The American tree sparrow (Spizelloides arborea), also known as the winter sparrow, is a medium-sized sparrow.
It had been classified under the genus Spizella, but multilocus molecular evidence suggested placement in its own genus.
Adults have a rusty cap and grey underparts with a small dark spot on the breast. They have a rusty back with lighter stripes, brown wings with white bars and a slim tail. Their face is grey with a rusty line through the eye. Their flanks are splashed with light brown. They are similar in appearance to the chipping sparrow.
Their breeding habitat is tundra or the northern limits of the boreal forest in Alaska and northern Canada. They nest on the ground.
These birds migrate into southern Canada and the United States to spend the winter. Usually, chipping sparrows are moving south around the same time as these birds arrive.
These birds forage on the ground or in low bushes, often in flocks when not nesting. They mainly eat seeds and insects, but also eat some berries. They are commonly seen near feeders with dark-eyed juncos.
This bird's song is a sweet high warble descending in pitch and becoming buzzy near the finish.Bluebird
The bluebirds are a group of medium-sized, mostly insectivorous or omnivorous birds in the order of Passerines in the genus Sialia of the thrush family (Turdidae). Bluebirds are one of the few thrush genera in the Americas. They have blue, or blue and rose beige, plumage. Female birds are less brightly colored than males, although color patterns are similar and there is no noticeable difference in size between the two sexes.Charcoal Tank Nature Reserve
The Charcoal Tank Nature Reserve is a protected nature reserve in the central western region of New South Wales, Australia. The 86.4-hectare (213-acre) reserve is situated 10 kilometres (6.2 mi) south of West Wyalong and may be accessed via the Newell Highway and The Charcoal Tank Road. The reserve is an important refuge for native flora and fauna in a highly fragmented landscape, one in which the majority of the original vegetation has been removed.Dryandra Woodland
The Dryandra Woodland is a nature conservation area in Western Australia within the Shires of Cuballing, Williams and Wandering, about 164 kilometres (102 miles) south-east of Perth and 22 kilometres (14 miles) north-west of the town of Narrogin. It is a complex of 17 distinct blocks managed by the Western Australian Department of Parks and Wildlife and spread over approximately 50 kilometres (31 miles) separated by areas of agricultural land. The area is considered to be one of the state's major conservation areas, and although it is far from pristine due to its history of logging operations, a number of species of threatened fauna are rebuilding populations through the removal of introduced predators such as foxes and feral cats.
The combined area of the woodland is 28,066 hectares (108.36 square miles), with individual blocks ranging in size from 87 hectares (0.34 square miles) to 12,283 hectares (47.42 square miles). Part of Dryandra Woodland is listed on the Register of the National Estate by the Australian Heritage Council.In addition to the area's use as a wildlife refuge, it has anthropological significance with the indigenous Noongar people having strong cultural links there.Galliformes
Galliformes is an order of heavy-bodied ground-feeding birds that includes turkey, grouse, chicken, New World quail and Old World quail, ptarmigan, partridge, pheasant, francolin, junglefowl and the Cracidae. The name derives from "gallus", Latin for "cock" or "rooster". Common names are gamefowl or gamebirds, landfowl, gallinaceous birds, or galliforms. "Wildfowl" or just "fowl" are also often used for the Galliformes, but usually these terms also refer to waterfowl (Anseriformes), and occasionally to other commonly hunted birds. This group has about 290 species, one or more of which are found in essentially every part of the world's continents (except for the innermost deserts and perpetual ice). They are rarer on islands, and in contrast to the closely related waterfowl, are essentially absent from oceanic islands—unless introduced there by humans. Several species have been domesticated during their long and extensive relationships with humans.
This order contains five families: Phasianidae (including chicken, quail, partridges, pheasants, turkeys, peafowl and grouse), Odontophoridae (New World quails), Numididae (guineafowl), Cracidae (including chachalacas and curassows), and Megapodiidae (incubator birds like mallee fowl and brush-turkeys). They are important as seed dispersers and predators in the ecosystems they inhabit, and are often reared as game birds by humans for their meat and eggs and for recreational hunting. Many gallinaceous species are skilled runners and escape predators by running rather than flying. Males of most species are more colorful than the females. Males often have elaborate courtship behaviors that include strutting, fluffing of tail or head feathers, and vocal sounds. They are mainly nonmigratory.Giant malleefowl
The giant malleefowl (Leipoa gallinacea) is an extinct megapode that was native to Australia. It was described from Plio-Pleistocene deposits at the Darling Downs and Chinchilla in south-east Queensland by Charles De Vis, who erected the genus Progura for it. Material referrable to the species has also been collected from South Australia and from Wellington Valley and the Wombeyan Caves of New South Wales.Malleefowl
The malleefowl (Leipoa ocellata) is a stocky ground-dwelling Australian bird about the size of a domestic chicken (to which it is distantly related). It is notable for the large nesting mounds constructed by the males and lack of parental care after the chicks hatch. It is the only living representative of the genus Leipoa, though the extinct giant malleefowl was a close relative.Megapode
The megapodes, also known as incubator birds or mound-builders, are stocky, medium-large, chicken-like birds with small heads and large feet in the family Megapodiidae. Their name literally means "large foot" (Greek: mega = large, poda = foot), and is a reference to the heavy legs and feet typical of these terrestrial birds. All are browsers, and all but the malleefowl occupy wooded habitats. Most are brown or black in color. Megapodes are superprecocial, hatching from their eggs in the most mature condition of any bird. They hatch with open eyes, bodily coordination and strength, full wing feathers, and downy body feathers, and are able to run, pursue prey, and in some species, fly on the same day they hatch.Mount Rescue Conservation Park
Mount Rescue Conservation Park (formerly Mount Rescue National Park) was a protected area in the Australian state of South Australia located in the state’s south-east in the locality of Ngarkat about 190 kilometres (120 mi) south-east of the state capital of Adelaide and about 18 kilometres (11 mi) east of the town of Tintinara.The conservation park consisted of land in sections 7 to 10 in the cadastral unit of the Hundred of Archibald and sections 3 and 4 in the cadastral unit of the Hundred of Makin located in the south-west corner of the locality of Ngarkat. The land was given protected area status in 1953 because it was “predominantly... unsuitable for development on account of its hilly or sandy nature.” Its name was derived from Mount Rescue, a hill with a height of 129 metres (423 ft) and which is located to the immediate east of the conservation park in section 23 of the Hundred of Makin.The history of its protected area status and the associated land tenure from 1953 to 1972 follows:
On 20 August 1953, sections 9 and 10 in the Hundred of Archibald and sections 3 and 4 in the Hundred of Makin were dedicated under the Crown Lands Act 1929 “for flora and fauna purposes.”.
On 8 March 1962, the land in the Hundreds of Archibald and Makin which was dedicated in 1953 was resumed and dedicated as a wild life reserve under the Crown Lands Act 1929.
On 19 July 1962, land previously as a wild life reserve under the Crown Lands Act 1929 earlier in 1962 was declared as a wild life reserve under the National Park and Wild Life Reserves Act 1891.
On 19 June 1965, land in sections 7 and 8 of the Hundred of Archibald was dedicated as a wild-life reserve under the Crown Lands Act 1929.
On 29 July 1965, land in the Hundred of Archibald which was dedicated as a wild-life reserve under the Crown Lands Act 1929 in June 1965 was declared a wildlife reserve under the National Park and Wild Life Reserves Act 1891.
On 9 November 1967, land in sections 7, 8, 9 and 10 of the Hundred of Archibald and sections 3 and 4 of the Hundred of Makin was declared under the National Parks Act 1966 as the Mount Rescue National Park.
On 27 April 1972, land in the Mount Rescue National Park was constituted under the National Parks and Wildlife Act 1972 as the Mount Rescue Conservation Park.On 27 May 2004, the conservation park and the nearby Mount Shaugh and Scorpion Springs Conservation Parks were abolished and their land holdings were added to that of the adjoining Ngarkat Conservation Park. As of February 2004, the conservation park covered an area of 283.4 square kilometres (109.4 sq mi).
In 1980, the conservation park was described as follows:
Mount Rescue Conservation Park preserves a large area of vegetated sand plains and dunes in a region which has an average annual rainfall of 425-450mm. There is a close correlation between topography, soil type and plant communities. Nearly three quarters of the park are covered by an open heath of Xanthorrhoea australis, Banksia ornata and Casuarina pusilla, while mallee open scrub and mallee tall shrubland interrupt the heath areas. Low trees of Eucalyptus fasciculosa and E. baxteri above a heath understorey occupy small areas throughout the park…
Significant Indigenous values are known to exist in this area. The Commission is currently consulting with relevant Indigenous communities about the amount of information to be placed on public record…
In this vast expanse of native vegetation are at least five species of plants which are rare in South Australia… and over seventy bird species, two of which, Leipoa ocellata (mallee fowl) and Pachycephala rufogularis (red lored whistler), are uncommon in SA… Dark Island Heath in the south of park has been the site for important ecological studies of heath communities.
The conservation park was classified in 2002 as being an IUCN Category Ia protected area. In 1980, it was listed on the now-defunct Register of the National Estate.Mountain bluebird
The mountain bluebird (Sialia currucoides) is a medium-sized bird weighing about 30 g (1.1 oz) with a length from 16–20 cm (6.3–7.9 in). They have light underbellies and black eyes. Adult males have thin bills and are bright turquoise-blue and somewhat lighter underneath. Adult females have duller blue wings and tail, grey breast, grey crown, throat and back. In fresh fall plumage, the female's throat and breast are tinged with red-orange, brownish near the flank contrasting with white tail underparts. Their call is a thin 'few'; while their song is warbled high 'chur chur'. It is the state bird of Idaho and Nevada. It is an omnivore and it can live 6 to 10 years in the wild. It eats spiders, grasshoppers, flies and other insects, and small fruits. The mountain bluebird is a relative of the eastern and western bluebirds.Murray Darling Depression
The Murray Darling Depression , also known as the Murray-Darling woodlands and mallee, is a biogeographic region and an ecoregion in southeastern Australia consisting of a wooded plain through which flow two of Australia's biggest rivers, the Murray and the Darling.Olive-sided flycatcher
The olive-sided flycatcher (Contopus cooperi) is a passerine bird. It is a medium-sized tyrant flycatcher.Philopatry
Philopatry is the tendency of an organism to stay in or habitually return to a particular area. The causes of philopatry are numerous, but natal philopatry, where animals return to their birthplace to breed, may be the most common. The term derives from the Greek 'home-loving', although in recent years the term has been applied to more than just the animal's birthplace. Recent usage refers to animals returning to the same area to breed despite not being born there, and migratory species that demonstrate site fidelity: reusing stopovers, staging points, and wintering grounds. Some of the known reasons for organisms to be philopatric would be for mating (reproduction), survival, migration, parental care, resources, etc.. In most species of animals, individuals will benefit from living in groups, because depending on the species, individuals are more vulnerable to predation and more likely to have difficulty finding resources and food. Therefore, living in groups increases a species chances of survival, which correlates to finding resources and reproducing. Again, depending on the species, returning to their birthplace where that particular species occupies that territory is the more favorable option. The birthplaces for these animals serve as a territory for them to return for feeding and refuge, like fish from a coral reef. In an animal behavior study conducted by Paul Greenwood, overall female mammals are more likely to be philopatric, while male mammals are more likely to disperse. Male birds are more likely to philopatric, while females are more likely to disperse. Philopatry will favor the evolution of cooperative traits because the direction of sex has consequences from the particular mating system.Rallus
Rallus is a genus of wetland birds of the rail family. Sometimes, the genera Lewinia and Gallirallus are included in it. Six of the species are found in the Americas, and the three species found in Eurasia, Africa and Madagascar are very closely related to each other, suggesting they are descended from a single invasion of a New World ancestor.These are slim, long-billed rails with slender legs. Their laterally flattened bodies are an adaptation to life in wet reedbeds and marshes, enabling them to slip easily through the dense semi-aquatic vegetation. Typically these birds have streaked brown upperparts, blue-grey on the face or breast, and barred flanks. Only the African rail has a plain back, and the plain-flanked rail lacks any blue-grey in its plumage and has no flank bars.Three endemic South American species are endangered by habitat loss, and the Madagascan rail is becoming rare.Red-kneed dotterel
The red-kneed dotterel (Erythrogonys cinctus) is a species of plover in a monotypic genus in the subfamily Vanellinae. It is often gregarious and will associate with other waders of its own and different species, even when nesting. It is nomadic and sometimes irruptive.Streaked spiderhunter
The streaked spiderhunter (Arachnothera magna) is a species of bird in the family Nectariniidae.Tadorninae
The Tadorninae is the shelduck-sheldgoose subfamily of the Anatidae, the biological family that includes the ducks and most duck-like waterfowl such as the geese and swans.
This group is largely tropical or Southern Hemisphere in distribution, with only two species, the common shelduck and the ruddy shelduck breeding in northern temperate regions, though the crested shelduck (presumed extinct) was also a northern species.
Most of these species have a distinctive plumage, but there is no pattern as to whether the sexes are alike, even within a single genus.Whimbrel
The whimbrel (Numenius phaeopus) is a wader in the large family Scolopacidae. It is one of the most widespread of the curlews, breeding across much of subarctic North America, Asia and Europe as far south as Scotland.
The whimbrel is a migratory bird wintering on coasts in Africa, southern North America, South America, and South Asia into Australasia. It is also a coastal bird during migration. It is fairly gregarious outside the breeding season.Yathong Nature Reserve
The Yathong Nature Reserve is a protected nature reserve that is also a nationally and internationally recognized biosphere situated in the central-western region of New South Wales, in eastern Australia. The 107,240-hectare (265,000-acre) reserve was listed by UNESCO in 1977 as a Biosphere Reserve under the Man and the Biosphere Programme (MAB). The reserve is significant for its biodiversity in both native plant and animal species. Cultural heritage and historical grazing activities add to the significance of this site as a conservation area.
The reserve is the most extensive in New South Wales and shares a border with the Nonbinnie Nature Reserve in the south-eastern corner, and is part of the Central NSW Mallee Important Bird Area.The reserve is situated 130 kilometres (81 mi) south of the central-west town of Cobar and 656 kilometres (408 mi) west from Sydney.