Lebanese Canadians are Canadians of Lebanese origin. According to the 2011 Census there were 190,275 Canadians who claimed Lebanese ancestry, having an increase compared to those in the 2006 Census, making them by far the largest group of people with Arabic-speaking roots.
Lebanese immigration began in 1882.The first Lebanese immigrant to Canada was Abraham Bounadere (Ibrahim Abu Nadir) from Zahlé in Lebanon. He came and settled in Montreal. Because of situations within Lebanon and restrictive Canadian laws these immigrants were 90% Christian. These immigrants were mostly economic migrants seeking greater prosperity in the New World.
In more recent years this pattern has changed, and large numbers of Lebanese Muslims and Druze have come to Canada. Immigration laws were liberalized after the Second World War, and immigration steadily increased in the 1950s and 1960s.
The greatest influx of Lebanese was during the Lebanese Civil War (1975-1990), and this period saw a number of Lebanon's wealthiest and best educated move to Canada to flee the violence in their homeland. Canada and Australia were the only western countries to set up special programs to enable Lebanese to more easily emigrate. Canada set up an office in Cyprus to process Lebanese refugees.
Many Lebanese speak French and preferred to settle in francophone Montreal rather than anglophone Toronto and Vancouver, British Columbia. About half the Lebanese-Canadian community is located in and around Montreal, and most Lebanese-Canadian organizations, especially religious ones, are based in that city.
Lebanese Canadians account for a larger share of the population of Ottawa than that of any other census metropolitan area across the country, constituting over 2% of the total population of the National Capital Region. Canadians of Lebanese origin also made up more than 1% of the total populations of both Montreal and Halifax, while the figure was close to 1% in both Calgary and Edmonton. In Toronto, people of Lebanese origin made up less than a half a per cent of the total population. There are also substantial Lebanese populations in Vancouver, Windsor, London, Edmonton, Fredericton and Charlottetown.
Media reported that as many as 50,000 of Lebanese-Canadians were in Lebanon during the summer of 2006, with about half this number permanently residing there. During 2006 Israel-Lebanon conflict the large number of Canadians led rise to a major effort to evacuate them from the war zone. It also led some to accuse some of those holding Canadian citizenship of being Canadians of convenience.
|190,275 (by ancestry, 2011 Census) 250,000 (estimate)|
|Regions with significant populations|
|Quebec, Ontario, British Columbia, Nova Scotia, Alberta|
|Canadian English, Canadian French, Lebanese Arabic, Lebanese French, Armenian|
|Christianity, Druze, Sunni and Shia Islam|
|Related ethnic groups|
|Lebanese, Arab Canadians, Arabs, Arab Americans, Lebanese Americans, Lebanese Brazilians, Lebanese Australians, Arab Argentines, Arab Brazilians, Arab Mexicans, Arabs in Europe, Lebanese Jamaicans|
Arab Argentine refers to Argentine citizens or residents whose ancestry traces back to various waves of immigrants, largely of Arab ethnic, cultural and linguistic heritage and/or identity originating mainly from what is now Lebanon and Syria, but also some individuals from the twenty-two countries which comprise the Arab world such as Palestine, Egypt and Morocco. Arab Argentines are one of the largest Arab diaspora groups in the world.
Although a highly diverse group of Argentines — in ancestral origins, religion and historic identities — Arab Argentines hold a heritage that shares common linguistic, cultural and political traditions.
The majority of the Arab Argentines are from either Lebanese or Syrian background with a smaller amount of Palestinian, Egyptian and Moroccan background. The interethnic marriage in the Arab community, regardless of religious affiliation, is very high; most community members have only one parent who has Arab ethnicity. As a result of this, the Arab community in Argentina shows marked language shift away from Arabic. Only a few speak any Arabic and such knowledge is often limited to a few basic words. Instead the majority, especially those of younger generations, speak Spanish as a first language.Arab Brazilians
Arab Brazilians are Brazilian citizens of Arab ethnic, cultural, linguistic heritage and identity. The majority of Arab Brazilians trace their origin to the Levantine region of the Arab World, known in Arabic as Bilad al-Sham, primarily from Lebanon and Syria, as well Palestine.Arab diaspora
Arab diaspora refers to descendants of the Arab immigrants who, voluntarily or as refugees, emigrated from their native lands to non-Arab countries, primarily in South America, Europe, North America, and parts of South Asia, Southeast Asia, the Caribbean, and West Africa.Asian Canadians
Asian Canadians are Canadians who can trace their ancestry back to the continent of Asia or Asian people. Canadians with Asian ancestry comprise the largest and fastest growing visible minority group in Canada, with roughly 17.7% of the Canadian population. Most Asian Canadians are concentrated in the urban areas of Southern Ontario, the Greater Vancouver area, Calgary, and other large Canadian cities.
Asian Canadians considered visible minorities may be classified as East Asian Canadian (e.g. Chinese Canadians, Korean Canadians, Japanese Canadians); South Asian Canadians (e.g. Bangladeshi Canadians, Indian Canadians, Pakistani Canadians, Sri Lankan Canadians); Southeast Asian Canadian (e.g. Filipino Canadians, Vietnamese Canadians); or West Asian Canadians (e.g. Iranian Canadians, Iraqi Canadians, Lebanese Canadians).Burger Baron
The Burger Baron name is used by several fast-food restaurants in Western Canada.Canada–Lebanon relations
Canada–Lebanon relations refers to the diplomatic relations between Canada and Lebanon. Canada is home to one of the largest Lebanese diaspora communities. Both nations are members of the Organisation internationale de la Francophonie.Foreign relations of Lebanon
The foreign policy of Lebanon reflects its geographic location, the composition of its population, and its reliance on commerce and trade. Until 2005, Lebanon's foreign policy had been heavily influenced by Syria. The framework for relations was first codified in May 1991, when Lebanon and Syria signed a treaty of mutual cooperation. This treaty came out of the Taif Agreement, which stipulated that "Lebanon is linked to Syria by distinctive ties deriving strength from kinship, history, and common interests." The Lebanese-Syria treaty calls for "coordination and cooperation between the two countries" that would serve the "interests of the two countries within the framework of sovereignty and independence of each." Numerous agreements on political, economic, security, and judicial affairs have followed over the years.
After Syria's military withdrawal in 2005, Lebanon's foreign policy charted a more independent course. Although its current government's policy can be considered Western-leaning if not pro-Western, the political opposition led by Hezbollah and the Free Patriotic Movement advocate a foreign policy more in line with that of Iran and Syria.Lebanese Argentines
Lebanese Argentine refers to Argentine citizens of Lebanese descent or Lebanon-born people who reside in Argentina. Many of the Lebanese Argentines are descendants of immigrants, largely of Levantine cultural and linguistic heritage and/or identity, originating from what is now Lebanon.
Although a highly diverse group of Argentines — in ancestral origins, religion and historic identities — Lebanese Argentines hold a heritage that shares common linguistic, cultural and political traditions.
The majority of the 1,500,000 million Lebanese Argentines are Christians, with Muslims and Jews being a small minority in comparison to them. The interethnic marriage in the Lebanese community, regardless of religious affiliation, is very high; most community members have only one parent who has Arab ethnicity. As a result of this, the Lebanese community in Argentina shows marked language shift away from Arabic. Only a few speak any Arabic and such knowledge is often limited to a few basic words. Instead the majority, especially those of younger generations, speak Spanish as a first language.Lebanese Australians
Lebanese Australians refers to citizens or permanent residents of Australia of Lebanese ancestry. The population is diverse, having a large Christian religious base, being mostly Maronite Catholics and Greek Orthodox, while also having a large Muslim group of both the Shia and Sunni branches of Islam, which also includes a large Non Religious minority.
Lebanon, in both its modern-day form as the Lebanese state (declared in 1920, granted independence in 1943) and its historical form as the region of the Lebanon, has been a source of migrants to Australia for over two centuries. Some 203,139 Australians claim Lebanese ancestry, either alone or in combination with another ancestry. According to 2011 estimates, 76,459 Lebanese-born people in Australia, with 72% of all people with Lebanese ancestry living in Sydney,
In New South Wales, the Western Sydney suburbs of Bankstown, Lakemba, Auburn, Granville, Parramatta, Punchbowl, Greenacre, Merrylands, Liverpool, Arncliffe and Bexley. As in Victoria are the Northern Melbourne suburbs of Broadmeadows, Coburg, Brunswick, Fawkner,Altona and Dallas.Lebanese Colombians
Lebanese Colombians are Colombians of Lebanese descent. Most of the Lebanese community's forebears immigrated to Colombia from the Ottoman Empire in the late 19th and early 20th centuries for economic, political and religious reasons. When they were first processed in the ports of Colombia, they were classified as Turks because what is modern day Lebanon was a territory of the Turkish Ottoman Empire. The first Lebanese moved to Colombia in the late nineteenth century. There was another wave in the early twentieth century. It is estimated that over 10,000 Lebanese immigrated to Colombia from 1900 to 1930.Many Lebanese settled in the Caribbean region of Colombia, particularly in the cities of Cartagena, Santa Marta, Lorica, Fundación, Aracataca, Ayapel, Calamar, Ciénaga, Cereté, Montería and Barranquilla, near the basin of the Magdalena River. The Lebanese subsequently expanded to other cities and by 1945 there were Lebanese living in Ocaña, Cúcuta, Barrancabermeja, Ibagué, Girardot, Honda, Tunja, Villavicencio, Pereira, Soatá, Neiva, Cali, Buga, Chaparral and Chinácota. The six major hubs of Lebanese population were present in Barranquilla, Cartagena, Bucaramanga, Bogotá and Cali. The number of immigrants entering the country vary from 5,000 to 10,000 in 1945. Some of these immigrants were Christian-Lebanese and others were adept to Islam.In the 1940s, another wave of Lebanese immigrants came to Colombia, settling in the town of Maicao in northern Colombia. These immigrants were mostly Muslims and were attracted by the thriving commerce of the town which was benefiting from the neighboring Venezuelan oil bonanza and the usual contraband of goods that flowed through the Guajira Peninsula.Lebanese New Zealanders
Lebanese New Zealanders refers to citizens or permanent residents of New Zealand of Lebanese ancestry. The community is diverse, having a large Christian religious base, being mostly Maronite Catholics and Greek Orthodox, while also having a small Muslim group of both the Shia and Sunni branches of Islam.
Lebanon, in both its modern-day form as the Lebanese state (declared in 1920, granted independence in 1943) and its historical form as the region of the Lebanon, has been a source of migrants to New Zealand for over two centuries. According to 2013 census, 1,044 Lebanese-descent people in New Zealand, with most of all people with Lebanese ancestry living in Auckland Region (44.0 percent), followed by the Wellington Region (22.4 percent), and the Otago Region (8.6 percent). Furthermore, 68.4 percent were born in New Zealand, up from 67.2 percent in 2006.Lebanese people in Egypt
The Lebanese people of Egypt are people from Lebanon or those of Lebanese descent who live or have lived in the country of Egypt. Many prominent figures that have emerged in Egypt were of Lebanese origin, such as the world-famous actor, Omar Sharif (born Michel Chalhoub), and the highly acclaimed Egyptian filmmaker, Youssef Chahine. Most Lebanese who resided in Egypt were highly educated, and the community as a whole contributed to both Egypt's cultural and financial well being, especially during the era of the Muhammad Ali dynasty. Since the Egyptian Revolution of 1952, most of Egypt's Lebanese community left the country immigrating to the Americas, Europe, and Australia, as well as many returning to their native Lebanon (especially Beirut).
The height of Lebanese immigration into Egypt occurred between the 19th and early 20th centuries. As Lebanon was part of Ottoman Syria during this time, Christians from all over the Levant (modern-day Syria, Lebanon, and Palestine) were immigrating to Egypt as one "Shawam" (شوام), or "Levantine" group. Hence, an umbrella term for their community is "Syro-Lebanese". The number of Lebanese Christians in Egypt grew drastically during the 1860 Lebanon conflict, in which thousands of Christians were killed along with hundreds of their villages destroyed. The vast majority of Lebanese and other Levantine migrants who arrived in Egypt were well-educated and French-speaking.
The historic Lebanese community of Egypt, especially during the 19th and early 20th centuries, was almost exclusively Christian (Melkite Greek Catholic, Greek Orthodox, and Maronite Catholic), with small numbers of Muslims and Jews among them. Today, many Lebanese nationals who live in Egypt, mostly for education or employment, tend to be Muslim.Lebanese people in Iran
Lebanese people in Iran refers to Lebanese living in Iran or Iranians of Lebanese descent. The Lebanese populate various regions and cities, but historically the religious city of Qom (apart from the modern capital Tehran and previous capitals) has been a principal area of settlement.
Lebanese are known to have been steadily migrating to the contemporary and former territories of Iran since the Safavid-era.Lebanese people in Spain
Lebanese people in Spain (Spanish: Libaneses en España) are people from Lebanon or those of Lebanese descent, who live in the country of Spain. Most of the Lebanese people in Spain are expatriates from Lebanon but also there is a sizable group of people with Lebanese descent from Latin American countries with sizable Lebanese diasporas like Argentina, Colombia, Ecuador, Venezuela, Mexico, Uruguay, Chile, Paraguay and Brazil.Lebanese people in Syria
The Lebanese people in Syria are people from Lebanon or those of Lebanese descent who live in the country of Syria. There are many prominent people in Syria who are of Lebanese descent.List of Canadians of Asian ancestry
This is a list of Canadians of Asian ancestry. Asian Canadians comprise the largest visible minority in Canada, at 11% of the Canadian population.List of Lebanese people in Canada
This is a list of notable Lebanese Canadians; individuals born in Canada of Lebanese ancestry, or people of Lebanese and Canadian dual nationality who live or resided in Canada.Mdoukha
Mdoukha (Arabic: مدوخا) is a village and municipality situated 72 kilometres (45 mi) east of Beirut in the Rashaya District, Beqaa Governorate, Lebanon. The village's population is Sunni. A significant majority of the population are also Lebanese Canadians, of which 60% live in London, Ontario.Mdoukha is one of the most beautiful villages in the Rachaya District of Lebanon. It lies in the Beqaa Valley, about 15 Km northwest of Mount Hermon, 70 Km from the capital Beirut and lies 1150 m above sea level. Villages that surround Mdoukha are Kherbet Rouha, Ayn Araab, Al-Berih, Bakka, Al-Rafid and Kfardenis.
Mdoukha has a few natural and historic destinations. For example, on top of Mdoukha's tallest mountain, there is a castle that dates back 8000 years ago; it is said that there is gold under the castle and is waiting for someone to claim it. Also there is place where endless ground water is spewing out and it is safe and clean to drink.
Villages that surround Mdoukha are: Kherbet Rouha, Ayn Araab, Al-Berih, Bekka, Al-Rafid and Kafardenis. Mdoukha's population is approximately 3300 people. With modern architecture and the building of new homes, Mdoukha has never lost its historical image represented by the old houses. Mdoukha's family names include: Abdo, Abdulhamid, Abdulkarim, Assaf, Birani, Borhot, Chahbar, Chams, Hage, Hammoud, Jambein, Meddoui, Merhi, Moussa, Elnazali, Omar, Soufan, Zabian and Youssef .Syrian Canadians
Syrian Canadians refers to Canadians who can trace their ancestry back to Syria. According to the 2016 Census, there were 77,050 Syrian Canadians compared to the 2011 Census where there were 40,840.
Arab Canadians by state of origin