Lebedus

Lebedus or Lebedos (Ancient Greek: Λέβεδος) was one of the twelve cities of the Ionian League, located south of Smyrna, Klazomenai and neighboring Teos and before Ephesus, which is further south. It was on the coast, ninety stadia (16.65 km) to the east of Cape Myonnesus, and 120 (22.2 km) west of Colophon.

The city was built on and around a very small peninsula (175 m long, reaching a height of 61 m and with an isthmus 201 m wide), which is called the Kısık Peninsula today and depends on the coastal township of Ürkmez, part of Seferihisar locality, a district center depending on the province seat of İzmir.

The bishopric of Lebedus, a suffragan of Ephesus, is included in the Catholic Church's list of titular sees.[1]

Lebedus
Λέβεδος (in Ancient Greek)
Kisik or Lebedos Peninsula Urkmez Seferihisar Izmir Turkey
Lebedos was located on and around the Kısık Peninsula.
Lebedus is located in Turkey
Lebedus
Shown within Turkey
Alternative nameLebedos
LocationÜrkmez, İzmir Province, Turkey
RegionIonia
Coordinates38°4′41″N 26°57′53″E / 38.07806°N 26.96472°ECoordinates: 38°4′41″N 26°57′53″E / 38.07806°N 26.96472°E
TypeSettlement

History

According to Pausanias, the town was inhabited by Carians when the Ionian Greeks immigrated there under the guidance of Andræmon, a son of Codrus. Strabo, however, states that it was colonized by Andropompus and that it previously bore the name of Artis in Lydia. Lebedos became a flourishing city thanks to its commerce, and was famous for its mineral springs. But it was one of the smaller cities of the Ionian League, handicapped by the limited space of its hinterland and a comparatively unsuitable port.

In the Hellenistic age, around 304 BC, Antigonus I Monophthalmus tried to join the city with Teos; however, this operation was incomplete and eventually annulled by Lysimachus, who moved its population to Ephesus in 292 BC. At some point, the name Ptolemais (Πτολεμαΐς) was bestowed on the town, probably by Ptolemy III Euergetes.[2]

Under Roman rule, it flourished anew, becoming the meeting place of the actors of all Ionia when these were temporarily exiled from Teos, and festivals were celebrated in honour of Dionysus.

Its scanty remains are near the modern town of Seferihisar.

Ancient bishopric

Lebedus appears in Notitiæ episcopatum as an episcopal see, suffragan of Ephesus until the 12th and 13th centuries. Three bishops only are known: Cyriacus, who witnessed the Second Council of Ephesus in 449; Julian, represented by his metropolitan at the Council of Chalcedon in 451[3]; Theophanes or Thomas, who attended the Second Council of Nicaea in 787.

Throughout the 20th century the Roman Church maintained Lededus as a titular of that denomination.

Sources

  • Bean, George E. (1967). Aegean Turkey: An archaeological guide. London: Ernest Benn. pp. 115–122. ISBN 978-0-510-03200-5.
  • PD-icon.svg Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "Lebedus". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company.

References

  1. ^ Annuario Pontificio 2013 (Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 2013, ISBN 978-88-209-9070-1), p. 914
  2. ^ Getzel M. Cohen (1996). The Hellenistic Settlements in Europe, the Islands, and Asia Minor. University of California Press. pp. 188–191. ISBN 0-520-08329-6.
  3. ^ Richard Price, Michael Gaddis, The Acts of the Council of Chalcedon, Volume 1 (University of Liverpool Press, 2005), p.153.
Airai (Ionia)

Airai (Ancient Greek: Αἰραί) was a town of ancient Ionia, near Erythrae mentioned by Thucydides. It was a polis (city-state), and a member of the Delian League since it appears in tribute records of Athens between the years 454/3 and 427/6 BCE. In the year 411 BCE, during the Peloponnesian War, the Chians caused the cities of Lebedus and Airai, until then allies of Athens, to revolt against it. Then the Athenian Diomedon commanded the ten ships and attacked Airai, but was unable to take it. In Strabo's time it was a small town that belonged to Teos. Airai's silver and bronze coins dating from the 4th century BCE bearing the inscription «ΑΙΡΑΙΩΝ» survive.Its site is located near the modern Aşağı Demirci, Asiatic Turkey.

Andraemon

In Greek mythology the name Andraemon (; Ancient Greek: Ἁνδραίμων Andraimōn) may refer to:

Andraemon, son of Oxylus and husband of Dryope.

Andraemon, father of Oxylus and thus grandfather of the precedent.

Andraemon, a Aetolian king and husband of Gorge of Calydon. By the latter, he became the father of Thoas. Andraemon succeeded his father-in-law Oeneus' power over Aetolia. He and his wife were buried in one tomb which was shown in the city of Amphissa.

Andraemon, brother of Leonteus. He married Amphinome, a daughter of Pelias.

Andraemon, one of the suitors of Penelope, from Dulichium.

Andraemon, a son of King Codrus. He participated in the colonization of Asia Minor and drove the Carians out of the city of Lebedus. His tomb was shown near Colophon. Mimnermus related that Andraemon was a native of Pylos and founder of Colophon.Similarly Andraemonides was a patronymic, frequently used to refer to Thoas, son of Andraemon and Gorge.

Andropompus

In Greek mythology, Andropompus (Ancient Greek: Ανδρόχόμχος) was one of the descendants of Neleus, king of Thessaly, as son of Penthilus and Anchirhoe. He was the father of King Melanthus of Athens.

Ariassus

Ariassus or Ariassos (Ancient Greek: Άριασσός) was a town in Pisidia, Asia Minor built on a steep hillside about 50 kilometres inland from Attaleia (modern Antalya).

Augustin Pacha

Augustin Pacha (November 26, 1870—November 4, 1954) was a Romanian cleric, the first bishop of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Timișoara. Born into a Banat Swabian family in Măureni (Moritzfeld), Caraş-Severin County, he was the twelfth of thirteen children and his father was a shoemaker. Following theological studies at the diocesan seminary in Timișoara, he was ordained a priest in 1893 in the city's Roman Catholic cathedral. In 1927 he was consecrated bishop at the Timișoara cathedral, becoming titular bishop of Lebedus. Three years later, he became the first Bishop of Timișoara, a diocese succeeding the former one at Cenad, the last bishop having departed Romania in 1923, leaving Pacha as Apostolic Administrator. In February 1934, alarmed by rising Nazi sentiment among the Swabians of his diocese, he visited Adolf Hitler, receiving a polite reply to his complaints but no concrete action.Beginning in 1948, the authorities of the new communist regime took a series of repressive measures: abrogating the concordat; abolishing Pacha's diocese and forcing him to retire; shutting down monasteries and religious schools; seizing the seminary and its assets, as well as the bishop's palace; arresting and torturing numerous priests. Pacha made public a letter written by the Pope that denounced communism, and also rejected the regime's attempt to fashion a compliant Catholic Church, making him the subject of close supervision by the Securitate secret police. Arrested in June 1950 in Caraşova, where he planned to take a vacation, he was briefly interrogated at Reşiţa before being incarcerated in Bucharest and at Sighet prison. At a show trial involving other clergymen in Bucharest in September 1950, he was accused of being an American and Vatican spy and of Nazi sympathies, his visit to Hitler being brought up. He was sentenced to eighteen years' imprisonment and ten years' deprivation of civic rights, and was fined 880,000 lei and charged 306,000 lei damages against the state. Hoping to avoid the creation of a martyr and to draw public sympathy, the authorities released him in June 1954. Pacha, seriously ill with cancer, returned to Timișoara the following month and was placed under house arrest in a parish house. He died several months later and was buried in the crypt of the cathedral.He was a life member of the Romanian Senate between 1939 and 1944.

Caloe

Caloe was a town in the Roman province of Asia. It is mentioned as Kaloe or Keloue in 3rd-century inscriptions, as Kalose in Hierocles's Synecdemos (660), and as Kalloe, Kaloe, and Kolone in Parthey's Notitiæ episcopatuum, in which it figures from the 6th to the 12fth or 13th century.

Cestrus

Cestrus was a city in the Roman province of Isauria, in Asia Minor. Its placing within Isauria is given by Hierocles, Georgius Cyprius, and Parthey's (Notitiae episcopatuum). While recognizing what the ancient sources said, Lequien supposed that the town, whose site has not been identified, took its name from the River Cestros and was thus in Pamphylia. Following Lequien's hypothesis, the 19th-century annual publication Gerarchia cattolica identified the town with "Ak-Sou", which Sophrone Pétridès called an odd mistake, since this is the name of the River Cestros, not of a city.

Cotenna

Cotenna was a city in the Roman province of Pamphylia I in Asia Minor. It corresponds to modern Gödene, near Konya, Turkey.

Dios Hieron (Ionia)

Dios Hieron (Ancient Greek: Διὸς Ἱερόν, meaning 'Sanctuary of Zeus') was a town of ancient Ionia, between Lebedus and Colophon. The position which Stephanus of Byzantium assigns to the place seems to agree with the narrative in Thucydides where it is mentioned. It belonged to the Delian League since it is mentioned in tribute records of Athens between the years 454/3 and 416/5 BCE. On the other hand, an Athenian decree of the year 427/6 BCE indicates that at that time Dios Hieron was dependent on Colophon. Thucydides writes that in the year 412 BCE the Chians, after revolting against the Athenians, equipped several ships with the intention of encouraging other cities to revolt. They were in Annaea and then in Dios Hieron, where they met the Athenian ships that were under the command of Diomedon. The Chian ships fled from there to Ephesus and Teos. Pliny the Elder says that in his time, the people of Dios Hieron came to Ephesus to settle their legal affairs.Its site is located near Kurukemer, Asiatic Turkey.

Doğanbey, Seferihisar

Doğanbey, named İpsili or İpsili Hisar (from Greek: Υψηλή, its Byzantine-era name) until the late Ottoman period, is a town in south western Turkey in the district of Seferihisar depending İzmir and near the ancient sites of Myonnesos and Lebedos (Lebedus in Latin) and believed to have derived from that settlement from the time when, in antiquity, most of its Greek population was deported to Ephesus.

Drizipara

Drizipara (or Druzipara, Drousipara. Drusipara) now Karıştıran (Büyükkarıştıran) in Lüleburgaz district was a city and a residential episcopal see in the Roman province of Europa in the civil diocese of Thrace. It is now a titular see of the Catholic Church.

Erae

Erae or Erai (Ancient Greek: Ἐραί) was a town on the coast of ancient Ionia, mentioned by Thucydides, in the vicinity of Lebedus and Teos. It was fortified strong enough to keep out the Athenians, who attacked it.. Strabo mentions Erae as a small town belonging to Teos; but though the reading Ἔραι has been received into some texts of Strabo, some of the manuscripts are said to have Gerae or Gerai (Γέραι). Pseudo-Scylax writes that it was a city with a harbor and called it Gerai.Its site is unlocated.

Ionian League

The Ionian League (ancient Greek: Ἴωνες, Íōnes; κοινὸν Ἰώνων, koinón Iōnōn; or κοινὴ σύνοδος Ἰώνων, koinē sýnodos Iōnōn; Latin: commune consilium), also called the Panionic League, was a confederation formed at the end of the Meliac War in the mid-7th century BC comprising twelve Ionian cities (a dodecapolis, of which there were many others).

These were listed by Herodotus as

Miletus, Myus, and Priene, all in Caria (a region in Asia Minor) and speaking the same dialect;

Ephesus, Colophon, Lebedus, Teos, Clazomenae and Phocaea, in Lydia and-or the region known today as Ionia (both also in Asia Minor, Lydia extending inland much farther relative to Ionia), speaking another dialect;

Chios (island) and Erythrae (Asia Minor), with a common dialect; and

Samos (island), with its own dialect.After 650 BC Smyrna, an originally Aeolic city, was invited to diminish Aeolis and increase Ionia by joining the league, which it did.

One of our earliest historical sources, the Histories of Herodotus, and early inscriptions refer to the legally constituted body customarily translated by "league" as "the Ionians" in the special sense of the cities incorporated by it. One therefore reads of the cities, council or decisions "of the Ionians." Writers and documents of the Hellenistic Period explicitly use the term koinon ("common thing") or synodos ("synod") of the Ionians, and by anachronism apply it to the early league when they mention it.

The league was dissolved a few times and reconstituted a few times and in between its actual power varied. Under the Roman empire it was allowed to issue its own coinage under the name koinon Iōnōn on one side with the face of the emperor on the other.

List of ancient settlements in Turkey

Below is the list of ancient settlements in Turkey. There are innumerable ruins of ancient settlements spread all over the country. While some ruins date back to Neolithic times, most of them were settlements of Hittites, Phrygians, Lydians, Ionians, Urartians, and so on.

Lyrbe

Lyrbe (spelled Lyrba in the 1910 Catholic Encyclopedia; Ancient Greek: Λύρβη) was a city and episcopal see in the Roman province of Pamphylia Prima and is now a titular see.

Myonnesus

Myonnesus or Myonnesos (Ancient Greek: Μυόννησος) was a town of ancient Ionia, located near Teos and Lebedus. It was situated on promontory of the same name. An island also called Myonnesus stood offshore. The location is noted for the naval battle offshore in 190 BCE between the Romans and Antiochus the Great.

Although the site of the island is known (modern Cıfıtkalesi Islet); the site of the ancient town is unlocated.

Peter Joseph O'Reilly

Peter Joseph O'Reilly (April 14, 1850 – December 16, 1923) was an Irish-born bishop of the Catholic Church in the United States. He served as an auxiliary bishop of the Diocese of Peoria from 1900-1923.

Stratonicea (Lydia)

Stratonicea – (Greek: Στρατoνικεια, or Στρατονίκεια) also transliterated as Stratoniceia and Stratonikeia, earlier Indi, and later for a time Hadrianapolis – was an ancient city in the valley of the Caicus river, between Germe and Acrasus, in Lydia, Anatolia; its site is currently near the village of Siledik, in the district of Kırkağaç, Manisa Province, in the Aegean Region of Turkey.

Vasile Cristea

Vasile Cristea, A.A. (24 February 1906 – 17 January 2000) was a Romanian Greek Catholic hierarch. He served as Official of the Roman Curia and an Apostolic Visitator for the Romanian Greek Catholic in diaspora as well being the Titular Bishop of Lebedus.

Born in Șomoștelnic, Austria-Hungary (present-day Romania), Cristea joined an Assumptionists Fathers and was ordained as a Greek Catholic priest on 27 March 1932. He was appointed the Bishop by the Holy See on 2 July 1960. He was consecrated to the Episcopate on 8 September 1960. The principal consecrator was Bishop Giovanni Mele. Bishop Cristea retired on 10 October 1987.He died in Rome on 17 January 2000.

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