Leilani Estates, Hawaii

Leilani Estates is a census-designated place (CDP) in Hawaiʻi County, Hawaii, United States located in the District of Puna. The subdivision was formed in 1964.[1] The population was 1,560 at the 2010 census,[2] up from 1,046 at the 2000 census.

The three month-long Kilauea Volcano eruption that occurred within and around the subdivision in 2018 claimed many homes and displaced an unknown number of Leilani Estates residents. Accessing the entire resulting solid lava rock flow field has been prohibited, as per the Mayor's 12/6/18 Emergency Proclamation,[3] with fines up to $5,000 for violations. As of January, 2019, in further effort to prevent the private subdivision from becoming a public attraction, the Leilani Community Association began enforcing regulations regarding no parking on private roads, no trespassing on private property, and no tours being conducted in the subdivision.

Leilani Estates, Hawaii
Location in Hawaiʻi County and the state of Hawaii @media all and (max-width:720px){body.skin-minerva .mw-parser-output div.mw-graph{min-width:auto!important;max-width:100%;overflow-x:auto;overflow-y:visible}}.mw-parser-output .mw-graph-img{width:inherit;height:inherit} [Full screen]
Location in Hawaiʻi County and the state of Hawaii
[Full screen]
Coordinates: 19°28′25″N 154°55′13″W / 19.47361°N 154.92028°WCoordinates: 19°28′25″N 154°55′13″W / 19.47361°N 154.92028°W
CountryUnited States
StateHawaii
CountyHawaiʻi
Area
 • Total4.1 sq mi (10.5 km2)
 • Land4.1 sq mi (10.5 km2)
 • Water0.0 sq mi (0.0 km2)
Elevation
771 ft (235 m)
Population
 (2010)
 • Total1,560
 • Density387/sq mi (149.3/km2)
Time zoneUTC-10 (Hawaii-Aleutian Standard Time Zone)
Area code(s)808
FIPS code15-44562
GNIS feature ID1852580
USGS Kīlauea multimediaFile-1938
Eruption in the Leilani Estates subdivision (May 3, 2018)
USGS Kīlauea multimediaFile-1955
Lava from a fissure slowly advanced to the northeast on Hoʻokupu Street in Leilani Estates subdivision (May 5, 2018)

Geography

Leilani Estates is located near the eastern tip of the island of Hawaii.[4] It is 3 miles (5 km) south of Pāhoa and 23 miles (37 km) south of Hilo. It is bordered to the southeast by the Malama Kī Forest Reserve.

According to the United States Census Bureau, the CDP has a total area of 4.03 square miles (10.45 km2), all of it land.[2]

Leilani Estates is located directly on a stretch of the lower East Rift Zone of Kīlauea volcano, in lava flow hazard zone 1.[5] Zone 1 includes the summit and rift zones of active volcanoes—new eruptive vents can spawn anywhere inside this zone. Approximately 10% or 50 square miles (100 km2) out of the 500 square miles (1,000 km2) of Puna have been covered by lava flows since 1790.[6]

2018 eruption

Of the 24 total volcanic fissure vents that formed during the event, 14 erupted lava to varying degrees within Leilani Estates.[7] Fissure 8 on Luana St. was the dominant vent that produced the most output of lava, with fountaining as high as 330 feet [8] and flow front advancement as fast as 76m/hr [9] as it reached the ocean miles below Leilani Estates. By the time the eruption ceased on August 9 of 2018,[10] around 200 homes had been destroyed within the subdivision.[11]

Demographics

As of the census of 2010, there were 1,560 people in 696 households residing in the CDP. The population density was 371.4 people per square mile (144.4/km²). There were 807 housing units at an average density of 192.1 per square mile (74.7/km²). The racial makeup of the CDP was 63.4% White, 1.4% African American, 1.8% American Indian & Alaska Native, 6.1% Asian, 6.2% Native Hawaiian & Pacific Islander, 1.2% from other races, and 20.0% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 9.8% of the population.[12]

There were 696 households out of which 18.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them. The average household size was 2.24.[12]

In the Leilani Estates CDP the population was spread out with 17.4% under the age of 18, 6.9% from 18 to 24, 11.7% from 25 to 34, 17.6% from 35 to 49, 32.9% from 50 to 64, and 13.4% who were 65 years of age or older. For every 100 females, there were 113.1 males. For every 100 males there were 88.4 females.[12]

The median income for a household in the CDP at the 2000 census was $31,540, and the median income for a family in 2000 was $32,692. Males had a median income of $30,500 versus $22,875 for females in 2000. The per capita income for the CDP in 2000 was $15,522. About 13.7% of families and 21.9% of the population were below the poverty line in 2000, including 16.4% of those under age 18 and 25.5% of those age 65 or over.

References

  1. ^ "Chapter "Leilani Estates History" at leilaniestates.org". Retrieved May 31, 2018.
  2. ^ a b "Geographic Identifiers: 2010 Demographic Profile Data (G001): Leilani Estates CDP, Hawaii". American Factfinder. U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved June 1, 2017.
  3. ^ "County of Hawaii - Civil Defense Alerts and Information - Sixth Supplementary Emergency Proclamation". www.hawaiicounty.gov. Retrieved 2019-01-10.
  4. ^ "US Gazetteer files: 2010, 2000, and 1990". United States Census Bureau. 2011-02-12. Retrieved 2011-04-23.
  5. ^ Wright, T.L.; Chun, J.Y.F.; Exposo, Jean; Heliker, Christina; Hodge, Jon; Lockwood, J.P.; Vogt, S.M. (1992). "Map Showing Lava-Flow Hazard Zones, Island of Hawaii". USGS Pubs Warehouse. U.S. Geological Survey. Retrieved 2017-12-30.
  6. ^ Program, Volcano Hazards. "USGS: Volcano Hazards Program HVO Kilauea". hvo.wr.usgs.gov. Retrieved 8 May 2018.
  7. ^ "ArcGIS Web Application". hawaiicountygis.maps.arcgis.com. Retrieved 2019-01-10.
  8. ^ "USGS Volcano Hazards Program Movie". volcanoes.usgs.gov. Retrieved 2019-01-10.
  9. ^ "USGS Volcano Hazards Program Movie". volcanoes.usgs.gov. Retrieved 2019-01-10.
  10. ^ "Preliminary summary of Kīlauea Volcano's 2018 lower East Rift Zone eruption and summit collapse" (PDF). volcanoes.usgs.gov. USGS. Retrieved 2019-01-10.
  11. ^ duPont, Dane. "Addresses of Homes Lost in 2018 Puna Eruption".
  12. ^ a b c ASD, Website Services & Coordination Staff. "2010 Demographic Profile - U.S. Census Bureau". www.census.gov. Retrieved 8 May 2018.
2018 Hawaii earthquake

On May 4, 2018, an earthquake with a magnitude of Mw 6.9 struck Hawaii island in the Hawaii archipelago at around 12:33 p.m. local time. The earthquake's epicenter was near the south flank of Kīlauea, which has been the site of seismic and volcanic activity since late April. According to the United States Geological Survey the quake was related to the new lava outbreaks at the volcano, and it resulted in the Hilina Slump moving about two feet. It was the largest earthquake to affect Hawaii since the 1975 earthquake, which affected the same region, killing two people and injuring another 28.The earthquake had a maximum strength on the Mercalli intensity scale of VIII (Severe). The earthquake was preceded by a smaller event, measuring 5.4, that was felt across the island and as far away as Oahu.The earthquake produced a minor tsunami that reached a maximum height of 40 cm (15.7 in.) in Kapoho, 20 cm (7.9 in.) in Hilo and 15 cm (5.9 in.) in Honuapo.

2018 lower Puna eruption

The 2018 lower Puna eruption was a volcanic event on the island of Hawaiʻi, on Kīlauea volcano's East Rift Zone that began on May 3, 2018. It is related to the larger eruption of Kīlauea that began on January 3, 1983, though some volcanologists and USGS scientists have discussed whether to classify it as a new eruption. Outbreaks of lava fountains up to 300 feet (90 m) high, lava flows, and volcanic gas in the Leilani Estates subdivision were preceded by earthquakes and ground deformation that created cracks in the roads.

On May 4, a 6.9 magnitude earthquake hit Puna. By May 27, 2018, 24 fissures had erupted lava in and near the Leilani Estates and Lanipuna Gardens subdivisions. The eruption forced the evacuation of approximately two thousand residents. The Puna Geothermal Venture, which provided one-quarter of the island's electricity, was forced to shut down and was later damaged by lava. The fissures had sent lava rivers that buried part of Hawaii Route 137 on May 19, and began flowing into the ocean.On May 29, lava from a new northeastern flow overran Hawaii Route 132, cutting the access between Kapoho and Pāhoa. The massive lava flow reached the Pacific Ocean at Kapoho Bay on June 4. Lava entered the Kapoho Crater and evaporated Green Lake, the largest natural freshwater lake in Hawai'i. On the night of June 4–5, the northeastern flow of lava speedily moved forward and destroyed the subdivision of Vacationland Hawaii. By June 5, Kapoho Bay had been filled in with lava now forming a point where the bay had been. The volcanic activity was the most destructive in the United States since the 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens.By August 7, 13.7 square miles (35 km2) of land had been covered by lava flows. About 875 acres (3.54 km2) of new land has been created in the ocean. The official number of houses destroyed by the eruption reached 700 on July 9. It was estimated that recovery efforts would cost more than $800 million (2018 USD). By early August the eruption had almost completely subsided, and on December 5, it was declared to have ended after three months of inactivity.

Hawaii (island)

Hawaiʻi (Hawaiian pronunciation: [həˈvɐjʔi]) anglicized Hawaii ( (listen) hə-WY-ee) is the largest island located in the U.S. state of Hawaii. It is the largest and the southeasternmost of the Hawaiian Islands, a chain of volcanic islands in the North Pacific Ocean. With an area of 4,028 square miles (10,430 km2), it has 63% of the Hawaiian archipelago's combined landmass, and is the largest island in the United States. However, it has only 13% of Hawaiʻi's people. The island of Hawaiʻi is the third largest island in Polynesia, behind the two main islands of New Zealand.The island is often referred to as the Island of Hawaiʻi, the Big Island, or Hawaiʻi Island to distinguish it from the state. Administratively, the whole island encompasses Hawaiʻi County.

As of the 2010 Census the population was 185,079. The county seat and largest city is Hilo. There are no incorporated cities in Hawaiʻi County (see List of counties in Hawaii).

Kīlauea

Kīlauea (, US: ; Hawaiian: [kiːlɐwˈwɛjə]) is an active shield volcano in the Hawaiian Islands that last erupted between 1983 and 2018. Historically, Kīlauea is the most active of the five volcanoes that together form the island of Hawaiʻi. Located along the southerneastern shore of the island, the volcano is between 210,000 and 280,000 years old and emerged above sea level about 100,000 years ago.

It is the second youngest product of the Hawaiian hotspot and the current eruptive center of the Hawaiian–Emperor seamount chain. Because it lacks topographic prominence and its activities historically coincided with those of Mauna Loa, Kīlauea was once thought to be a satellite of its much larger neighbor. Structurally, Kīlauea has a large, fairly recently formed caldera at its summit and two active rift zones, one extending 125 km (78 mi) east and the other 35 km (22 mi) west, as an active fault of unknown depth moving vertically an average of 2 to 20 mm (0.1 to 0.8 in) per year.

Kīlauea erupted nearly continuously from 1983 to 2018, causing considerable property damage, including the destruction of the towns of Kalapana in 1990, and Vacationland Hawaii and Kapoho in 2018. During the 2018 lower Puna eruption, which began on May 3, two dozen lava vents erupted downrift from the summit in Puna. The eruption was accompanied by a strong earthquake on May 4 of Mw 6.9, and nearly 2,000 residents were evacuated from the rural Leilani Estates subdivision and nearby areas.

On May 17, 2018 at 4:17 AM, the volcano explosively erupted at the summit in Halemaʻumaʻu, throwing ash 30,000 feet into the air. Continued explosive activity at the summit caused a months-long closure of the Kīlauea section of Hawaii Volcanoes National Park. Vigorous eruptive lava fountains in lower Puna sent destructive rivers of molten rock into the ocean in three places. The lava destroyed Hawaii's largest natural freshwater lake, covered substantial portions of Leilani Estates and Lanipuna Gardens, and completely inundated the communities of Kapoho, Vacationland Hawaii and all but three houses in the Kapoho Beach Lots. Lava also filled Kapoho Bay and extended new land nearly a mile into the sea. The County of Hawaii reported that 716 dwellings were destroyed by lava. By early August the eruption subsided substantially, and the last active lava was reported at the surface on September 4, 2018. Portions of Hawaii Volcanoes National Park reopened to the public on September 22. On December 5, 2018, after 90 days of inactivity from the volcano, the eruption that started in 1983 was declared to be over.

List of Hawaii locations by per capita income

Hawaii has the eighteenth highest per capita income in the United States of America, at $21,525 (2000). Its personal per capita income is $46,034 (2014). The information is represented in the table below.

List of earthquakes in 2018

This is a list of earthquakes in 2018. Only earthquakes of magnitude 6 or above are included, unless they result in damage and/or casualties, or are notable for other reasons. All dates are listed according to UTC time. Maximum intensities are indicated on the Mercalli intensity scale and are sourced from United States Geological Survey (USGS) ShakeMap data. In a busy year with 17 major quakes, Indonesia was hit particularly hard. More than 500 people died in Lombok in August and a major tsunami struck the Palu region in September, with more than 4,000 casualties. Other deadly events took place in Papua New Guinea, Japan, Haiti, Taiwan and Mexico.

Islands, municipalities, and communities of Hawaii County, Hawaii, United States
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