Left-hand traffic (LHT) and right-hand traffic (RHT) are the practice, in bidirectional traffic, of keeping to the left side or to the right side of the road, respectively. A fundamental element to traffic flow, it is sometimes referred to as the rule of the road.
RHT is used in 165 countries and territories, with the remaining 75 countries and territories using LHT. Countries that use LHT account for about a sixth of the world's area with about 35% of its population and a quarter of its roads. In 1919, 104 of the world's territories were LHT and an equal number were RHT. From 1919 to 1986, 34 of the LHT territories switched to RHT.
Many LHT countries were formerly part of the British Empire, although some were not, such as Japan, Thailand, Indonesia, and Suriname. Conversely, many RHT countries were part of the French colonial empire.
For rail transport, LHT predominates in Western Europe (except Germany, Denmark, Austria, Spain, and the Netherlands), Latin America (except Mexico), and in countries formerly in the British and French Empires, whereas North American and central and eastern European train services operate RHT.
According to the International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea, water traffic is effectively RHT: a vessel proceeding along a narrow channel must keep to starboard (the right-hand side), and when two power-driven vessels are meeting head-on both must alter course to starboard also. For aircraft the US Federal Aviation Regulations suggest RHT principles, both in the air and on water.
In LHT vehicles keep left, and cars are RHD (right-hand drive) with the steering wheel on the right-hand side and the driver sitting on the offside or side closest to the centre of the road. The passenger sits on the nearside, closest to the kerb. Roundabouts circulate clockwise. In RHT everything is reversed: cars keep right, the driver sits on the left side of the car, and roundabouts circulate counterclockwise.
Ancient Greek, Egyptian, and Roman troops kept to the left when marching. In 1998, archaeologists found a well-preserved double track leading to a Roman quarry near Swindon, in southern England. The grooves in the road on the left side (viewed facing down the track away from the quarry) were much deeper than those on the right side, suggesting LHT, at least at this location, since carts would exit the quarry heavily loaded, and enter it empty. In the year 1300, Pope Boniface VIII directed pilgrims to keep left.
The first reference in English law to an order for LHT was in 1756, with regard to London Bridge. The United Kingdom is LHT, but its overseas territories of Gibraltar and British Indian Ocean Territory are RHT. In the late 1960s, the UK Department for Transport considered switching to RHT, but declared it unsafe and too costly for such a built-up nation. Road building standards, for motorways in particular, allow asymmetrically designed road junctions, where merge and diverge lanes differ in length.
Sweden switched to RHT in 1967, having been LHT since from about 1734 despite having land borders with RHT countries, and approximately 90 percent of cars being left-hand drive (LHD) vehicles. A referendum was held in 1955, with an overwhelming majority voting against a change to RHT. Nevertheless, some years later the government ordered a conversion, which took place at 5 am on Sunday, 3 September 1967. The accident rate dropped sharply after the change, but soon rose back to near its original level. The day was known as Högertrafikomläggningen or Dagen H for short. When Iceland switched the following year, it was known as Hægri dagurinn or H-dagurinn. Most passenger cars in Iceland were already LHD.
LHT was used in the Austro-Hungarian Empire, and when the empire was split up, the countries all changed eventually to RHT. Austria switched sides in 1921 in Vorarlberg, 1930 in North Tyrol, 1935 in Carinthia and East Tyrol, and in 1938 in the rest of the country. Partitions of Poland changed to RHT in the 1920s, Partitions belonging to the German Empire and the Russian Empire were RHT. Croatia-Slavonia switched to RHT on joining the Kingdom of Yugoslavia, although Istria and Dalmatia were already RHT. Nazi Germany introduced the switch to right-hand traffic in Czechoslovakia and Slovakia in 1938–39. West Ukraine was LHT, although the rest of Ukraine, having been part of the Russian Empire, already drove on the right. In Romania Transylvania, the Banat and Bukovina were LHT until 1919, while Wallachia and Moldavia were already RHT.
In Italy the countryside was RHT while cities were LHT until 1927. Rome changed to RHT in 1924 and Milan in 1926. Alfa Romeo and Lancia did produce RHD cars until as late as 1950 and 1953 respectively only to special order, as many drivers favoured the RHD layout even in RHT as this offered the driver a clearer view of the edge of the road in mountainous regions at a time when many such roads lacked barriers or walls. The Rome Metro uses LHT.
Rotterdam was LHT until 1917, although the rest
Today, four countries in Europe continue to use left-hand traffic, all island nations: the UK, Cyprus, Ireland, and Malta.
LHT was introduced in British West Africa. All of the countries formerly part of this colony have borders with former French RHT jurisdictions and have switched sides since decolonization. These include Ghana, The Gambia, Sierra Leone, and Nigeria. LHT was introduced by the British in the East Africa Protectorate (now Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda), Rhodesia, and the Cape Colony (now Zambia, Zimbabwe and South Africa). All of these have remained LHT. Sudan, formerly part of Anglo-Egyptian Sudan switched to RHT in 1973, as it is surrounded by neighbouring RHT countries.
The Portuguese Empire (then LHT), introduced that to Portuguese Mozambique and Portuguese Angola. Although Portugal itself switched to RHT in 1928, these territories remained LHT as they have land borders with former British colonies. Other former Portuguese colonies in Africa that switched sides in 1928 including Guinea-Bissau, São Tomé and Príncipe, and Cape Verde.
The French introduced RHT in French West Africa and the Maghreb, where it is still used. Countries in this former colony include Mali, Mauritania, Ivory Coast, Burkina Faso, Benin, Niger, Morocco, Algeria, and Tunisia. Other French former colonies that are RHT include Burundi, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Djibouti, Gabon, and the Republic of the Congo.
Rwanda and Burundi, former Belgian colonies in Central Africa, are RHT but are considering switching to LHT like neighbouring members of the East African Community (EAC). A survey, carried out in 2009, indicated that 54% of Rwandans were in favour of the switch. Reasons cited were the perceived lower costs of RHD vehicles as opposed to LHD versions of the same model, easier maintenance and the political benefit of harmonisation of traffic regulations with other EAC countries. The same survey also indicated that RHD cars are 16 to 49 per cent cheaper than their LHD equivalents. In 2014 an internal report from consultants to the Ministry of Infrastructure recommended a switch to LHT. In 2015, the ban on RHD vehicles was lifted; RHD trucks from neighbouring countries cost $1000 less than LHD models imported from Europe.
In what is now Canada, LHT was introduced by the British in British Columbia, which changed to RHT in stages from 1920 to 1923, and New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, and Prince Edward Island which changed in 1922, 1923, and 1924 respectively. The Dominion of Newfoundland changed to RHT in 1947 while still a British colony, two years before joining Canada. Former parts of New France have always been RHT.
In the late 1700s, traffic in the United States was RHT based on teamsters' use of large freight wagons pulled by several pairs of horses. The wagons had no driver's seat, so the (typically right-handed) postilion held his whip in his right hand and thus sat on the left rear horse. Seated on the left, the driver preferred that other wagons pass him on the left so that he could be sure to keep clear of the wheels of oncoming wagons. The first keep-right law for driving in the United States was passed in 1792 and applied to the Philadelphia and Lancaster Turnpike. New York formalized RHT in 1804, New Jersey in 1813 and Massachusetts in 1821. Today the United States is RHT except the United States Virgin Islands, which is LHT like many neighbouring islands.
Brazil was a colony of Portugal and switched to RHT with Portugal in 1928. Other Central and South American countries that later switched from LHT to RHT include Argentina, Chile, Panama, Paraguay, and Uruguay.
In the West Indies, colonies and territories drive on the same side as their parent countries, except for the United States Virgin Islands. Many of the island nations are former British colonies and drive on the left, including Jamaica, Antigua and Barbuda, Barbados, Dominica, Grenada, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Trinidad and Tobago, and The Bahamas.
LHT was introduced by the British in British India (now India, Pakistan, Myanmar, and Bangladesh), British Malaya (now Malaysia, Brunei and Singapore), and British Hong Kong. All are still LHT except Myanmar, which switched to RHT in 1970, although much of its infrastructure still geared to LHT. Most cars are used RHD vehicles imported from Japan. Afghanistan was LHT until the 1950s, in line with neighbouring British India and later Pakistan.
LHT was introduced by the Portuguese Empire in Portuguese Macau, Portuguese Timor. These are still LHT although Macau is now part of RHT China. East Timor Shares the island of Timor with LHT Indonesia. Was LHT as part of Portuguese Timor, then switched to RHT with Portugal in 1928. Under the Indonesian occupation of East Timor, changed back to LHT in 1976.
China is RHT except the Special Administrative Regions of Hong Kong and Macau. LHT was uniform in the 1930s, then the northern provinces were RHT. Nationalist China adopted RHT in 1946. This convention was preserved when the CCP took the mainland and the KMT retreated to Taiwan.
The Philippines was mostly LHT during its Spanish and American colonial periods, as well as during the Commonwealth era. During the Japanese occupation, the Philippines remained LHT, also because LHT had been required by the Japanese; but during the Battle of Manila, the liberating American forces drove their tanks to the right for easier facilitation of movement. RHT was formalised in 1945.
In Japan, Post-World War II Okinawa was ruled by the United States Civil Administration of the Ryukyu Islands and was RHT. It was returned to Japan in 1972 but did not convert back to LHT until 1978. The conversion operation was known as 730 (Nana-San-Maru, which refers to the date of the changeover, 30 July). Okinawa is one of few places to have changed from RHT to LHT in the late 1900s.
Vietnam became RHT as part of French Indochina, as did Cambodia. In the latter country, RHD cars, many of which were smuggled from Thailand, were banned from 2001, even though they accounted for 80% of vehicles in the country.
Samoa, a former German colony, had been RHT for more than a century. It switched to LHT in 2009, being the first territory in almost 30 years to switch. The move was legislated in 2008 to allow Samoans to use cheaper right-hand drive (RHD) vehicles—which are better suited for left-hand traffic—imported from Australia, New Zealand or Japan, and to harmonise with other South Pacific nations. A political party, The People's Party, was formed to try to protest against the change, a protest group which launched a legal challenge, and an estimated 18,000 people attending demonstrations against it. The motor industry was also opposed, as 14,000 of Samoa's 18,000 vehicles are designed for RHT and the government has refused to meet the cost of conversion. After months of preparation, the switch from right to left happened in an atmosphere of national celebration. There were no reported incidents. At 05:50 local time, Monday 7 September, a radio announcement halted traffic, and an announcement at 6:00 ordered traffic to switch to LHT. The change coincided with more restrictive enforcement of speeding and seat-belt laws. That day and the following day were declared public holidays, to reduce traffic. The change included a three-day ban on alcohol sales, while police mounted dozens of checkpoints, warning drivers to drive slowly.
In healthy populations, traffic safety is thought to be the same regardless of handedness, although some researchers have speculated that LHT may be safer for ageing populations since humans more commonly have right-eye ocular dominance. Comparing accident statistics between countries operating either LHT or RHT, Leeming concluded that LHT is superior. However, Watson has criticised the small sample size and dismisses the notion.
Although many LHT jurisdictions are on islands, there are cases where vehicles may be driven from LHT across a border into a RHT area. Such borders are mostly located in Africa and southern Asia. The Vienna Convention on Road Traffic regulates the use of foreign registered vehicles in the 74 countries that have ratified it.
LHT Thailand has three RHT neighbors: Cambodia, Laos, and Myanmar. Most of its borders use a simple traffic light to do the switch, but there are also interchanges which enable the switch while keeping up a continuous flow of traffic.
There are four road border crossing points between Hong Kong and Mainland China. In 2006, the daily average number of vehicle trips recorded at Lok Ma Chau was 31,100. The next largest is Man Kam To, where there is no changeover system and the border roads on the mainland side Wenjindu intersect as one-way streets with a main road.
Although the United Kingdom is separated from Continental Europe by the English Channel, the level of cross-Channel traffic is very high; the Channel Tunnel alone carries 3.5 million vehicles per year by the Eurotunnel Shuttle between the UK and France.
In RHT jurisdictions, vehicles are configured with LHD, with the driver sitting on the left side. In LHT jurisdictions, the reverse is true. The driver's side, the side closest to the centre of the road, is sometimes called the offside, while the passenger side, the side closest to the side of the road, is sometimes called the nearside.
Most windshield wipers are designed to clear the driver's side better and have a longer blade on the driver's side and wipe up from the passenger side to the driver's side. Thus on LHD configurations, they wipe up from right to left, viewed from inside the vehicle, and do the opposite on RHD vehicles.
Historically there was less consistency in the relationship of the position of the driver to the handedness of traffic. Most American cars produced before 1910 were RHD. In 1908 Henry Ford standardised the Model T as LHD in RHT America, arguing that with RHD and RHT, the passenger was obliged to "get out on the street side and walk around the car" and that with steering from the left, the driver "is able to see even the wheels of the other car and easily avoids danger." By 1915 other manufacturers followed Ford's lead, due to the popularity of the Model T.
In specialised cases, the driver will sit on the nearside, or kerbside. Examples include:
Generally, the convention is to mount a motorcycle on the left, and kickstands are usually on the left which makes it more convenient to mount on the safer kerbside as is the case in LHT. Some jurisdictions prohibit fitting a sidecar to a motorcycle's offside.
Most low-beam headlamps produce an asymmetrical light suitable for use on only one side of the road. Low beam headlamps in LHT jurisdictions throw most of their light forward-leftward; those for RHT throw most of their light forward-rightward, thus illuminating obstacles and road signs while minimising glare for oncoming traffic.
In Europe, headlamps approved for use on one side of the road must be adaptable to produce adequate illumination with controlled glare for temporarily driving on the other side of the road,:p.13 ¶5.8. This may be achieved by affixing masking strips or prismatic lenses to a part of the lens or by moving all or part of the headlamp optic so all or part of the beam is shifted or the asymmetrical portion is occluded.:p.13 ¶5.8.1 Some varieties of the projector-type headlamp can be fully adjusted to produce a proper LHT or RHT beam by shifting a lever or other movable element in or on the lamp assembly.:p.12 ¶5.4 Some vehicles adjust the headlamps automatically when the car's GPS detects that the vehicle has moved from LHT to RHT and vice versa.
In the European Union, vehicles must be equipped with one or two red rear fog lamps. A single rear fog lamp must be located between the vehicle's longitudinal centreline and the outer extent of the driver's side of the vehicle.
An Australian news source reports that some RHD cars imported to that country did not perform as well on crash tests as the LHD versions, although the cause is unknown, and may be due to differences in testing methodology.
In most countries, rail traffic travels on the same side as road traffic. However, in many cases railways were built, often using LHT British technology, and road traffic switch the RHT while rail remained LHT. Examples include: Argentina, Belgium, Bolivia, Cambodia, Chile, Egypt, France, Iraq, Israel, Italy, Laos, Monaco, Myanmar, Nigeria, Peru, Portugal, Senegal, Slovenia, Sweden, Switzerland, Taiwan, Tunisia, Venezuela, and Yemen. In countries such as Indonesia it is the reverse (RHT for rails and LHT for roads). France is mainly LHT for trains, except for the classic lines in Alsace-Lorraine which belonged to Germany when the railways were built before 1918. Metros and light rail sides of operation vary, and might not match railways or roads in their country. Trams generally operate at the same side as a road traffic due to a common sections with roads.
Of the 195 countries currently recognised by the United Nations, 141 use RHT and 54 use LHT on roads in general. A country and its territories and dependencies is counted once. Whichever directionality is listed first is the type that is used in general in the traffic category.
|Country||Road traffic||Road switched sides||Notes, exceptions|
|Algeria||RHT||French Algeria until 1962.|
|Andorra||RHT||Landlocked between France and Spain.|
|Antigua and Barbuda||LHT||British colony until 1958. Caribbean island.|
|Argentina||RHT||1945||The anniversary on 10 June is still observed each year as Día de la Seguridad Vial (road safety day).|
|Australia||LHT||British colony before 1901. Island nation. Includes Norfolk Island.|
|Bahamas||LHT||British colony before 1973. Caribbean island.|
|Bahrain||RHT||1967||Former British protectorate. Switched to same side as neighbours.|
|Bangladesh||LHT||Part of British India before 1947.|
|Barbados||LHT||British colony before 1966. Caribbean archipelagic state.|
|Belize||RHT||1961||Former British colony. Switched to same side as neighbours.|
|Benin||RHT||Part of French West Africa before 1960.|
|Bhutan||LHT||Under British protection before 1949.|
|Bosnia and Herzegovina||RHT||1918||Switched sides after the collapse of Austria-Hungary.|
|Brunei||LHT||UK colony before 1984.|
|Burkina Faso||RHT||Part of French West Africa before 1958.|
|Burundi||RHT||Belgian colony before 1962.|
|Central African Republic||RHT||French colony before 1960.|
|Chad||RHT||French colony before 1960.|
|Comoros||RHT||French colony before 1975.|
|Republic of Congo||RHT||French colony before 1960.|
|Democratic Republic of Congo||RHT||Belgian colony before 1960.|
|Côte d'Ivoire||RHT||Part of French West Africa before 1960.|
|Cyprus||LHT||Under UK administration before 1960. Island nation.|
|Denmark||RHT||Includes Faroe Islands and Greenland|
|Dominica||LHT||British colony before 1978. Caribbean island.|
|Eritrea||RHT||1964||Italian colony before 1942.|
|Fiji||LHT||British colony before 1970. Island nation.|
|France||RHT||1792||Includes French Polynesia, New Caledonia, Saint Pierre and Miquelon, Wallis and Futuna, French Guiana, Réunion, Saint Barthélemy, Collectivity of Saint Martin, Guadeloupe, Mayotte.|
|Georgia||RHT||About 40% vehicles in Georgia are RHD due to the low cost of used cars imported from Japan.|
|Ghana||RHT||1974||Ghana when changing to RHT in 1974, a Twi language slogan was "Nifa, Nifa Enan" or "Right, Right, Fourth". Ghana has also banned RHD vehicles. Ghana prohibited new registrations of RHD vehicles after 1 August 1974, three days before the traffic change.|
|Grenada||LHT||British colony before 1974. Caribbean island.|
|Holy See||RHT||Enclave of Rome.|
|Hungary||RHT||1941||Originally LHT, like most of Austria-Hungary.|
|India||LHT||Part of British India before 1947.|
|Indonesia||LHT||Roads and railways were built by the Dutch, with LHT for roads to conform to Asian standards and RHT for railways. The Jakarta MRT and Palembang LRT also use RHT.|
|Ireland||LHT||Part of the United Kingdom before 1922.|
|Jamaica||LHT||British colony before 1962. Caribbean island.|
|Kenya||LHT||Part of the British East Africa Protectorate before 1963.|
|Kiribati||LHT||UK colony before 1979. Pacific islands.|
|Kyrgyzstan||RHT||Former part of RHT Soviet Union. In 2012, over 20,000 cheaper used RHD cars were imported from Japan.|
|Laos||RHT||RHT implemented while part of French Indochina.|
|Lebanon||RHT||French Mandate of Lebanon before 1946.|
|Lesotho||LHT||Enclave of LHT South Africa.|
|Libya||RHT||Italian Libya colony from 1911 to 1947.|
|Liechtenstein||RHT||Landlocked between Switzerland and Austria.|
|Malawi||LHT||British colony before 1964.|
|Malaysia||LHT||British colony before 1957.|
|Maldives||LHT||British colony before 1965. Island nation.|
|Mali||RHT||Part of French West Africa before 1960.|
|Malta||LHT||British colony before 1964. Island nation.|
|Mauritania||RHT||Part of French West Africa before 1960. Mining roads between Fderîck and Zouérat are LHT.|
|Mauritius||LHT||British colony before 1968. Island nation.|
|Netherlands||RHT||1906||Includes Curaçao, Sint Maarten, and Aruba|
|Namibia||LHT||1918||Administered by South Africa 1920-1990.|
|Nauru||LHT||1918||Administered by Australia, New Zealand and the United Kingdom until 1968. Island nation.|
|Nepal||LHT||Never colonized, land border with LHT India.|
|New Zealand||LHT||British colony before 1947. Pacific island, including territories Niue and Cook Islands|
|Niger||RHT||Part of French West Africa before 1958.|
|Pakistan||LHT||Part of British India before 1947.|
|Papua New Guinea||LHT||After Australia occupied German New Guinea during World War I, switched to LHT.|
|Philippines||RHT||1946||Was LHT during the Spanish and American colonial periods. Switched to RHT during Battle of Manila in 1945. Philippine National Railways switched to RHT in 2010.|
|Portugal||RHT||1928||Colonies Goa, Macau and Mozambique, which had land borders with LHT countries, did not switch and continue to drive on the left. The Porto Metro uses RHT.|
|Romania||RHT||1919||Parts of Romania were LHT until 1919.|
|Russia||RHT||In the Russian Far East RHD vehicles are common due to the import of used cars from nearby Japan. Railway between Moscow and Ryazan, Sormovskaya line in Nizhny Novgorod Metro and Moskva River cable car use LHT.|
|Saint Kitts and Nevis||LHT||British colony before 1967. Caribbean island.|
|Saint Lucia||LHT||British colony before 1979. Caribbean island.|
|Saint Vincent and the Grenadines||LHT||British colony before 1979. Caribbean island.|
|Samoa||LHT||2009||Switched to LHT to allow for cheaper importation of cars from Australia, New Zealand and Japan.|
|San Marino||RHT||Enclaved state surrounded by Italy.|
|São Tomé and Príncipe||RHT||1928||Originally LHT, like its colonial power Portugal. Switched to RHT with Portugal in 1928.|
|Senegal||RHT||Part of French West Africa before 1960.|
|Serbia||RHT||Vojvodina was LHT while part of Austria-Hungary.|
|Seychelles||LHT||British colony before 1976. Island nation.|
|Sierra Leone||RHT||1971||Banned the importation of RHD vehicles in 2013.|
|Singapore||LHT||Former British colony.|
|Solomon Islands||LHT||British colony before 1975. Island nation.|
|South Africa||LHT||British colony before 1909.|
|South Sudan||RHT||1973||Former part of Anglo-Egyptian Sudan.|
|Spain||RHT||1924||Up to the 1920s Barcelona was RHT, and Madrid was LHT until 1924.|
|Sri Lanka||LHT||British Ceylon 1815-1948.|
|Swaziland||LHT||Former Portuguese colony. Continues to drive on the same side as neighboring countries.|
|Sweden||RHT||3 September 1967||The day of the switch was known as Dagen H. Most passenger cars were already LHD.|
|Taiwan||RHT||1946||Was LHT during the period of Japanese rule. The government of the Republic of China changed Taiwan to RHT in 1946 along with the rest of China.|
|Tanzania||LHT||Part of the British East Africa Protectorate until 1961.|
|Thailand||LHT||One of the few LHT countries not a former British colony. Shares long land border with RHT Laos and Cambodia.|
|Tonga||LHT||British protectorate before 2010. Polynesian island nation.|
|Trinidad and Tobago||LHT||British colony before 1962. Caribbean island.|
|Tunisia||RHT||French RHT was enforced in the French protectorate of Tunisia from 1881.|
|Tuvalu||LHT||British colony before 1974. Island nation.|
|Uganda||LHT||UK Uganda Protectorate 1894-1962.|
|United Arab Emirates||RHT|
|Includes Crown dependencies and Overseas Territories Isle of Man, Guernsey, Jersey, Anguilla, Bermuda, British Virgin Islands, Cayman Islands, Falkland Islands, Montserrat, Pitcairn Islands (unregistered), Turks and Caicos Islands, Saint Helena, Ascension, Tristan da Cunha are all LHT. Gibraltar has been RHT since 1929 because of its land border with Spain. The British Indian Ocean Territory is the only other overseas territory driving on the right. The Channel Islands (Jersey and Guernsey) drove on the right under German occupation until their liberation in 1945.|
|U.S. Virgin Islands, like much of the Caribbean, is LHT and is the only American jurisdiction that still has LHT, because the islands drove on the left when the US purchased the former Danish West Indies in the 1917 Treaty of the Danish West Indies.|
|Uruguay||RHT||1945||Became LHT in 1918, but as in some other countries in South America, changed to RHT on 2 September 1945. A speed limit of 30 km/h (19 mph) was observed until 30 September for safety.|
|Western Sahara||RHT||Occupied by Spain until the late 1900s.|
|Yemen||RHT||1977||South Yemen, formerly the British colony of Aden, changed to RHT in 1977. A series of postage stamps commemorating the event was issued. North Yemen was already RHT.|
|Zambia||LHT||UK colony before 1964.|
|Zimbabwe||LHT||UK colony before 1965.|
In Styria, Upper and Lower Austria, Salzburg, Carniola, Croatia, and Hungary we keep to the left, and pass to the right in overtaking; in Carinthia, Tyrol, and the Austrian Littoral (Adriatic coast: Trieste, Gorizia and Gradisca, Istria and Dalmatia) we keep to the right and overtake to the left. Troops on the march always keep to the right side of the road, so in whatever part of the Empire you meet them, keep to the left.
Original video clips from a Japanese propaganda film shot in early 1942.
where a side–car is attached to a mechanically propelled bicycle, the side–car shall be ... fitted on the left side of the vehicle; "Motorcycle Sidecar & Trailer legislation". MAG Ireland. Irish Motorcyclists Association. 9 February 2014. Retrieved 6 November 2017.
An airfield traffic pattern is a standard path followed by aircraft when taking off or landing while maintaining visual contact with the airfield.
At an airport, the pattern (or circuit in the Commonwealth) is a standard path for coordinating air traffic. It differs from "straight-in approaches" and "direct climb-outs" in that aircraft using a traffic pattern remain close to the airport. Patterns are usually employed at small general aviation (GA) airfields and military airbases. Many large controlled airports avoid the system unless there is GA activity as well as commercial flights. However, some kind of a pattern may be used at airports in some cases such as when an aircraft is required to go around, but this kind of pattern at controlled airports may be very different in form, shape, and purpose to the standard traffic pattern as used at GA airports.
The use of a pattern at airfields is for air safety. By using a consistent flight pattern, pilots will know from where to expect other air traffic and be able to see and avoid it. Pilots flying under visual flight rules (VFR) may not be separated by air traffic control, so this consistent predictable pattern is a vital way to keep things orderly. At tower-controlled airports, air traffic control (ATC) may provide traffic advisories for VFR flights on a work-load permitting basis.Hong Kong–Zhuhai–Macau Bridge
The Hong Kong–Zhuhai–Macau Bridge (HZMB), officially the Hong Kong–Zhuhai–Macao Bridge, is a 55-kilometre (34 mi) bridge–tunnel system consisting of a series of three cable-stayed bridges, an undersea tunnel, and four artificial islands. It is both the longest sea crossing and the longest open-sea fixed link on earth. The HZMB spans the Lingding and Jiuzhou channels, connecting Hong Kong, Macau, and Zhuhai—three major cities on the Pearl River Delta.The HZMB was designed to last for 120 years and cost 127 billion yuan (US$18.8 billion) to build. The cost of constructing the Main Bridge was estimated at 51.1 billion yuan (US$7.56 billion) funded by bank loans and shared among the governments of mainland China, Hong Kong and Macau.Originally set to be opened to traffic in late 2016, the structure was completed on 6 February 2018 and journalists were subsequently taken for a ride over the bridge. On 24 October 2018, the HZMB was opened to the public after its inauguration a day earlier by Xi Jinping, General Secretary of the Communist Party of China (paramount leader).List of countries with left-hand traffic
This is a list of 75 countries and territories with left-hand traffic. Left-hand traffic (LHT) is the practice, in bidirectional traffic, of keeping to the left side of the road.Port (medical)
In medicine, a port is a small medical appliance that is installed beneath the skin. A catheter connects the port to a vein. Under the skin, the port has a septum through which drugs can be injected and blood samples can be drawn many times, usually with less discomfort for the patient than a more typical "needle stick".
Ports are used mostly to treat hematology and oncology patients. Ports were previously adapted for use in hemodialysis patients, but were found to be associated with increased rate of infections and are no longer available in the US.The port is usually inserted in the upper chest (known as a "chest port"), just below the clavicle or collar bone, leaving the patient's hands free.Rule of the road
Rule of the road may refer to:
Left- and right-hand traffic, regulations requiring all vehicular traffic to keep either to the left or the right side of the road
Traffic code (also motor vehicle code), the collection of local statutes, regulations, ordinances and rules which that govern public (and sometimes private) waysSteering wheel
A steering wheel (also called a driving wheel or a hand wheel) is a type of steering control in vehicles and vessels (ships and boats).
Steering wheels are used in most modern land vehicles, including all mass-production automobiles, as well as buses, light and heavy trucks, and tractors. The steering wheel is the part of the steering system that is manipulated by the driver; the rest of the steering system responds to such driver inputs. This can be through direct mechanical contact as in recirculating ball or rack and pinion steering gears, without or with the assistance of hydraulic power steering, HPS, or as in some modern production cars with the assistance of computer-controlled motors, known as Electric Power Steering.Tailgating
Tailgating is when a driver drives behind another vehicle while not leaving sufficient distance to stop without causing a collision if the vehicle in front stops suddenly.The safe distance for following another vehicle varies depending on various factors including vehicle speed, weather, visibility and other road conditions. Some jurisdictions may require a minimal gap of a specified distance or time interval. When following heavy vehicles or in less than ideal conditions (e.g. low light or rain), a longer distance is recommended.Traffic stop
A traffic stop, commonly called being pulled over, is a temporary detention of a driver of a vehicle by police to investigate a possible crime or minor violation of law.Traffic violations reciprocity
Under traffic violations reciprocity agreements, non-resident drivers are treated like residents when they are stopped for a traffic offense that occurs in another jurisdiction. They also ensure that punishments such as penalty points on one's license and the ensuing increase in insurance premiums follow the driver home. The general principle of such interstate, interprovincial, and/or international compacts is to guarantee the rule "one license, one record."Wrong-way driving
Wrong-way driving (WWD) (colloquially also called ghost driving) is the act of driving a motor vehicle against the direction of traffic. It can occur on either one- or two-way roads, as well as in parking lots and parking garages, and may be due to driver inattention or impairment, or because of insufficient or confusing road markings or signage, or a driver from a right-hand traffic country being unaccustomed to driving in a left-hand traffic country (see Left- and right-hand traffic), and vice versa. People intentionally drive in the wrong direction because they missed an exit, for thrill-seeking, as a suicide attempt, or as a shortcut.On a divided highway, especially freeway, WWD is a serious problem because of the high speeds usually involved, since the result is more likely a head-on collision. In the United States, about 355 people are killed each year in crashes caused by drivers headed in the wrong direction on the highway. Given an average of 265 fatal WWD crashes, 1.34 fatalities per WWD fatal crash can be calculated. The significance of these kind of crashes is corroborated when this number is compared to the fatalities per fatal crash rate of 1.10 for all other crash types, which translates to 24 more fatalities per 100 fatal crashes for WWD crashes than for fatal crashes in general. Most drivers who enter a divided highway or ramp in the wrong direction correct themselves by turning around.Depending on the jurisdiction, WWD is a punishable offense. In New Zealand, WWD is counted as careless driving and can result in up to 5 years imprisonment and/or a fine up to NZ$10,000.
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