English control in 1664 and were renamed New York after King Charles II of England granted the lands to his brother, the Duke of York. New York served as the capital of the United States from 1785 until 1790. It has been the country's largest city since 1790. The Statue of Liberty greeted millions of immigrants as they came to the U.S. by ship in the late 19th and early 20th centuries and is an international symbol of the U.S. and its ideals of liberty and peace. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a global node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance, and environmental sustainability, and as a symbol of freedom and cultural diversity.Many districts and landmarks in New York City are well known, with the city having three of the world's ten most visited tourist attractions in 2013 and receiving a record 62.8 million tourists in 2017. Several sources have ranked New York the most photographed city in the world. Times Square, iconic as the world's "heart" and its "Crossroads", is the brightly illuminated hub of the Broadway Theater District, one of the world's busiest pedestrian intersections, and a major center of the world's entertainment industry. The names of many of the city's landmarks, skyscrapers, and parks are known around the world. Manhattan's real estate market is among the most expensive in the world. New York is home to the largest ethnic Chinese population outside of Asia, with multiple signature Chinatowns developing across the city. Providing continuous 24/7 service, the New York City Subway is the largest single-operator rapid transit system worldwide, with 472 rail stations. Over 120 colleges and universities are located in New York City, including Columbia University, New York University, and Rockefeller University, which have been ranked among the top universities in the world. Anchored by Wall Street in the Financial District of Lower Manhattan, New York has been called both the most economically powerful city and the leading financial center of the world, and the city is home to the world's two largest stock exchanges by total market capitalization, the New York Stock Exchange and NASDAQ.

Northern New Jersey Council

The Northern New Jersey Council was formed in January 1999 as a joint venture between the independent councils of Bergen, Essex, Hudson and Passaic counties as an effort to better serve the Scouting communities encompassed in these areas. By drawing on the strengths of each of these individual councils and merging them together, the Northern New Jersey Council has committed itself to offering the finest Scouting programs, increasing membership and providing strong, supportive leadership.

Philadelphia Main Line

The Philadelphia Main Line, known simply as the Main Line, is an informally delineated historical and social region of suburban Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Lying along the former Pennsylvania Railroad's once prestigious Main Line, it runs northwest from Center City Philadelphia parallel to Lancaster Avenue (U.S. Route 30).

The railroad first connected the Main Line towns in the 19th century. They became home to sprawling country estates belonging to Philadelphia's wealthiest families, and over the decades became a bastion of "old money". Today, the Main Line includes some of the wealthiest communities in the country, including Lower Merion Township, Radnor Township, and Tredyffrin Township. Today, the railroad is Amtrak's Keystone Corridor, along which SEPTA's Paoli/Thorndale Line operates.

Staten Island

Staten Island () is one of the five boroughs of New York City, in the U.S. state of New York. Located in the southwest portion of the city, the borough is separated from New Jersey by the Arthur Kill and the Kill Van Kull and from the rest of New York by New York Bay. With an estimated population of 479,458 in 2017, Staten Island is the least populated of the boroughs but is the third-largest in land area at 58.5 sq mi (152 km2). The borough also contains the southern-most point in the state, South Point.

The borough is coextensive with Richmond County and until 1975 was referred to as the Borough of Richmond. Staten Island has sometimes been called "the forgotten borough" by inhabitants who feel neglected by the city government.The North Shore—especially the neighborhoods of St. George, Tompkinsville, Clifton and Stapleton—is the most urban part of the island; it contains the designated St. George Historic District and the St. Paul's Avenue-Stapleton Heights Historic District, which feature large Victorian houses. The East Shore is home to the 2.5-mile (4 km) F.D.R. Boardwalk, the fourth-longest boardwalk in the world. The South Shore, site of the 17th-century Dutch and French Huguenot settlement, developed rapidly beginning in the 1960s and 1970s and is now mostly suburban in character. The West Shore is the least populated and most industrial part of the island.

Motor traffic can reach the borough from Brooklyn via the Verrazzano-Narrows Bridge and from New Jersey via the Outerbridge Crossing, Goethals Bridge and Bayonne Bridge. Staten Island has Metropolitan Transportation Authority (MTA) bus lines and an MTA rapid transit line, the Staten Island Railway, which runs from the ferry terminal at St. George to Tottenville. Staten Island is the only borough that is not connected to the New York City Subway system. The free Staten Island Ferry connects the borough across New York Harbor to Manhattan and is a popular tourist attraction, providing views of the Statue of Liberty, Ellis Island and Lower Manhattan.

Staten Island had the Fresh Kills Landfill, which was the world's largest landfill before closing in 2001, although it was temporarily reopened that year to receive debris from the September 11 attacks. The landfill is being redeveloped as Freshkills Park, an area devoted to restoring habitat; the park will become New York City's second largest public park when completed.

Susquehanna River

The Susquehanna River (; Lenape: Siskëwahane) is a major river located in the northeastern and mid-Atlantic United States. At 464 miles (747 km) long, it is the longest river on the East Coast of the United States that drains into the Atlantic Ocean. With its watershed, it is the 16th-largest river in the United States, and the longest river in the early 21st-century continental United States without commercial boat traffic.

The Susquehanna River forms from two main branches: the "North Branch", which rises in Cooperstown, New York, and is regarded by federal mapmakers as the main branch or headwaters, and the West Branch, which rises in western Pennsylvania and joins the main branch near Northumberland in central Pennsylvania.

The river drains 27,500 square miles (71,000 km2), including nearly half of the land area of Pennsylvania. The drainage basin (watershed) includes portions of the Allegheny Plateau region of the Appalachian Mountains, cutting through a succession of water gaps in a broad zigzag course to flow across the rural heartland of southeastern Pennsylvania and northeastern Maryland in the lateral near-parallel array of mountain ridges. The river empties into the northern end of the Chesapeake Bay at Perryville and Havre de Grace, Maryland, providing half of the Bay's freshwater inflow. The Chesapeake Bay is the ria of the Susquehanna.

The Bronx

The Bronx is the northernmost of the five boroughs of New York City, in the U.S. state of New York. It is south of Westchester County; northeast and east of Manhattan, across the Harlem River; and north of Queens, across the East River. Since 1914, the borough has had the same boundaries as Bronx County, the third-most densely populated county in the United States.The Bronx has a land area of 42 square miles (109 km2) and a population of 1,471,160 in 2017. Of the five boroughs, it has the fourth-largest area, fourth-highest population, and third-highest population density. It is the only borough predominantly on the U.S. mainland.

The Bronx is divided by the Bronx River into a hillier section in the west, and a flatter eastern section. East and west street names are divided by Jerome Avenue—the continuation of Manhattan's Fifth Avenue. The West Bronx was annexed to New York City in 1874, and the areas east of the Bronx River in 1895. Bronx County was separated from New York County in 1914. About a quarter of the Bronx's area is open space, including Woodlawn Cemetery, Van Cortlandt Park, Pelham Bay Park, the New York Botanical Garden, and the Bronx Zoo in the borough's north and center. These open spaces are situated primarily on land deliberately reserved in the late 19th century as urban development progressed north and east from Manhattan.

The name "Bronx" originated with Jonas Bronck, who established the first settlement in the area as part of the New Netherland colony in 1639. The native Lenape were displaced after 1643 by settlers. In the 19th and 20th centuries, the Bronx received many immigrant and migrant groups as it was transformed into an urban community, first from various European countries (particularly Ireland, Germany, and Italy) and later from the Caribbean region (particularly Puerto Rico, Haiti, Jamaica, and the Dominican Republic), as well as African American migrants from the southern United States. This cultural mix has made the Bronx a wellspring of Latin music, hip hop and rock.

The Bronx contains the poorest congressional district in the United States, the 15th, but its wide diversity also includes affluent, upper-income, and middle-income neighborhoods such as Riverdale, Fieldston, Spuyten Duyvil, Schuylerville, Pelham Bay, Pelham Gardens, Morris Park, and Country Club. The Bronx, particularly the South Bronx, saw a sharp decline in population, livable housing, and the quality of life in the late 1960s and the 1970s, culminating in a wave of arson. Since then the communities have shown significant redevelopment starting in the late 1980s before picking up pace from the 1990s until today.

Unalachtigo Lenape

The Unalachtigo were a purported division of the Lenape (Delaware Indians), a Native American tribe whose homeland Lenapehoking was in what is today the Northeastern United States. They were part of the Forks Indians.The name was a Munsee language term for the Unami-speakers of west-central New Jersey. Moravian missionaries called the Lenape people of the Forks region near Easton, Pennsylvania "Unami," and the Northern Unami language-speakers in New Jersey "Unalachtigo." It is debated whether Unalachtigo constituted a distinct dialect of Unami. Unalachtigo words were recorded in 17th-century vocabulary drawn from the Sankhikan band of Lenape in New Jersey.The Sankhikan band were enemies of the Manhattan people, who spoke Munsee

Unami language

Unami is an Algonquian language spoken by the Lenape people in the late 17th century and the early 18th century, in what then was (or later became) the southern two-thirds of New Jersey, southeastern Pennsylvania and the northern two-thirds of Delaware, but later in Ontario and Oklahoma. It is one of the two Delaware languages, the other being Munsee. The last fluent speaker in the United States, Edward Thompson, of the Delaware Tribe of Indians, died on 31 August 2002. His sister Nora Thompson Dean (1907–1984) provided valuable information about the language to linguists and other scholars.

"Lenni-Lenape," literally means "Men of Men", but is translated to mean "Original People." The Lenape names for the areas they inhabited were Scheyichbi (i.e. New Jersey), which means "water's edge", and Lenapehoking, meaning "in the land of the Delaware Indians." It describes the ancient homeland of all Delaware Indians, both Unami and Munsee. The English named the river running through much of the traditional range of the Lenape after the first governor of the Jamestown Colony, Lord De La Warr, and consequently referred to the people who lived around the river as "Delaware Indians".

University City, Philadelphia

University City is a contested name for the easternmost region of West Philadelphia and signifies a neighborhood of Philadelphia encompassing several universities. It is the easternmost part of West Philadelphia, situated directly across the Schuylkill River from Center City.

The University of Pennsylvania was instrumental in coining the name "University City" as part of a 1950s urban-renewal and gentrification effort. Today, Drexel University and the University of the Sciences also call University City home.

The eastern side of University City is home to the Penn and Drexel campuses, several medical institutions, independent centers of scientific research, 30th Street Station, Cira Centre, and Cira Centre South. The western side contains Victorian and early 20th-century housing stock and is primarily residential.

Westchester County, New York

Westchester County is a county in the U.S. state of New York. It is the second-most populous county on the mainland of New York, after the Bronx, and the most populous county in the state north of New York City. According to the 2010 Census, the county had a population of 949,113, estimated to have increased by 3.3% to 980,244 by 2017. Situated in the Hudson Valley, Westchester covers an area of 450 square miles (1,200 km2), consisting of six cities, 19 towns, and 23 villages. Established in 1683, Westchester was named after the city of Chester, England. The county seat is the city of White Plains, while the most populous municipality in the county is the city of Yonkers, with an estimated 200,807 residents in 2016.The annual per capita income for Westchester was $67,813 in 2011. The 2011 median household income of $77,006 was the fifth highest in New York (after Nassau, Putnam, Suffolk, and Rockland counties) and the 47th highest in the United States. By 2014, the county's median household income had risen to $83,422. Westchester County ranks second in the state after New York County for median income per person, with a higher concentration of incomes in smaller households. Simultaneously, Westchester County had the highest property taxes of any county in the United States in 2013.Westchester County is one of the centrally located counties within the New York metropolitan area. The county is positioned with New York City, plus Nassau and Suffolk counties (on Long Island, across Long Island Sound), to its south; Putnam County to its north; Fairfield County, Connecticut to its east; and Rockland County and Bergen County, New Jersey across the Hudson River to the west. Westchester was the first suburban area of its scale in the world to develop, due mostly to the upper-middle-class development of entire communities in the late 19th century and the subsequent rapid population growth.

Because of Westchester's numerous road and mass transit connections to New York City, as well as its shared border with the Bronx, the 20th and 21st centuries have seen much of the county, particularly the southern portion, become nearly as densely developed as New York City itself.

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.