The Lena (Russian: Ле́на, IPA: [ˈlʲɛnə]; Evenki: Елюенэ, Eljune; Yakut: Өлүөнэ, Ölüöne; Buryat: Зүлхэ, Eülkhe; Mongolian: Зүлгэ, Eülge) is the easternmost of the three great Siberian rivers that flow into the Arctic Ocean (the other two being the Ob' and the Yenisey). With a mean annual discharge of 588 cubic kilometers per year, it is the second largest Arctic river after the Yenisey,  and the largest river whose catchment is entirely within Russia. Permafrost underlies most of the catchment, 77% of which is continuous.
Lena River watershed
|Native name||Лена, Зүлгэ, Елюенэ, Өлүөнэ|
|⁃ location||Baikal Mountains, Irkutsk Oblast, Russia|
|⁃ elevation||1,640 m (5,380 ft)|
|Arctic Ocean, Laptev Sea|
|Basin size||2,500,000 km2 (970,000 sq mi)|
|⁃ location||Laptev Sea|
|⁃ average||16,871 m3/s (595,800 cu ft/s)|
|⁃ minimum||366 m3/s (12,900 cu ft/s)|
|⁃ maximum||241,000 m3/s (8,500,000 cu ft/s)|
|⁃ average||480 m3/s (17,000 cu ft/s)|
|⁃ average||1,700 m3/s (60,000 cu ft/s)|
|⁃ average||4,500 m3/s (160,000 cu ft/s)|
|⁃ location||Vilyuy inflow|
|⁃ average||12,100 m3/s (430,000 cu ft/s)|
|⁃ left||Kirenga, Vilyuy|
|⁃ right||Vitim, Olyokma, Aldan|
Originating at an elevation of 1,640 meters (5,381 ft) at its source in the Baikal Mountains south of the Central Siberian Plateau, 7 kilometres (4 mi) west of Lake Baikal, the Lena flows northeast, being joined by the Kirenga River, Vitim River and Olyokma River. From Yakutsk it enters the lowlands and flows north until joined by its right-hand tributary the Aldan River and its most important left-hand tributary, the Vilyuy River. After that, it bends westward, flowing alongside the Verkhoyansk Range and then making its way nearly due north to the Laptev Sea, a division of the Arctic Ocean, emptying south-west of the New Siberian Islands by the Lena Delta – 30,000 square kilometres (11,583 sq mi) in area, and traversed by seven principal branches, the most important being the Bykovsky channel, farthest east.
The area of the Lena river basin is calculated at 2,490,000 square kilometres (961,394 sq mi) and the mean annual discharge is 588 cubic kilometers per year. Gold is washed out of the sands of the Vitim and the Olyokma, and mammoth tusks have been dug out of the delta.
The Kirenga River flows north between the upper Lena River and Lake Baikal. The Vitim River drains the area northeast of Lake Baikal. The Olyokma River flows north. The Amga River makes a long curve southeast and parallel to the Lena and flows into the Aldan. The Aldan River makes similar curve southeast of the Aldan and flows into the Lena north of Yakutsk. The Maya River, a tributary of the Aldan, drains an area almost to the Sea of Okhotsk. The T-shaped Chona-Vilyuy River system drains most of the area to the west.
It is commonly believed that the Lena derives its name from the original Even-Evenk name Elyu-Ene, which means "the Large River".
According to folktales related a century later, in the years 1620–1623 a party of Russian fur hunters under the leadership of Demid Pyanda sailed up Lower Tunguska, discovered the Lena, and either carried their boats there or built new ones. In 1623 Pyanda explored some 2,400 kilometres (1,500 mi) of the river from its upper reaches to the central Yakutia. In 1628 Vasily Bugor and 10 men reached the Lena, collected 'yasak' (tribute) from the 'natives' and then founded Kirinsk in 1632. In 1631 the voyevoda of Yeniseisk sent Pyotr Beketov and 20 men to construct an ostrog at Yakutsk (founded in 1632). From Yakutsk other expeditions spread out to the south and east. The Lena delta was reached in 1633.
Baron Eduard Von Toll, accompanied by Alexander von Bunge, led an expedition that explored the Lena delta and the islands of New Siberia on behalf of the Russian Imperial Academy of Sciences in 1885. In 1886 they investigated the New Siberian Islands and the Yana River and its tributaries. During one year and two days the expedition covered 25,000 kilometres (16,000 mi), of which 4,200 kilometres (2,600 mi) were up rivers, carrying out geodesic surveys en route.
The Lena massacre was the name given to the 1912 shooting-down of striking goldminers and local citizens who protested at the working conditions in the mine near Bodaybo in northern Irkutsk. The incident was reported in the Duma (parliament) by Kerensky and is credited with stimulating revolutionary feeling in Russia.
At the end of the Lena River there is a large delta that extends 100 kilometres (62 mi) into the Laptev Sea and is about 400 km (250 mi) wide. The delta is frozen tundra for about seven months of the year, but in May the region is transformed into a lush wetland for a few months. Part of the area is protected as the Lena Delta Wildlife Reserve.
The Lena delta divides into a multitude of flat islands. The most important are (from west to east): Chychas Aryta, Petrushka, Sagastyr, Samakh Ary Diyete, Turkan Bel'keydere, Sasyllakh Ary, Kolkhoztakh Bel'keydere, Grigoriy Diyelyakh Bel'kee (Grigoriy Islands), Nerpa Uolun Aryta, Misha Bel'keydere, Atakhtay Bel'kedere, Arangastakh, Urdiuk Pastakh Bel'key, Agys Past' Aryta, Dallalakh Island, Otto Ary, Ullakhan Ary and Orto Ues Aryta.
Turukannakh-Kumaga is a long and narrow island off the Lena delta's western shore.
The Aldan River (Russian: Алдан) is the second-longest tributary of the Lena River in the Sakha Republic in eastern Siberia. The river is 2,273 kilometres (1,412 mi) long, of which around 1,600 kilometres (990 mi) is navigable. It was part of the River Route to Okhotsk. In 1639 Ivan Moskvitin ascended the Aldan and Maya Rivers and crossed to the Ulya River to reach the Sea of Okhotsk.
It rises in the Stanovoy Mountains southwest of Neryungri, then northeast past Aldan and through Tommot, Ust-Maya, Eldikan and Khandyga before turning northwest and joining the Lena near Batamay.
The river's main tributaries are the Amga River, Uchur River and Maya River. Its basin is known for gold and for Cambrian fossils.Baikal-Lena Nature Reserve
Baikal-Lena Nature Reserve (Russian: Байкало-Ленский заповедник) (also Lake Baikal; or Baykal-Lensky, or Baykal-Lena) is a Russian 'zapovednik' (strict nature reserve) located on the northwest coast of Lake Baikal in southern Siberia. It protects both lake shore and the source of the Lena River. The reserve stretches along the western coast of Lake Baikal for about 120 km, with an average width of 65 km. The reserve is situated in the Kachugsky District of Irkutsk Oblast. As of December 1996, the Baikal-Lena Reserve (combined with the Barguzin and Baikal Reserves) is included in the list of sites of World Cultural and Natural Heritage, and a World Heritage Site with Pribaikalsky National Park. The Baikal-Lena Reserve is managed jointly with Pribaikalsky National Park, which is immediately to the south, thus protecting a continuous 580 km of shoreline on Lake Baikal.Dolgans
Dolgans (Russian: долганы; self-designation: долган, тыа-киһи, һака(саха)) are a Turkic people, who mostly inhabit Krasnoyarsk Krai, Russia. The 2010 Census counted 7,885 Dolgans. This number includes 5,517 in former Taymyr Autonomous Okrug. There are 26 Dolgans in Ukraine, four of whom speak Dolgan (2001 Ukrainian Census).Dolgans speak the Dolgan language. Some believe that it is a dialect of Yakut language.
The Dolgan identity began to emerge during the 19th and early 20th centuries, under the influence of three groups who migrated to the Krasnoyarsk area from the Lena River and Olenyok River region: Evenks, Yakuts, Enets, and so-called Tundra peasants (Зату́ндренные крестья́не Zatúndrennye krest’jáne, literally "tundranized peasants").
Originally, the Dolgans were nomadic hunters and reindeer herders. However, they were prevented from following a nomadic lifestyle during the Soviet era and required to form kolkhozy (rural collectives) that – in addition to their traditional activities – engaged in reindeer breeding, fishing, dairy farming and market gardening. In 1983, the anthropologist Shirin Akiner claimed: "Dolgans enjoy full Soviet citizenship. They are found in all occupations, though the majority are peasants and collective farm workers. Their standard of housing is comparable to that of other national groups in the Soviet Union."Most Dolgans practice old shamanistic beliefs; however, some are influenced with Eastern Orthodox Christianity.Evens
The Evens (эвэн; pl. эвэсэл, evesel, in Even and эвены, evëny in Russian; formerly called Lamuts) are a people in Siberia and the Russian Far East. They live in some of the regions of the Magadan Oblast and Kamchatka Krai and northern parts of Sakha east of the Lena River. According to the 2002 census, there were 19,071 Evens in Russia. According to the 2010 census, there were 22,383 Evens in Russia. They speak their own language called Even language, one of the Tungusic languages. The Evens are close to the Evenks by their origins and culture. Officially, they were considered to be of Orthodox faith since the 19th century, but the Evens managed to preserve different forms of non-Christian beliefs, such as shamanism. Traditional Even life is centred upon nomadic pastoralism of domesticated reindeer, supplemented with hunting, fishing and animal-trapping. There were 104 Evens in Ukraine, 19 of whom speaking Even. (Ukr. Cen. 2001)Fluvio-thermal erosion
In geomorphology fluvio-thermal erosion is the combined mechanical and thermal erosion of an unfrozen river or stream against ice-rich soils and sediments. The erosional process includes the thawing of ice sediments by a strong water flow and once the surface is unfrozen, mechanical erosion occurs only if hydraulic forces are powerful enough to incise the riverbank material. This kind of erosion sometimes causes the banks to collapse into the river, and when this occurs collapses are commonly controlled by ice wedges. Rivers where this process has been observed include the Lena, the Colville River delta, and the Yukon River.The Yakutia region in Central Siberia, where the Lena River is located, is an exceptional point of interest to study this type of erosion based on its record low temperatures and extreme thickness of permafrost. During the winter when water level is low, a thick sheet of ice forms on top of the Lena River, that is sometimes as much as 2m thick. Seasonal floods caused by rapid snowmelt and irregular storms then break the ice apart in the summer, exposing the banks of the river to the power of erosion. There are two stages to this process: the first is the breakup of the ice and the second is the flooding. Over the course of just a few days in May or June, water discharge can increase by 10x its velocity. The force of the water causes the ice sitting on top of the river to break apart, and these broken pieces are thrust up onto the riverbanks, sometimes forming an ice barrier that as high as 10m tall that will protect the banks from erosion for a short time. However, as the flood continues, the warmth and mechanical energy from the water melts the ice barrier, giving way for the fluvio-thermal erosion of the frozen riverbanks. For the Lena, the banks are observed to retreat approximately 40m per year.
Based on lab models carried out in a cold room, high water temperature, ice temperature, and discharge are shown to be the main contributors of thermal erosion, whereas high ice content in the soil is shown to slow down the thermal erosion process. Melting of the ice within a porous material reduces the strength of the material, rendering it easily breakable and removable. During the melting period of a periglacial river in the summer, due to a relatively high water discharge, the unfrozen sediments are weathered away. In conclusion, water discharge in permanent contact with permafrost banks creates a combination of thermal and mechanical erosion.Geology of Russia
The geology of Russia, the world's largest country, which extends over much of northern Eurasia, consists of several stable cratons and sedimentary platforms bounded by orogenic (mountain) belts.
The European part of Russia is on the East European craton, at the heart of which is a complex of igneous and metamorphic rocks dating back to the Precambrian. The craton is bounded on the east by the long tract of compressed and highly deformed rock that constitutes the Ural orogen. The area between the Ural Mountains and the Yenisei River is the young West Siberian Plain. East of the Yenisei River is the ancient Central Siberian Plateau, extending to the Lena River. East of the Lena River there is the Verhoyansk-Chukotka collision zone, stretching to the Chukchi Peninsula.
The orogens within Russia belong to the Baltic Shield, the Timanides, the Urals, the Altai Mountains, the Ural-Mongolian epipaleozoic orogen and the northwestern part of the Pacific orogeny. The country's highest mountains, the Caucasus, are confined to younger orogens.Kurbat Ivanov
Kurbat Afanasyevich Ivanov (Russian: Курбат Афанасьевич Иванов, (? – 1666) was among the greatest Cossack explorers of Siberia. He was the first Russian to discover Lake Baikal, and to create the first map of the Russian Far East. He also is credited with creation of the early map of Chukotka and Bering Strait, which was the first to show (very schematically) the yet undiscovered Wrangel Island, both Diomede Islands and Alaska.
Kurbat Ivanov was born a Yeniseyan Cossack. In 1642 he made the first map of the Russian Far East, based on the explorations of Ivan Moskvitin.
Ivanov came to the Verkholensky ostrog on the Lena River, and taking 74 men with him he sailed south up the river on 21 June 1643, having decided to find if the rumors of large body of water south of the Lena were true. He took with him a Tungus prince Mozheul to assist in finding the way. Through the upper Lena and its tributary the Ilikta they reached Primorsky Ridge, crossed it by foot, and by the Sarma River descended to Lake Baikal near Olkhon Island. Having built new boats, Ivanov sailed to Olkhon.
Ivanov sent 36 men under the leadership of Semyon Skorokhodov to sail along the western shore of Baikal to the mouth of Upper Angara giving them another Tungus prince, called Yunoga, in assistance. Skorokhodov reached the northern tip of Baikal, built a winter settlement there and started to gather tribute from locals. In the end of 1643 Skorokhodov was returning south with the half of his men, but was ambushed by Arkhich Batur (probably a Buryat) and killed with some of his men. Twelve men managed to return to Verkholensky ostrog, while аnother two, named Lyovka Vyatchanin and Maximka Vyzhegchanin, traveled as far as Yeniseysky ostrog by Angara and Yenisey. The latter Cossack later returned to Baikal with ataman V. Kolesnikov.
Kurbat Ivanov himself safely returned to Verkholensky ostrog by the same way he had come to Baikal. He created a document called "The Chart of Baikal and into Baikal flowing rivers and lands…" ("Чертеж Байкала и в Байкал падучим рекам и землицам"). He told the stories about plenty of fish in Baikal and plenty of fur-bearing animals on its shores, and many Cossacks subsequently came to Baikal by the way he explored.
At some point of his life Ivanov also served on the lower Lena River in Zhigansk. In 1659—65 he was serving in Anadyrsky ostrog (he was the next head of Anadyrsk after Semyon Dezhnyov). In 1660 he sailed from Anadyr Bay to Cape Dezhnyov. On the basis of his own explorations, the explorations of Dezhnyov and Popov and the stories collected from the locals, Kurbat Ivanov created a map of Chukotka and Bering Strait, which was the first to show the yet undiscovered Wrangel Island, both Diomede Islands and even Alaska. However, all these lands except Chukotka coastline were shown so schematically that it is unlikely that Ivanov or other Russians had visited or saw them before. Only in 1732 Alaska was seen for the first time by the expedition of Ivan Fyodorov and Mikhail Gvozdev and it was documented. Wrangel Island was discovered much later.Lena Delta Wildlife Reserve
Lena Delta Nature Reserve (Russian: Усть-Ленский государственный природный заповедник) is a Zapovednik (“scientific nature reserve”) located in the delta of the Lena River in Sakha Republic, in the far north of eastern Siberia, Russia. The reserve is divided into two subareas, and has a total land area of 14,330 square kilometres (5,530 sq mi), making it one of the largest protected areas in Russia. The delta itself has a size of about 30,000 square kilometres (12,000 sq mi), making it one of the largest in the world. It protects large concentrations of birds, including swans, geese and ducks, loons, shorebirds, raptors and gulls. It is also an important fish spawning site.
The Lena's main outlets are the Trofimov (70%), Bykov and Olenek. Nearby is the settlement of Tiksi, the administrative center of Bulunsky District, on the Bykov channel.Maria Pronchishcheva
Maria Pronchishcheva (Мария Прончищева, also known as Tatiana Pronchishcheva, 1710 - 23 September 1736) was a Russian explorer.
In 1735 with her husband, Vasili Pronchishchev, went down the Lena River (from Yakutsk) on Vasili's sloop Yakutsk, doubled its delta, and stopped for wintering at the mouth of the Olenek River. Many members of the crew fell ill and died, mainly owing to scurvy. Despite the difficulties, in 1736, they reached the eastern shore of the Taymyr Peninsula and went north along its coastline. Finally Pronchishcheva and her husband succumbed to scurvy and died on the way back.
Maria is considered the first female polar explorer. Maria Pronchishcheva Bay in the Laptev Sea is named after her.Northeast Asia
Northeast Asia, North East Asia or Northeastern Asia is a term to refer to a subregion of Asia: the northeastern landmass and islands, bordering the Pacific Ocean. It includes the core countries of East Asia.
The term Northeast Asia was popularized during the 1930s by an American historian and political scientist named Robert Kerner. Under Kerner's definition, "Northeast Asia" included the Mongolian Plateau, the Manchurian Plain, the Korean Peninsula and the mountainous regions of the Far East controlled by Russia, stretching from Lena River in the west to the Pacific Ocean in the east.Olenyok River
The Olenyok River (Russian: Оленёк, sometimes spelled Оленек, Olenek; Yakut: Өлөөн, Ölöön) is a major river in northern Siberian Russia, west of the lower Lena River and east of the Anabar River. It is 2,292 kilometres (1,424 mi) long, of which around 1,000 kilometres (620 mi) is navigable. Average water discharge is 1,210 cubic metres per second (43,000 cu ft/s). Its major tributary is the Arga-Sala River.
The river's source is on the northern Central Siberian Plateau in Krasnoyarsk Krai, from where it flows north east through Olenyok before emptying into the Olenyok Gulf of the Laptev Sea at Ust-Olenyok just west of the Lena River delta.
The Olenyok is known for its abundant fish. It is frozen for over eight months every year and the climate in its area is harsh because of the direct influence of the Arctic.
Dyangylakh or Dzhyangylakh (Ostrov Dyangylakh) 73.089°N 120.140°E / 73.089; 120.140 is a large flat delta island at the mouth of the Olenek River. There are many smaller islands in its immediate vicinity, like Eppet Island off its eastern side, but none comes close to its size. Dyangylakh is 21 kilometres (13 mi) long and 16 kilometres (10 mi) wide.Olyokma Nature Reserve
Olyokma Nature Reserve (Russian: Олёкминский) (also Olekminsky) is a Russian 'zapovednik' (strict nature reserve) located south of the middle reaches of the Lena River on the right bank of its second largest tributary - the Olyokma River at the junction of the Aldan plateau and Prilenskoye plateau in Olyokminsky District of the Sakha Republic (Yakutia). The area is remote and relatively undisturbed, being 80 km from a town.Pausik
Pauzok (Russian: Паузок) is a flat-bottomed single-sticker boat and is built for travelling the rivers of Russia.
Aside from its flat bottom, another prominent feature of that is its lack of deck. The boat has a mast with a direct sail and is steered by oars. The single mast usually measures 24 metres (79 ft) in length.
There is also a large space reserved for cargo (see image). It has a load-carrying capacity of 120 tonnes (130 short tons). Usually, pauzoks accompany big vessels because they are useful for cargo transportation in shoals. These boats are mainly built in the northern regions of Russia, particularly Volga, Lena River, and in other places.
Pauzoks are also used to deliver cargo to the coast or in carrying cargo in sections where the river bed has a relatively steep slope. This boat is stable and can independently navigate the rapids. There were cases when pauzoks broke in the coast. If the boat encounters this difficulty, the crew often uses a long, thick, and wide board which in Siberia is called Opleukha (Russian: оплеуха Translated: slap in the face). This is the part that the oarsmen use as a lever to move the vessel towards a current. A small dam is formed, and small rising of water raises the pauzok and it can be pushed off from a bank on a deep-water place.
Delivery of cargoes to Lensky polar station were made on the Lena River with active use of pauzoks.Sakha Republic
The Republic of Sakha (Yakutia) (Russian: Республика Саха (Якутия), tr. Respublika Sakha (Yakutiya), IPA: [rʲɪsˈpublʲɪkə sɐˈxa jɪˈkutʲɪjə]; Yakut: Саха Өрөспүүбүлүкэтэ, romanized: Sakha Öröspüübülükete, IPA: [saˈxa øɾøsˈpyːbylykete], "Sakha Republic") is a federal Russian republic. It had a population of 958,528 at the 2010 Census, mainly ethnic Yakuts and Russians.
Comprising half the Far Eastern Federal District, it is the largest subnational governing body by area in the world at 3,083,523 square kilometers (1,190,555 sq mi). Its capital is the city of Yakutsk. It is also known for its extreme and severe climate, with the lowest temperatures in the Northern Hemisphere being recorded in Verkhoyansk and Oymyakon, and regular winter averages commonly being below −35 °C (−31 °F) in Yakutsk. The hypercontinental tendencies also result in very warm summers for much of the republic.Ust-Kut
Ust-Kut (Russian: Усть-Кут) is a town and the administrative center of Ust-Kutsky District in Irkutsk Oblast, Russia, located 961 kilometers (597 mi) from Irkutsk, the administrative center of the oblast. Located on a western loop of the Lena River, the town spreads out for over 20 kilometers (12 mi) along the left bank, near the point where the Kuta River joins from the west. Population: 45,375 (2010 Census); 49,951 (2002 Census); 61,165 (1989 Census).Vasili Pronchishchev
Vasili Vasilyevich Pronchishchev (Russian: Василий Васильевич Прончищев) (1702–9 September [O.S. 29 August] 1736) was a Russian explorer.
In 1718, Vasili Pronchishchev graduated from Moscow School of Mathematics and Navigation and was promoted to naval cadet. In 1733, he was promoted to the rank of lieutenant and appointed head of one of the units of the Second Kamchatka Expedition, the purpose of which was to map the shores of the Arctic Ocean from the mouth of the Lena to the mouth of the Yenisey.
In 1735, Vasili Pronchishchev went down the Lena River (from Yakutsk) on his sloop Yakutsk, doubled its delta, and stopped for wintering at the mouth of the Olenek River. Many members of the crew fell ill and died, mainly owing to scurvy. Despite the difficulties, in 1736, he reached the eastern shore of the Taymyr Peninsula and went north along its coastline. Finally Pronchishchev and his wife Maria (also referred to as Tatyana Feodorovna) succumbed to scurvy and died on the way back.
Despite the death toll, the expedition was successful regarding the fulfillment of its goals. During his journey, Vasili Pronchishchev discovered a number of islands off the northeastern coast of the Taymyr Peninsula (Faddey Islands, Komsomolskoy Pravdy Islands, Saint Peter Islands). His expedition was the first to accurately map the Lena River from Yakutsk to its estuary and the Laptev seacoast from the Lena's mouth to the Gulf of Faddey. Pronchishchev's wife Maria Pronchishcheva (died September 12(23), 1736), who took part in his expedition, is considered the first female polar explorer. After their deaths, both of them were interred at the mouth of the Olenek River.
Further information is now available from the Hakluit Society via a summary written by William Barr in July 2018, "The Arctic Detachments of the Russian Great Northern Expedition (1733-43) and their largely forgotten and even Clandestine Predecessors". On page 12 of the summary is shown information and maps on the Lena-Khatanga detachment led by Pronchishchev.
A part of the eastern coastline of the Taymyr Peninsula and a ridge between the mouths of the Olenek and Anabar Rivers bear Vasili Pronchishchev's name. Icebreaker Vasili Pronchishchev, built in 1961 in Leningrad, was also named after this pioneering Arctic explorer.
Maria Pronchishcheva Bay in the Laptev Sea is named after his wife Maria.Vitim Nature Reserve
Vitim Nature Reserve (Russian: Витимский заповедник) (also Vitimsky) is a Russian 'zapovednik' (strict nature reserve) in the mountains 400 km northeast of Lake Baikal in the Irkutsk region of Siberia. It covers the upper reaches of the Vitim River, a left tributary of the Lena River. The reserve protects a wide variety high-altitude, continental climate flora and fauna complexes: larch taiga, cedar thickets, mountain tundra, and sub-alpine meadows of the Kodar Mountains. The reserve is located in the southeast of the Bodaybinsky District of Irkutsk, 150 km east of the regional city of Bodaybo. It was formally established in 1982, and covers 585,838 ha (2,261.93 sq mi).Yakov Permyakov
Yakov Permyakov (Russian: Пермяков, Яков) (died 1712) was a Russian seafarer, explorer, merchant, and Cossack.
In 1710, while sailing from the Lena River to the Kolyma River, Permyakov observed the silhouette of two unknown island groups in the sea. Those islands would later be called Bolshoy Lyakhovsky and the Medvyezhi Islands.
In 1712, Permyakov and his companion Merkury Vagin crossed the Yana Bay from the mouth of the Yana to Bolshoy Lyakhovsky over the ice and explored the then unknown island.
Permyakov and Vagin were murdered on the way back from their exploration by mutineering expedition members. The cossacks took Permyakov's dead body down to the ice and set it on fire. No one knows what the rebellious cossacks did with the ashes, but Yakov Permyakov's remains were never found.Yakutsk
Yakutsk (Russian: Якутск, IPA: [jɪˈkutsk]; Yakut: Дьокуускай, Dokuuskay, pronounced [ɟokuːskaj]) is the capital city of the Sakha Republic, Russia, located about 450 kilometers (280 mi) south of the Arctic Circle.
Yakutsk, with an average temperature of −8.8 °C (16.2 °F), is the second coldest city with more than 100,000 inhabitants in the world after Norilsk, although Yakutsk experiences colder temperatures in the winter. Yakutsk is also the largest city located in continuous permafrost and one of the largest that cannot be reached by road. Yakutsk is a major port on the Lena River. It is served by the Yakutsk Airport as well as the smaller Magan Airport.
|Lena River from a source to Kachug|
Shipbuilding and shipping on the Lena River
Media related to Lena River at Wikimedia Commons