Leeds City Region

The Leeds City Region is a city region in the North of England centred on Leeds, West Yorkshire. The activities of the city region are coordinated by the Leeds City Region Partnership. Since April 2007 strategic local governance decisions have been made by the joint committee of the Leeds City Region Leaders Board.[1] A multi-area agreement was established in 2008 and since 2011 economic development has been supported by the Leeds City Region LEP, which forms a business-led local enterprise partnership.[2] As part of a 2012 'city deal' a West Yorkshire Combined Authority will be established in order receive devolved powers for transport, economic development and regeneration.[3][4] The secretariat for the city region is based within Leeds City Council.[5] The Leeds City Region Enterprise Zone promotes development in four sites along the A63 East Leeds Link Road.

This sub-region (defined by local labour markets and journey to work areas) covers the whole of West Yorkshire and parts of neighbouring North and South Yorkshire; that is, the ten local authority districts (in order of Population size) Leeds, Bradford, York, Kirklees, Barnsley, Wakefield, Selby, Calderdale, Harrogate and Craven. With close to 3 million people, a resident workforce of 1.4 million, over 100,000 businesses and an economy worth £55 billion in 2012.[6] The region is diverse and has many centres, both geographically and culturally. It is one of eight city regions defined in the 2004 document Moving Forward: The Northern Way,[7] a collaboration between the three northern regional development agencies which is a part of the 20 year government strategy to grow the economy of Northern England.[8] As a partnership, the Leeds City Region is firmly established and has in operation an accountable decision making structure, which involves the Leaders of all eleven partner authorities. It has made several successful bids for government funded economic development projects.

Leeds City Region
Skyline of Leeds City Region
Location of Leeds City Region
Coordinates: 53°48′00″N 1°32′56″W / 53.800°N 1.549°WCoordinates: 53°48′00″N 1°32′56″W / 53.800°N 1.549°W
Sovereign state United Kingdom
Constituent country England
RegionYorkshire and the Humber
Established2005 (Leeds City Region Concordat)
Administrative HQLeeds
Districts
Government
 • TypeLocal enterprise partnership
 • BodyLeeds City Region Local Enterprise Partnership
 • LeadershipChairman and board
 • ChairmanRoger Marsh
Area
 • Total2,200 sq mi (5,700 km2)
Population
 • Total3,000,000
 • Density1,400/sq mi (530/km2)
Websitewww.leedscityregion.gov.uk

Geography

Leeds City Region
The local authority areas included in the Leeds City Region

The region includes the whole of West Yorkshire and parts of South Yorkshire and North Yorkshire. The geographical area included in the city region is made up of the local authority areas of:

It covers a wide and varied physical region, taking in much of the Yorkshire Dales National Park as well as Nidderdale. Of the five cities, Leeds is the largest in geographical area, population and economy. The southern part of the region is largely urban with many former industrial centres. The northern part is mainly rural but includes significant urban centres, notably Harrogate and York. The northern areas are generally wealthier than the southern part of the city region.

Barnsley is also part of the Sheffield City Region.[9]

Transport

Terminal, Leeds Bradford International Airport (24th July 2010) 001
Leeds Bradford International Airport

The city region is served directly by Leeds Bradford International Airport, although Manchester Airport is easily accessed by train and road from parts of the City Region, while Doncaster, Durham Tees Valley and Humberside airports are also easily accessible. The Humber ports are also within easy reach.

The north-south A1(M) and east-west M62 motorways intersect close to Leeds, near the terminus of the M1 from London. A series of motorway spurs enable traffic to reach the centres of Leeds and Bradford quickly. There is a comprehensive secondary road network based on Leeds, Bradford, Huddersfield and York. The A1, A64 and A650 are important trunk routes.

Leeds City Station - geograph.org.uk - 853461
Leeds City Station
Voyager at York - geograph.org.uk - 1407530
York Station
Harrogate railway station, October 2014 01
Harrogate Station

Leeds railway station is the hub of the region's extensive commuter rail network. The primary link to London is on the East Coast Main Line (ECML), which principally serves Leeds railway station, Wakefield Westgate and York railway station. There are regional semi-fast services on the Transpennine line that serve Huddersfield, Dewsbury, Leeds, Garforth, York and Northallerton. The West Yorkshire Passenger Transport Executive (Metro), coordinates rail services in the West Yorkshire part of this area, but not in Craven and Harrogate which are under the auspices of North Yorkshire County Council.

Despite this, the regional transport network is strained thanks to low levels of transport investment from Central Government. As a result, there is overcrowding on the rail network and significant connectivity issues within the city region and between other city regions such as Manchester and Sheffield as well as London.

The Leeds and Liverpool Canal and Aire and Calder Navigation run through the region, though today they are only used for leisure purposes.

Economy

The city region has a diverse economy consisting of around 100,000 businesses, generating around £52 billion a year and is becoming recognised as a national centre for financial and business services.[10] Leeds is at the economic heart, with some 124,000 people engaged in financial services.[11] The city is the UK's second largest financial and legal centre.[12][13] There is a large conference industry in Harrogate where the UK's third largest integrated conference and exhibition centre, Harrogate International Centre, is located.

Rural areas have diversified with a mixed economy combining a range of employment opportunities alongside agriculture and a strong tourism base. Regardless of this, poor physical connectivity has hampered growth in rural areas. Agriculture has declined and there are pockets of severe deprivation and social exclusion. There are problems of housing affordability and poor access to services.

Although like most of the UK manufacturing has declined, the city region retains role in the UK’s manufacturing base which has emerged from a period of restructuring and moved into producing higher value goods, managing off-shored elements of production and concentrating on research and development activity. The south and west of the region have historically had industrial based economies, although they have been moving away from this in recent decades. Huddersfield, for example, has been developing in the creative industries sector.[14]

Economic drivers and innovation

City region growth sectors include

• Financial and business services

• Electronics and optical

• Communications

• Health and public services

Niche clusters are

• Digital and media

• Bioscience and medical research

• Advanced niche manufacturing, including defence

• Logistics and distribution[15]

Tourism

Yorkshire is a popular tourist destination with many tourists using Leeds, Skipton, Bradford, Harrogate and York as bases to explore the Yorkshire Dales National Park.In 2007 the visitor economy contributed £6.3bn or 8.5% of the Yorkshire and the Humber region’s total output - a high proportion compared to the national average. This output has grown by 50% in the last 10 years. The sector employs 243,500 people, of which 51% work full-time, in over 20,000 businesses.[16] There are two World Heritage Sites; Fountains Abbey (Ripon) and Saltaire (Bradford). Four national museums are based in the region; the National Media Museum (Bradford), the Royal Armouries in Leeds, the National Railway Museum in York, and the National Coal Mining Museum for England (Overton). Plus many other smaller museums depicting the industrial, agricultural and cultural history of the region, such as the Armley Mills Industrial Museum in Leeds, the Bankfield Textile Museum in Halifax, the Brontë Parsonage Museum in Haworth and the Yorkshire Museum of Farming at Murton Park in York.

Skills and labour

There is a large and diverse workforce of around 1.4 million and a younger than average profile in some parts of the city region, for example Bradford. The city region is home to six universities, University of Bradford, University of Huddersfield, University of Leeds, Leeds Beckett University, University of York and York St John University, which produce more than 40,000 graduates each year. The universities of Leeds and York, along with Sheffield, form the White Rose Consortium, which accounts for 86% of research spend in the region. Science City York[17] represents a mechanism for creating an environment in which technology, skills and business can thrive together. The city region has been at the forefront of telecoms.

Parts of the city region experience skills shortages, particularly in key growth sectors and clusters. There are also significant problems of low basic skills levels, which are quite acute within some disadvantaged communities. In parts of the city region, educational performance remains lower than the national average. The city region’s labour market functions below its optimum. It has a higher than average level of worklessness, especially in inner urban and isolated rural areas.

Although the region’s universities’ investment in R&D equals the UK average, this is not mirrored in Government investment nor by regional business and industry, which is lower than half the UK average. Productivity rates are generally low, and large parts of the city region have lower than average rates of business formation, business growth and self-employment.

Business infrastructure

There is a range of available employment space with a significant amount of new office space in Leeds, however whilst there is a large supply of land available the sites are not necessarily suitable in both nature and location for key sectors and growth clusters. Some rural areas face shortages in employment land as a result of pressures for housing. The office market does not operate smoothly across the city region, with areas of extreme high and low demand.

Housing

There is variety of distinctive urban and rural communities. Many towns and villages are characterised by distinctive buildings based on an extensive Victorian legacy near to thriving job markets and commercial centres. Access to rural environments ranges from the ‘high end’ appeal of the Golden Triangle area of north Leeds, Harrogate and York districts to the towns and villages east and south of Leeds. Leeds is a centre for city centre living and has helped to stimulate similar developments in other urban centres including Bradford, Huddersfield and Wakefield.

The current housing in the city region is inadequate to support the job growth. Current patterns of demand at the upper end of the market are likely to continue, increasing problems of division of social groups and affordability. At the other end of the market there are problems both with the shortage of social rented housing and affordability. There is a significant legacy of dense terraced housing some of which is no longer fit for purpose. The government has identified Leeds City Region to host a number of new eco-towns to meet housing demand.

Quality of life

Although the city region offers a unique set of attractions, and serves as a destination for millions of visitors a year, there is no distinct Leeds City Region popular identity, and there is no certainty as to whether such an identity would be desirable, whether for marketing or for other purposes.[15][18]

Political context

The invitation to the northern regional development agencies to devise a development plan to tackle the regional disparities coincided with the peak of New Labour's regional devolution agenda. It is underpinned by the government's target to "Make sustainable improvements to the economic performance of all English regions by 2008 and over the long term reduce the persistent gap in growth rates between the regions, demonstrating progress by 2006."

The Northern Way

In February 2004 the UK government invited the three regional development agencies in the North of England, Yorkshire Forward, One NorthEast and the Northwest Development Agency, to develop an economic growth strategy to raise the North's international profile and performance and reduce the £30 billion output gap between the Northern region and the average for the rest of England. In September 2004 the development agencies published "Moving Forward: The Northern Way (First Growth Strategy Report)".

The Growth Strategy shows how eight city regions are key to the growth of the northern economy. city regions are increasingly being recognised as powerful drivers for economic growth and between them the city regions of Leeds, Sheffield, Hull and the Humber Ports, Liverpool, Manchester, Central Lancashire, Tees Valley and Tyne and Wear have 90% of the North's population and over 90% of its economic activity. Manchester and Leeds were highlighted as the two city regions that have the most potential to develop into European level competitive cities.

A £100 million Northern Way Growth Fund was established by the Government and the regional development agencies to deliver a Business Plan, that had been devised in June 2005, aimed at implementing aspects of the Growth Strategy. As part of this plan the eight city regions identified in the strategy were invited to compile City Region Development Programmes to contribute to the plan. These set out the key actions and investments needed to implement the strategy in each city region.

Core cities

For more than ten years Leeds has been a member of the Core Cities Group, a coalition of England's major regional cities which work in partnership to enhance their economic performances, and to secure positive identities as places to live, work, visit and do business. It is a self-selected and self-funded group.

The Core Cities Group has eight main interests, namely:

  • Transport and connectivity
  • Innovation and business support
  • Skills and employment
  • Sustainable communities
  • Culture and creative industries
  • Climate change
  • Finance and industry
  • Governance[19]

Collaboration

The first economic summit, with the aim of discussing opportunities for greater collaboration within the Leeds city region, was in November 2004. Political leaders from Leeds, Barnsley, Bradford, Calderdale, Craven, Harrogate, Kirklees, Selby, Wakefield and York along with North Yorkshire, as well as representatives from other regional organisations took part. Delegates heard from speakers who presented the latest research on city regions as economic drivers. The need to engage in closer partnership and work at the city region level was recognised because it was emphasised that neither the city, or the larger region, is an appropriate spatial planning level at which to tackle issues of economic competitiveness.

Delegates to the conference concluded that greater collaborative working would be beneficial in the areas of transportation, innovation and science, skills and labour supply, business infrastructure and housing, quality of life, culture, marketing and image. Leaders and chief executives of the eleven authorities agreed that this was an agenda to be developed and also agreed to produce a concordat to progress closer working arrangements at a city region level.[20][21]

Development plans

The working arrangements negotiated at the economic summit held in November 2004 were used to develop an interim Leeds City Region Development Plan to be submitted as part of "The Northern Way" Business Plan in May 2005.

The second version of the development plan was published in November 2008. Within the context of wider submissions to the Comprehensive Spending Review 2007 made by the Northern Way Steering Group and Yorkshire Forward, the plan identified what the Leeds City Region is asking from government. It put forward a shortlist of evidenced strategic proposals and interventions that needed government support.[22]

Core Cities business plan

At the end of 2005, as part of the "New Deal for City Regions" initiative the Minister of Communities and Local Government asked each of the Core Cities to produce a business plan of a small number of key priorities that would help cities improve. A delegation from Leeds and the region presented the "Leeds Business Case" to the minister in summer 2006. The submission argued that the city would benefit from greater freedom to make decisions locally and should have a greater voice in how national and regional budgets are allocated. In particular, transport and skills development were presented as critical issues for the economy of the city.[23]

Sub national review

In the summer of 2007 the government published the "Review of Sub-national Economic Development and Regeneration". This sets out the governments strategy for reducing the gap in economic performance between Northern cities and their counterparts in the South, as well as the wealth gap within cities. The recognition by government that local and sub-regional authorities are in the strongest position to nurture and develop economic prosperity signalled the beginning of a new economic role for both the city and the Leeds City Region Partnership.

As part of the new arrangements regional assemblies were phased out from 2010 and the remit of the regional development agencies was expanded. In particular, the regional development agencies were given executive responsibility for developing a new Integrated Regional Strategy.[24] The scrutiny powers of the Regional Assemblies will transfer to local authorities. The stated aim of the policies being to create economically strong cities and regions which drive forward national prosperity and provide opportunity and social justice for all.[25]

Partnership

The partnership has no direct political control of the cities and boroughs included in its area, but it does exert considerable influence over their local plans thanks to the Multi Area Agreement signed in July 2008.[26] The partnership deals with issues that are important for the whole city region, yet which cannot be fully covered by one local government area alone, for example transport infrastructure and marketing the north of England to the world. The strategy provides the region with a single voice with which to address Central Government on key issues. In November 2006 the partnership published its revised development programme.[15]

Constitution

Leaders Board

The Leeds City Region Leaders Board was legally constituted as a Joint Committee in April 2007. It brings together the elected leaders of the eleven partner authorities to take strategic decisions on behalf of the city region. The Leaders’ Board is made up of the Leaders of each of the 10 district Authorities, as well as North Yorkshire County Council. It is governed by a set of annually agreed Procedures and Protocols, central to which is the principle of ‘one member, one vote’. The Board meets 6 times a year and meetings are hosted in turn by each member Authority.

Leeds City Region Leaders’ Board Panels are Working Groups set up by the Board to advise the Board on specific Leeds City Region matters. They comprise members of the Board or their representatives, and other such senior representatives of other organisations as may be co-opted onto the Panels by agreement of the Board. The Panels have no executive powers.[27] The partnership has four panels which are involved in helping to develop strategies to improve:-

  • Housing and Spatial Planning
  • Skills
  • Transport
  • Economic Drivers and Innovation

Areas of work not specifically allocated to a single panel are:-

  • Communications
  • Sustainable Development

Multi area agreement

In October 2007 the Leeds City Region Leaders Board decided to seek to develop a Multi Area Agreement which is a voluntary agreement between groups of local authorities and government which focuses on cross boundary working and devolution as a means of promoting an increase in local economic prosperity. The Leeds City region was in the first wave of pilot areas for a Multi Area Agreement and the partners used the opportunity to implement areas of the City Region Development Programme.[28][29]

Forerunner plan

In March 2009 Leeds City Region Partnership submitted a formal bid for more powers and funding from Government through a pilot programme on offer. The Partnership put forward a "Forerunner Plan" with proposals for greater responsibilities in housing and regeneration, higher level skills and innovation. The bid was the Partnership’s formal response to the announcement by HM Treasury in the November 2008 Pre-Budget Report that Government would be working with at least two city region partnerships across the country to pilot new freedoms and flexibilities in a range of areas. These arrangements will see the Government and its agencies delegating greater control over funding and delivery of key schemes to the city region authorities as a way of stimulating economic growth. The Partnership has proposed that with the new powers and funding, the city region authorities will be able to more effectively deliver the short and long-term actions needed to get markets working again.[30]

In April 2009 the partnership joined the Manchester City Region as one of the only two city regions in the country to be granted this pilot status as announced by the Chancellor Alistair Darling in his Budget speech.[31] This will grant the partnership devolved spending powers in housing, regeneration, skills and innovation.[32]

Eco towns and new growth points

The Leeds City Region was invited by the government to submit proposals for new eco-towns. However, the City Region Partnership has considered the case for a free-standing eco town and concluded that it would not offer the most appropriate, sustainable way forward for meeting the city region’s housing and affordable housing needs. After a study of the city region the Stockholm Environment Unit found the best way of reducing its carbon footprint by 80% by 2050 involved working within existing settlements and changing behaviour.[33] The partnership considers that the city region’s housing and regeneration needs can be better served by delivering eco principles on a number of major regeneration sites within existing urban environments.[34]

The partnership has proposed to Government four major brownfield regeneration sites as alternatives to an eco town in the city region. The proposed sites are:

  • Aire Valley Leeds. A 1000-hectare site to the south east of the city centre. Up to 15,000 new homes, 7,000 refurbishments and 27,000 jobs.
  • Bradford-Shipley Canal Corridor. Area of 118-hectares along five-mile stretch. Up to 5,000 new homes, 1,500 refurbishments and 5,900 jobs.
  • York Northwest. On brown-field to the north and west of the station. Will deliver 4,300 new homes on 75-hectares of land and 5,000 jobs.
  • North Kirklees / South Dewsbury Up to 4,000 new homes, 2,000 refurbishments and 5,000 jobs spread over four sites, Thornhill Lees, Savile Town, Ravensthorpe and Scout Hill.[35][36]

Building work is only ready to start on one site, the Aire Valley scheme to the south east of Leeds city centre. The 1,000-hectare site has the potential to provide up to 15,000 eco homes, retrofit 7,000 existing homes and create 27,000 new jobs. Phase one will concentrate on the Hunslet Riverside area next to the Royal Armouries museum, where 2,500 new homes can be built. New trolleybuses and cycle paths will make travel to and from the area environmentally sustainable and cars will be discouraged.

Housing Minister, and Wentworth MP, John Healey announced in July 2009 that Yorkshire will receive £83m through the Homes and Communities Agency Kickstart programme, designed to fund housing schemes that had stalled in the recession, enough to build 2,088 homes.[37]

The City Region made a successful bid for "New Growth Point" status in July 2008. The programme of New Growth Point developments supports delivery of 5000 additional new homes above regional housing targets. It is focussed within the district of Barnsley Calderdale and Wakefield across a range of tenures and including a variety of affordable homes for rent and owner occupation. The programme proposes 34,515 new homes, 5000 of which will be net additional over the period 2008 to 2016/17.[38]

Integrated infrastructure

As a step towards developing an evidence base to support the co-production of the Integrated Regional Strategy (IRS) promulgated by the "Sub National Review of Economic Development and Regeneration", the city region has commenced a study to investigate whether current infrastructure arrangements will support the economic aspirations of the city region. The study aims identify the types of infrastructure improvements that will be needed to support growth. It will look at critical infrastructure and green infrastructure. For critical infrastructure, planners need to be confident that new developments have access to water, energy, waste treatment and broadband technology as well as ensuring that this infrastructure will be adaptable to climate change.

Green infrastructure is a relatively new term describing networks of linked green spaces. Work at the city region level will identify opportunities for linking the green spaces between districts, which will have direct benefits for public accessibility, biodiversity and eco-systems that have a positive benefit in terms of climate change adaptation.

Integrated Transport Authority

After the publication of the draft Local Transport Bill in May 2007 the Partnership commissioned a review of transport governance arrangements in the region. Leeds City Region has stated that it is an aspiration for the City Region to become an Integrated Transport Authority, but with opposition to this from North Yorkshire County Council and the City of York council, these proposals cannot go ahead at this stage.[39]

Local transport plan

West Yorkshire rail network
The West Yorkshire rail network

The partnership is overseeing the investment of £4.5 billion in transport projects in the region. The £4.5bn is being sourced from a number of locations, notably the Department for Transport and the regional transport board at Yorkshire Forward. Some of the money has already been spent through projects such as the regional smartcard pilot Yorcard, whereas other projects like NGT (New Generation Transport) in Leeds has recently been approved for government funding in 2012.

Significant progress has been made, in conjunction with Metro, to extend the zonal WYPTE MetroCard system into North Yorkshire as far as Harrogate on the Harrogate Line (Zone 6) and Skipton on the Airedale Line (Zone 7).[40] Future plans will extend MetroCard to Gargrave, Knaresborough, York and Selby. Zone 6 & 7 MetroCards do not currently cover bus travel.

Enterprise zone

The Leeds City Region Enterprise Zone,[41] sometimes referred to as Aire Valley Leeds Enterprise Zone, was launched in April 2012. It includes four sites along the A63 East Leeds Link Road: Logic Leeds, Newmarket Lane, Thornes Farm,[42] and the largest site, Temple Green.[41] The total area is 142 hectares (350 acres).[42]

References

  1. ^ "Leaders Board: Introduction". Archived from the original on 22 July 2012. Retrieved 9 August 2012.
  2. ^ "About Us: Leeds City Region Local Enterprise Partnership (LEP)". Archived from the original on 26 July 2012. Retrieved 9 August 2012.
  3. ^ "Proposal: A Leeds City Region Deal" (PDF). July 2012. Retrieved 9 August 2012.
  4. ^ "Six biggest English cities get extra powers". Retrieved 9 August 2012.
  5. ^ "Contact Us". Retrieved 9 August 2012.
  6. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 10 February 2014. Retrieved 5 April 2014.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  7. ^ "Moving Forward: The Northern Way". www.thenorthernway.co.uk. Archived from the original on 19 May 2009. Retrieved 7 August 2009.
  8. ^ "Moving Forward: The Northern Way". www.thenorthernway.co.uk. Archived from the original on 9 February 2007. Retrieved 1 June 2009.
  9. ^ Sheffield City Region website
  10. ^ "Strength Through Diversity: Leeds". leedscityregion.gov.uk. 2011. Retrieved 31 March 2011.
  11. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 28 August 2010. Retrieved 20 May 2009.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  12. ^ (PDF) http://www.leeds.gov.uk/files/Internet2007/2009/19/04%20leeds%20economy%20-%20updated%20with%20new%20data%2008%2009.pdf. Retrieved 20 May 2009. Missing or empty |title= (help)
  13. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 7 August 2009. Retrieved 20 May 2009.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  14. ^ http://www.investinhuddersfield.co.uk/creative2.htm
  15. ^ a b c "eleven partners one vision" (PDF). Leeds City Region Partnership. November 2006. pp. 4–5. Archived from the original (PDF) on 7 October 2011. Retrieved 5 August 2009.
  16. ^ "Yorkshire Regional Visitor Survey Research Summary Results, May to April 2008/09". Welcome to Yorkshire. 20 July 2009. Retrieved 5 August 2009.
  17. ^ Science city York Website home page
  18. ^ "Leeds City Region Development Programme" (PDF). The City Region Partnership. November 2006. p. 13. Archived from the original (PDF) on 7 October 2011. Retrieved 4 August 2009.
  19. ^ "Core Cities - About Core Cities". www.corecities.com. Archived from the original on 19 September 2007. Retrieved 25 August 2009.
  20. ^ "The Leeds City-Region Economic Summit" (PDF). Retrieved 25 August 2009.
  21. ^ "House of Commons - Office of the Deputy Prime Minister: Housing, Planning, Local Government and the Regions - Written Evidence". www.publications.parliament.uk. Retrieved 25 August 2009.
  22. ^ "Second Leeds CRDP" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 March 2009. Retrieved 25 August 2009.
  23. ^ "New Deal for City Regions: the Leeds Business Case" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 March 2009. Retrieved 25 August 2009.
  24. ^ "House of Commons - Regional development agencies and the Local Democracy, Economic Development and Construction Bill - Business and Enterprise Committee". www.publications.parliament.uk. Retrieved 25 August 2009.
  25. ^ "Sub-national economic development and regeneration review - HM Treasury". www.hm-treasury.gov.uk. Archived from the original on 29 June 2009. Retrieved 25 August 2009.
  26. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 28 June 2009. Retrieved 13 August 2009.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  27. ^ "Leeds City Region Leaders Board". www.leedscityregion.gov.uk. Retrieved 25 August 2009.
  28. ^ "The Leeds City Region Multi Area Agreement" (PDF). Retrieved 25 August 2009.
  29. ^ "Leeds City Region Multi Area Agreement" (PDF). Retrieved 26 August 2009.
  30. ^ "Leeds City Region - A Pioneering Forerunner". www.leedscityregion.gov.uk. Retrieved 25 August 2009.
  31. ^ "HM Treasury Budget Report Chapter 4" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 11 July 2009.
  32. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 7 October 2011. Retrieved 13 August 2009.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  33. ^ Barret, John; Dawkins, Elena (2008). "Carbon Footprint of Housing in the Leeds City Region – A Best Practice Scenario Analysis" (PDF). Stockholm Environment Institute. Retrieved 5 August 2009.
  34. ^ "Urban Eco* Settlements Deliverability Assessment" (PDF). Leeds City Region Partnership. January 2009. Retrieved 5 August 2009.
  35. ^ "Leeds City Region". www.leedscityregion.gov.uk. Retrieved 5 August 2009.
  36. ^ "Leeds City Region 'Eco Communities' Plans Welcomed". Selby District Council. 1 December 2008. Retrieved 5 August 2009.
  37. ^ "Eco-homes building could start in months - Yorkshire Post". Yorkshire Post. Retrieved 5 August 2009.
  38. ^ "New Growth Points" (PDF). Leeds City Region Partnership. October 2008. Retrieved 5 August 2009.
  39. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 7 October 2011. Retrieved 13 August 2009.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  40. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 7 October 2011. Retrieved 13 August 2009.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  41. ^ a b "Funding to kickstart enterprise zone work". Insider Media. 18 September 2014. Retrieved 12 March 2015.
  42. ^ a b "Work begins on Logic Leeds business park". Insider Media. 23 May 2013. Retrieved 12 March 2015.

External links

Borough of Harrogate

The Borough of Harrogate is a local government district and borough of North Yorkshire, England. Its population at the census of 2011 was 157,869. Its council is based in the town of Harrogate, but it also includes surrounding towns and villages and almost all of the Nidderdale Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty. It is the most populous district of North Yorkshire. The district is part of the Leeds City Region. It borders the City of Leeds, and the City of Bradford, districts of West Yorkshire.

The district was formed on 1 April 1974, under the Local Government Act 1972, as a merger of the Masham and Wath rural districts, and part of Thirsk Rural District, from the North Riding of Yorkshire, along with the boroughs of Harrogate and the city of Ripon, the Knaresborough urban district, Nidderdale Rural District, Ripon and Pateley Bridge Rural District, part of Wetherby Rural District and part of Wharfedale Rural District, all in the West Riding of Yorkshire.

On 1 April 1996 the parishes of Nether Poppleton, Upper Poppleton, Hessay and Rufforth were transferred from the district to become part of the new York unitary authority. According to the 2001 census these parishes had a population of 5,169.

Calderdale

The Metropolitan Borough of Calderdale is a metropolitan borough of West Yorkshire, England. It takes its name from the River Calder, whose upper part flows through the borough. Several small valleys contain tributaries of the River Calder. The population at the 2011 Census was 203,826.Calderdale covers part of the South Pennines and is the southern-most of the Yorkshire Dales, though it is not part of the Yorkshire Dales National Park.

The borough was formed by the merger of six former local government districts, spanning, from east to west, the towns of Brighouse, Elland, Halifax, Sowerby Bridge, Hebden Bridge and Todmorden. Mytholmroyd, together with Hebden Bridge, forms Hebden Royd.

Halifax is the main commercial, cultural and administrative centre of the borough, with numerous high street chain stores, markets, central library, borough council offices, public transport hub, central police station and the further and higher education college, as well as other major local organisations. Calderdale is served by Calderdale Council, Calderdale's admin headquarters is in Halifax, with some council organisations based in Todmorden.

City of Bradford

The City of Bradford ( (listen)) is a local government district of West Yorkshire, England, with the status of a city and metropolitan borough. It is named after its largest settlement, Bradford, but covers a far larger area which includes the towns of Keighley, Shipley, Bingley, Ilkley, Haworth, Silsden and Denholme. Bradford has a population of 528,155, making it the fourth-most populous metropolitan district and the sixth-most populous local authority district in England. It forms part of the West Yorkshire Urban Area conurbation which in 2011 had a population of 1,777,934, and the city is part of the Leeds-Bradford Larger Urban Zone (LUZ), which, with a population of 2,393,300, is the fourth largest in the United Kingdom after London, Birmingham and Manchester.The city is situated on the edge of the Pennines, and is bounded to the east by the City of Leeds, the south east by the Metropolitan Borough of Kirklees and the south west by the Metropolitan Borough of Calderdale. The Pendle borough of Lancashire lies to the west, whilst the Craven and Harrogate boroughs of North Yorkshire lie to the north west and north east of the city. Bradford is the 4th largest metropolitan district in the country, and the contiguous urban area to the north which includes the towns of Shipley and Bingley is heavily populated. The spa town of Ilkley lies further north, whilst the town of Keighley lies to the west. Roughly two thirds of the district is rural, with an environment varying from moorlands in the north and west, to valleys and floodplains formed by the river systems that flow throughout the district. More than half of Bradford's land is green open space, stretching over part of the Airedale and Wharfedale Valleys, across the hills and the Pennine moorland between. The Yorkshire Dales and the Peak District are both in close proximity.The City of Bradford has architecture designated as being of special or historic importance, most of which were constructed with local stone, with 5,800 listed buildings and 59 conservation areas. The model village of Saltaire has been listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Central Bradford rose to prominence during the 19th century as an international centre of textile manufacture, particularly wool. The area's access to a supply of coal, iron ore and soft water facilitated the growth of Bradford's manufacturing base, which, as textile manufacture grew, led to an explosion in population and was a stimulus to civic investment. However, Bradford has faced similar challenges to the rest of the post-industrial area of northern England, including deindustrialisation, housing problems, and economic deprivation. Wool and textiles still play an important part in the city's economy, but today's fastest-growing sectors include information technology, financial services, digital industries, environmental technologies, cultural industries, tourism and retail headquarters and distribution. Bradford's reputation as a base for high technology, scientific and computer-based industries is growing, building on a long tradition of innovation, high skill levels and quality products.

Bradford has experienced significant levels of immigration throughout the 19th and 20th centuries. In the 1840s Bradford's population was significantly increased by migrants from Ireland, particularly rural Mayo and Sligo, and by 1851 around 18,000 people of Irish origin resided in the town, representing around 10% of the population, the largest proportion in Yorkshire. Around the same time there was also an influx of German Jewish migrants to the town, and by 1910 around 1,500 people of German origin resided in the city.

In the 1950s there was large scale immigration from South Asia and to a lesser extent from Poland. Bradford has the second highest proportion in England and Wales outside London, in terms of population (behind Birmingham) and in percentage (behind Slough, Leicester, Luton and Blackburn with Darwen). An estimated 140,149 people of South Asian origin reside in the city, representing around 26.83% of the city's population. An estimated 352,317 of all White ethnic groups reside in the city which includes people of Polish and Irish origin, representing around 67.44% of the city's population.[6]

City of Leeds

The City of Leeds ( ) is a local government district of West Yorkshire, England, governed by Leeds City Council, with the status of a city and metropolitan borough. The metropolitan district includes the administrative centre Leeds and the ten towns of Farsley, Garforth, Guiseley, Horsforth, Morley, Otley, Pudsey, Rothwell, Wetherby and Yeadon. It has a population of 784,800 (mid-2017 est.), making it technically the second largest city in England by population behind Birmingham; it is also the second largest metropolitan district by area behind Doncaster.

The current city boundaries were set on 1 April 1974 by the provisions of the Local Government Act 1972, as part a reform of local government in England. The city is a merger of eleven former local government districts; the unitary City and County Borough of Leeds combined with the municipal boroughs of Morley and Pudsey, the urban districts of Aireborough, Garforth, Horsforth, Otley and Rothwell, and parts of the rural districts of Tadcaster, Wharfedale and Wetherby from the West Riding of Yorkshire.

For its first 12 years the city had a two-tier system of local government; Leeds City Council shared power with the West Yorkshire County Council. Since the Local Government Act 1985 Leeds City Council has effectively been a unitary authority, serving as the sole executive, deliberative and legislative body responsible for local policy, setting council tax, and allocating budget in the city, and is a member of the Leeds City Region Partnership. The City of Leeds is divided into 31 civil parishes and a single unparished area.

City of Wakefield

The City of Wakefield is a local government district in West Yorkshire, England, with the status of a city and metropolitan borough. Wakefield is the district's administrative centre. The population of the City of Wakefield at the 2011 Census was 325,837. The district includes the "Five Towns" of Normanton, Pontefract, Featherstone, Castleford and Knottingley. Other towns include Ossett, Hemsworth, South Kirkby and Moorthorpe and South Elmsall. The City and borough are governed by Wakefield Metropolitan District Council. Wakefield lies between Leeds and Barnsley In 2010, Wakefield was named as the UK's third most musical city by PRS for Music.

Craven

Craven is a local government district of North Yorkshire, England centred on the market town of Skipton. In 1974, Craven district was formed as the merger of Skipton urban district, Settle Rural District and most of Skipton Rural District, all in the West Riding of Yorkshire. The population of the Local Authority at the 2011 Census was 55,409. It comprises the upper reaches of Airedale, Wharfedale, Ribblesdale, and includes most of the Aire Gap and Craven Basin.

The name Craven is much older than the modern district, and encompassed a larger area. This history is also reflected in the way the term is still commonly used, for example by the Church of England.

Elliott Hudson College

Elliott Hudson College is a sixth form located in the Beeston area of Leeds, West Yorkshire, England.Established in 2015, Elliott Hudson College is located in the Millshaw Business Park. The college offers A-Level courses for up to 1000 students from the Leeds City Region. In 2017, the college began construction on a new building that will replace the two separate buildings currently used by students and staff. The construction is estimated to cost ₤11.1m.Elliott Hudson College is part of The GORSE Academies Trust which also includes The Morley Academy, The Farnley Academy and The Ruth Gorse Academy.

Golden Triangle (Yorkshire)

The Golden Triangle is a term commonly used by estate agents for the area of West and North Yorkshire lying between Harrogate, York and North Leeds. The areas of the Golden Triangle are all part of the Leeds City Region. Lying in the centre of this area is Wetherby on the fringes of West Yorkshire. Despite usually being referred to as an affluent area the area consists of some deprived areas and many council estates such as Swarcliffe, Cranmer Bank and Hallfields.

Kirklees

Kirklees is a local government district of West Yorkshire, England, governed by Kirklees Council with the status of a metropolitan borough. The largest town and administrative centre of Kirklees is Huddersfield, and the district also includes Batley, Birstall, Cleckheaton, Denby Dale, Dewsbury, Heckmondwike, Holmfirth, Kirkburton, Marsden, Meltham, Mirfield and Slaithwaite. Kirklees had a population of 422,500 in 2011 and is therefore the most populous borough in England that is not a city; it is also the third largest metropolitan district by area behind Doncaster and Leeds.

Leeds

Leeds is a city in West Yorkshire, England. Leeds has one of the most diverse economies of all the UK's main employment centres and has seen the fastest rate of private-sector jobs growth of any UK city. It also has the highest ratio of private to public sector jobs of all the UK's Core Cities, with 77% of its workforce working in the private sector. Leeds has the third-largest jobs total by local authority area, with 480,000 in employment and self-employment at the beginning of 2015. Leeds is ranked as a gamma world city by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network. Leeds is the cultural, financial and commercial heart of the West Yorkshire Urban Area. Leeds is served by four universities, and has the fourth largest student population in the country and the country's fourth largest urban economy.Leeds was a small manorial borough in the 13th century, and in the 17th and 18th centuries it became a major centre for the production and trading of wool, and in the Industrial Revolution a major mill town; wool was still the dominant industry, but flax, engineering, iron foundries, printing, and other industries were also important. From being a market town in the valley of the River Aire in the 16th century, Leeds expanded and absorbed the surrounding villages to become a populous urban centre by the mid-20th century. It now lies within the West Yorkshire Urban Area, the United Kingdom's fourth-most populous urban area, with a population of 2.6 million.Today, Leeds has become the largest legal and financial centre, outside London with the financial and insurance services industry worth £13 billion to the city's economy. The finance and business service sector account for 38% of total output with more than 30 national and international banks located in the city, including an office of the Bank of England. Leeds is also the UK's third-largest manufacturing centre with around 1,800 firms and 39,000 employees, Leeds manufacturing firms account for 8.8% of total employment in the city and is worth over £7 billion to the local economy. The largest sub-sectors are engineering, printing and publishing, food and drink, chemicals and medical technology. Other key sectors include retail, leisure and the visitor economy, construction, and the creative and digital industries. The city saw several firsts, including the oldest-surviving film in existence, Roundhay Garden Scene (1888), and the 1767 invention of soda water.Public transport, rail and road communications networks in the region are focused on Leeds, and the second phase of High Speed 2 will connect it to London via East Midlands Hub and Sheffield Meadowhall. Leeds currently has the third busiest railway station and the tenth busiest airport outside London.

Leeds Pride

Leeds Pride is an annual LGBT Pride celebration held in the city of Leeds, West Yorkshire, England.

Metropolitan Borough of Barnsley

The Metropolitan Borough of Barnsley is a metropolitan borough of South Yorkshire, England; its main town is Barnsley.

The borough is bisected by the M1 motorway; it is rural to the west, and largely urban/industrial to the east. 68% of Barnsley's 32,863 hectares is green belt and 9% is national park land, the majority of which is West of the M1. In 2007 it was estimated that Barnsley had 224,600 residents, measured at the 2011 census as 231,221. nine tenths of whom live east of the M1.

The borough was formed under the Local Government Act 1972, by a merger of the county borough of Barnsley with Cudworth, Darfield, Darton, Dearne, Dodworth, Hoyland Nether, Penistone, Royston, Wombwell and Worsborough urban districts, along with Penistone Rural District, part of Hemsworth Rural District and part of Wortley Rural District, all in the West Riding of Yorkshire.

The borough now forms part of both the Sheffield City Region and the Leeds City Region.

Selby District

Selby District is a local government district of North Yorkshire, England. The local authority, Selby District Council, is based in the town of Selby and provides services to an area which includes Tadcaster and a host of villages. The Local Authority had a population of 83,449 at the 2011 Census. It is the southern most district of North Yorkshire, and it borders the City of York, a unitary authority, the districts of the City of Leeds and the City of Wakefield, in West Yorkshire, the town of Doncaster, in South Yorkshire, the ceremonial county of the East Riding of Yorkshire, and the Borough of Harrogate.

The district was formed on 1 April 1974 by the merger of Selby Urban District, Selby Rural District and parts of Derwent Rural District, Hemsworth Rural District, Osgoldcross Rural District and Tadcaster Rural District. Of them, Derwent Rural District was in the historic East Riding of Yorkshire, but the rest were in the West Riding of Yorkshire.

On 1 April 1996, the parishes of Acaster Malbis, Askham Bryan, Askham Richard, Bishopthorpe, Copmanthorpe, Deighton, Dunnington, Elvington, Fulford, Heslington, Kexby, Naburn and Wheldrake were all transferred from the district to form part of the new City of York unitary authority. According to the 2001 census, those parishes had a population of 22,873.

Selby is twinned with Carentan in France and Filderstadt in Germany.

South Yorkshire

South Yorkshire is a metropolitan county in England. It is the southernmost county in the Yorkshire and the Humber region and had a population of 1.34 million in 2011. It has an area of 1,552 square kilometres (599 sq mi) and consists of four metropolitan boroughs, Barnsley, Doncaster, Rotherham and Sheffield. South Yorkshire was created on 1 April 1974 as a result of the Local Government Act 1972. Its largest settlement is Sheffield.

Lying on the east side of the Pennines, South Yorkshire is landlocked, and borders Derbyshire to the west and south-west, West Yorkshire to the north-west, North Yorkshire to the north, the East Riding of Yorkshire to the north-east, Lincolnshire to the east and Nottinghamshire to the south-east. The Sheffield Urban Area is the tenth most populous conurbation in the United Kingdom, and dominates the western half of South Yorkshire with over half of the county's population living within it. South Yorkshire lies within the Sheffield City Region with Barnsley also being within the Leeds City Region, reflecting its geographical position midway between Yorkshire's two largest cities.

South Yorkshire County Council was abolished in 1986 and its metropolitan boroughs are now effectively unitary authorities, although the metropolitan county continues to exist in law. As a ceremonial county, South Yorkshire has a Lord Lieutenant and a High Sheriff.

South Yorkshire was created from 32 local government districts of the West Riding of Yorkshire (the administrative county and four independent county boroughs), with small areas from Derbyshire and Nottinghamshire.

In the 2016 referendum on the United Kingdom's membership of the European Union, South Yorkshire voted 62% leave and 38% remain, making it one of the most heavily Leave areas in the country.

Thorpe Park railway station

Thorpe Park is a proposed railway station, to be sited in the Thorpe Park area to the east of Leeds, England on the Selby Line.

It would be served by trains from the west of Leeds which would normally terminate at Leeds station; by continuing eastwards to this station, it is hoped that extra capacity for through trains would be created at Leeds. The station would also form the first phase of electrifying the railway line to the east of Leeds. As a parkway station (an early name was East Leeds Parkway), the intention would be to allow for a park-and-ride service and the plans include parking for 500 cars.£20 million was allocated to the scheme by the Yorkshire and Humber Regional Transport Board in April 2008. It was originally hoped that construction would begin in 2011, with a completion date of 2012, but the business case was not submitted to the Department for Transport until 2011. The scheme was put on hold due to a lack of central government funding.The station is likely to be made up of 2 long platforms, capable of serving inter-city trains, as well as a bay platform for terminating services.The station also featured in plans by Alliance Rail as a stopping point for services between Ilkley/Bradford Forster Square and London Kings Cross to begin in 2017. However in May 2016, the Office of Rail and Road rejected Alliance Rail's plans to runs services under its GNER banner.The proposals for East Leeds Parkway have been downplayed in favour of an alternative site at Thorpe Park (which is further west). The West Yorkshire Combined Authority has stated that it is to review the options because of the lack of clarity over the Northern Powerhouse enhancement would mean that only stopping trains (operated by Northern) would stop at any future site.In November 2017, the ‘Connecting People: Strategic Vision for Rail’ Report by the Government proposed a new station in Thorpe Park as part of a plan to reverse the Beeching Cuts.

Wakefield Eastern Relief Road

The Wakefield Eastern Relief Road (A6194, also known as Neil Fox Way) is a new single-carriageway road opened in 2017, running generally north-south on the eastern edge of Wakefield, linking the A638 near Heath Common to the A642 at Stanley, south of junction 30 of the M62. It is intended to relive congestion within Wakefield and to support the development of 2,500 new houses at the City Fields development, an urban extension to the east of the city.The 7.5km road was the first project constructed as part of the West Yorkshire Combined Authority’s 10-year programme of strategic transport schemes planned to promote growth and create employment across the region. Funding for the schemes is though the £1bn Leeds City Region Enterprise Partnership (LEP) Growth Deal from the UK Government’s Local Growth Fund.The road was named Neil Fox Way after rugby player Neil Fox.

West Yorkshire Combined Authority

The West Yorkshire Combined Authority (WYCA) is the combined authority for West Yorkshire in England. It was established by statutory instrument under the Local Democracy, Economic Development and Construction Act 2009 on 1 April 2014. It is a strategic authority with powers over transport, economic development and regeneration. The chair of the authority is Peter Box.

York

York is a city and unitary authority area in North Yorkshire, England, with a population of 208,200 as of 2017. Located at the confluence of the Rivers Ouse and Foss, it is the county town of the historic county of Yorkshire and was the home of the House of York throughout its existence. The city is known for its famous historical landmarks such as York Minster and the city walls, as well as a variety of cultural and sporting activities, which makes it a popular tourist destination in England. The local authority is the City of York Council, a single tier governing body responsible for providing all local services and facilities throughout the city. The City of York local government district includes rural areas beyond the old city boundaries.

The city was founded by the Romans as Eboracum in 71 AD. It became the capital of the Roman province of Britannia Inferior, and later of the kingdoms of Deira, Northumbria and Jórvík. In the Middle Ages, York grew as a major wool trading centre and became the capital of the northern ecclesiastical province of the Church of England, a role it has retained. In the 19th century, York became a major hub of the railway network and a confectionery manufacturing centre, a status it maintained well into the 20th century. During the Second World War, York was bombed as part of the Baedeker Blitz. After suffering heavy damage in the Blitz, most buildings were completely gutted and left in disrepair until restorations began during 1960s. In 2000, York suffered very severe flooding as the River Ouse rose, affecting over 300 homes.The economy of York is dominated by services. The University of York and National Health Service are major employers, whilst tourism has become an important element of the local economy. In 2016, York became sister cities with the Chinese city of Nanjing. An agreement signed by the Lord Mayor of York, focusing on building links in tourism, education, science, technology and culture. Today, the city is a popular tourist attraction to Chinese visitors. In 2017, York became UK's first human rights city, which formalised the city’s aim to use human rights in decision making.

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