Learner's permit

A driver's permit, learner's permit, learner's license or provisional license, is a restricted license that is given to a person who is learning to drive, but has not yet satisfied the prerequisite to obtain a driver's license. Having a driver's permit for a certain length of time is usually one of the requirements (along with driver's education and a road test) for applying for a full driver's license. To get a learner's permit, one must typically pass a written permit test, take a basic competency test in the vehicle, or both.


Laws regarding learner's permits in Australia differ between each state. However, all states require a number of hours supervised driving to be undertaken and for the permit to be held for a set period. The age to get a Learner Permit is 16 in all states and territories except the ACT where it is 15 and 9 months. When a person is on their learner's permit, they have to log 50–120 hours depending on the state they are in and must obtain at least 10 night hours. They can be supervised or taught in their log book hours by any person/persons holding a full license. They must sign the log book for allocated hours. Learner drivers must display an 'L' on their car and have a 0% BAC Alcohol limit.


A provisional learners license[1] can be obtained after passing a theoretical exam less than three years prior. The minimum age for a learners permit is 17 years. The learner needs to be accompanied by a designated person with a valid driving license. The vehicle needs to bear a clearly visible, predesignated "learners" sign, sporting the letter "L".

If you go to a driving school and follow 20 hours of lessons, you get another learner's permit. With this, you can drive with maximum two people who have had their driver's license for at least 8 years, or you can drive by yourself, but with some restrictions: you cannot drive between 10 p.m. and 6 a.m. on Fridays, Saturdays and Sundays; and you cannot drive on the evenings before a legal holiday, or the evening of the holiday itself.[2]


In Canada, the minimum age varies from province to province and may be 14 or 16. In Ontario, a G1 License is issued to new drivers at the age of 16 after completing a written test. G1 license restrictions include:

  • Have time and/or road restrictions, and the learner must drive with a fully licensed driver of at least 4 years. After one year with a G2, the learner may upgrade to their full G class license by taking another road test, which has a major highway component. A similar program is in effect for motorcycles, the M class license.

In Nova Scotia, a beginner's permit (L) is issued to new drivers after the age of 16 after a written test. The L license restrictions include:

  • A fully licensed driver must sit in the seat adjacent the new driver
  • There cannot be additional passengers
  • The learner must have a blood alcohol count of 0
  • No time or road restrictions

In Alberta, a learners permit is issued to those who complete a knowledge test, an eye exam and one who is 14 years of age or older. They're then put into a GDL program with restrictions. Some include: having a 0 blood alcohol level, fully licensed driver in the passenger seat, no more people than there are seats, and must hold the license for a one-year minimum before upgrading.

In Alberta, one has to pass a basic road test after having a learner's permit for at least a year and at or over the age of 16, then can apply for a Class 5 GDL license, which carries some of the same restrictions, but no longer requires a fully licensed Class 5 non-GDL driver in the passenger seat. Once the person becomes 18 and holds the Class 5 GDL license for at least 2 years, they can do an advanced road test which if they pass, they'll become a fully licensed Class 5 driver.


In France, there is Graduated driver licensing for people between the ages of 15 and 17 and half, for B Driving licence. There are some restrictions: for instance, a fully qualified driver must accompany the learner.

At age 18, the learner's permit can apply to a normal driving license, that it can pass more easily due to its previous experience; additionally, the length of the probation period (or permis probatoire) is lowered to two years.

This graduated driver licensing is valid only within France; thus one cannot use it to cross borders.

For people over 18, there is a system similar to Graduated driver licensing, but the rules are slightly different: for instance there is no reduction from three to two years for the probation licence[3].

Furthermore, once receiving a full driving license for the first time, the following restrictions apply for two or three years,[4] known as permis probatoire:

  • Maximum speed 110 km/h instead of 130 on motorways, 100 km/h instead of 110, and 80 instead of 90 on rural roads[5].
  • The permis probatoire has only six points while the regular permit has 12 points.[6]
  • At the end of the two or three year period, assuming the driver made no infraction, the “permis probatoire” is automatically converted to a regular driver’s licence.
When General case Apprentissage anticipé case
Driving licence passed 6 6
After one year +2 → 8 (if no point loss) +3 → 9 (if no point loss)
After two years +2 → 10 (if no point loss) +3 → 12 (if no point loss)
After three years +2 → 12 (if no point loss)

Some training to road traffic safety might help to recover points.


Since 2010, one can obtain a learner's permit at 17 in Germany. The only restriction is that a fully licensed and previously stated driver who is at least 30 years old must accompany the learner (but is not allowed to intervene in the drive). That does not apply to light motorcycles, which can be driven freely with this license.

Furthermore, the following restrictions apply for two years after obtaining a full license:

  • The driver must have a blood alcohol count of 0 (this applies at least until the age of 21)
  • Any penalties are stricter than for advanced drivers

At age 18, the learner's permit will be automatically replaced by a normal driving license - no further test is needed. These legal circumstances in Germany are comparable to those in Austria in that respect; thus, one can cross these countries' border with a learner's permit.

Hong Kong

In Hong Kong, any person aged 18 or above can apply for a Learner's Driving License for private cars, light goods vehicle and motorcycles. For other types of vehicle, the age required is 21 and the applicant must have a valid private car or light goods vehicle driving license for 3 years. Unlike other jurisdictions, a learner must be supervised by an approved driving instructor instead of an ordinary fully licensed driver, or attending an approved driving school to learn to drive (except motorcycles, which learners can drive on their own, but motorcycle learners must pass a motorcycle course from an approved driving school before they can learn to drive on road). L-plate is also required when the learner is practicing.


In India, the minimum age at which a provisional licence is valid is 18 (and 16 for riding a gearless scooter). When driving under a provisional license, the learner must be accompanied by a driver who holds a full driving license. The supervisor has to be in view of the road and be in a position to control the vehicle. The provisional license is available only after passing the theory test. A full licence can be acquired only after passing the driving test. Once the learner has passed the theory test, they may take the practical driving test. Once the practical driving test has been taken and passed, a full driving licence will be automatically issued. While it is possible to take both tests immediately after each other, most learner drivers take a period between taking the theory and applying for a practical test to carry out driving lessons, either with their supervisor or a professional Driving school.

The vehicle being driven by the learner must also be fitted with L-plates on both the back and front of the vehicle. This tells other road users that the vehicle is being operated by a driver without their full license and that they may make mistakes easily and that the driver may not be fully competent yet. The L-plate consists of a white square plate with a large red L in the middle.


In Ireland, the learner may perform a theory test at the age of 16 which tests their knowledge of traffic situations and road signs. Upon passing this test the learner will receive a learner's permit which permits them to drive on the road accompanied by a full licensed driver who has had their license for more than two years. The only restrictions are that the learner driver cannot drive on motorways and must visibly display 'L' plates at all times. They must have held their learner's permit for 6 months before they can apply to perform road test to obtain their full license. This is known as the 'six-month rule'.[7]


In Italy, any person aged 18 or above can apply for a driving license (patente di guida). The learner has to perform a theory test which tests their knowledge of traffic situations, road signs, insurance, sanctions, etc. Upon passing this test (the learner has two possibilities to pass it), the learner will receive a learner's permit (foglio rosa, literally pink sheet, given its color) which allows them to drive on the road, if accompanied by a driver which had their license for more than ten years. There are no restrictions on the horsepower of the car (there will be during the first year of full license). The learner can drive on motorways and must display 'P' (standing for Principiante, beginner) stickers, both in the front and in the back of the vehicle. After receiving the foglio rosa, they have 6 months to perform road test to obtain the full license; should the learner be uncapable to pass the road test in 6 months (two possibilities to pass it, spaced one month apart), they have to pay for another foglio rosa.

New Zealand

Learner licence

In New Zealand, any eligible person 16 years or over can sit a learner licence test, which is a theory multiple choice test on road rules[8]. Once they have passed this, they may drive with an adult who has had their full license of the same licence class for at least two years (a 'supervisor').[9] They must display L plates at all times when driving. Learner drivers may observe the posted speed limits. They may carry passengers with an adult in the car that has had their full licence for more than two years.

Restricted licence

After at least 6 months have passed, they must pass a practical test in order to receive their restricted license. On a restricted license, the learner may only drive between 5am - 10pm, with no passengers other than their dependent children, spouse or someone for whom they are the primary caregiver; they may drive at any time when accompanied by a supervisor. Learners who sit the practical test in an automatic car are only legally allowed to drive an automatic while on the restricted licence. If a driver has successfully completed an approved defensive driving course, the wait time between passing the restricted licence practical test and taking the full licence practical test is reduced from 18 months to 12 months.


In Norway, the learner may drive as long the learner is over 16 years of age, have passed a basic course in the rules of the road and first aid, and a person 25 or above who has had their driver's license for more than 5 years is present.[10]


In Singapore, any persons aged 18 or above may obtain a provisional driving licence for a fee of S$25.00 after passing the Basic Theory Test. The provisional driving licence is valid for 6 months if the PDL licence is obtained before 1 December 2017. From 1 December 2017, the validity of a PDL licence is 2 years from the date of payment, with no change of cost. It permits the holder to drive on public roads (with a few exceptions) in the presence of a Certified Driving Instructor. A car driven by a learner must display an L-plate on the front and rear of the car. Passing the Final Theory Test enables a learner to apply for the Practical Driving Test and it is valid for 2 years. A valid provisional driving licence, passed FTT and a photo ID must be presented to be allowed to take the practical test. Should a learner's provisional driving licence expire before the date of their practical test, he or she will have to renew it at the same cost. Expired PDL are not accepted and taking the practical tests will be rejected.

A Qualified Driving Licence (QDL) is awarded to a person who has passed the practical test and made a one-time payment of S$50.00. Any person who has possessed a QDL for a period of less than a year is required to display a probation plate at the top right of their front and rear windscreens. The probation plate is made of a reflective material and consists of an orange triangle on a yellow background. Failure to do so may cause the offending driver to receive a fine for the first time and then subsequently revoked from driving. See Driving licence in Singapore for detailed requirements of each class of licence.

South Africa

A South African learners license consists of three sections with the following criteria required:

  • Rules of the road - There are 30 questions in this category with 22 being the pass mark
  • Vehicle controls - There are 8 questions in this section, the required pass mark is 6
  • Road signs, road markings and traffic signals - There are 30 questions in this category with a pass mark of 23

There are primarily three codes to choose from:

  • Code 1 - This is for motorcycles, motorised tricycle or quadricycle not more than 125cc and the driver should be 16 or older on the date of the test. If the motorcycle engine in above 125cc, the driver will need to be 17 years or older.
  • Code 2- This is for motor vehicles, bus and minibus or goods vehicle up to a maximum vehicle mass of 3500 kg. The driver will need to be 17 years or older on the date of the test.
  • Code 3 - This is for motor vehicles exceeding a gross vehicle mass of 3500 kg. The driver will need to be 18 years or older to apply for a learners license in this category.

The following documents will need to be presented when applying for a learners license:

  • Identity card or passport
  • 2 Recent passport size photographs (colour or black and white)

In South Africa, any person who is of the minimum required age and holds a valid ID document may sit a learner's licence exam.[11] The minimum required age varies by vehicle class and has the following minimum age restrictions:[12]

  • for a motorcycle (without a sidecar) with an engine not exceeding 125 cc – 16 years
  • for light motor vehicles with a mass not exceeding 3 500 kilograms – 17 years
  • for all other vehicles (also motorcycles with an engine exceeding 125 cc) – 18 years

The Learner's Licence exam is a 68 question multiple choice exam with questions spread over three sections: Rules of the road (30 questions); Signs, signals and road markings (30 questions), and vehicle controls (8 questions).[13] [14] The holder of a learner’s licence is allowed to drive only when supervised by a licensed driver. If the category of vehicle being driven requires a professional driving permit, the licensed driver must also hold a professional driving permit. South African Learners must carry their Learner's Licence with them whenever they are driving a vehicle and have L plates on the rear window. The Learner's Licence is valid for 24 months.[15]


In Sweden, the minimum age is 16 years old to get a basic car learner's permit; 17 years and six months are required for more advanced light vehicle combinations and up to 23 years for heavy vehicle combinations. Körkortslag 4kap 2§[16]

United Kingdom

In the United Kingdom, the minimum age at which a provisional licence is valid is 17 (16 for driving a tractor, riding a moped or those receiving Disability Mobility Allowance). When driving under a provisional licence, the learner must be accompanied by a driver who has held a full driving licence for three years, and who is 21 or over.[17] The supervisor has to be in view of the road, however the Road Safety Act 1988 states that the supervisor does not have to be in the passenger seat, although the passenger in the front seat does have to be over the age of 15. A full licence can be acquired as soon as the provisional licence is received, unlike many other countries where applicants must wait a minimum of 6–12 months before getting a full license. The provisional licence is available without taking a test, although to get a full, unrestricted licence, the applicant must take a written 'Theory' test containing fifty multiple choice questions and a fourteen-clip hazard perception test, both of which are done on a computer at one of the many DSA (Driving Standards Agency) Test centres.[18] Once the learner has passed the theory test, they may take the practical driving test; however the practical driving test has to be passed within 2 years of completing the theory test, as the theory test certificate expires 2 years after receiving it. Once the practical driving test has been passed, a full driving licence will be automatically issued. One can take the practical test immediately after the theory test, but most learner drivers take some time between them to take driving lessons, usually with a professional driving instructor.

A vehicle being driven by a learner driver must be fitted with L-plates on both the back and front of the vehicle. These tell other road users that the vehicle is being operated by a driver without a full licence and that they may make mistakes easily and that the driver may not be fully competent yet. The L-plate consists of a white square plate (often tied to the vehicle or attached by magnets) with a large red L in the middle. (In Wales a D-plate (D for dysgwr, Welsh for "learner") may be used instead of an L-plate.) If the vehicle is operated by multiple named drivers (as specified by the car insurance policy), then the L-plate should be removed while the car is being driven by a holder of a full licence. When the learner has passed the test, they can display a non-compulsory 'P' plate, which shows that they have just passed their test, and so may not have much experience on the road. The P plate has a white background, with a green 'P'.

In the UK, provisional licence holders are not allowed to drive on motorways unless accompanied by a driving instructor and in a car fitted with dual controls.[19]

After gaining a full licence, the driver is subject to a probationary period: six or more penalty points accumulated within two years of passing the test would lead to a revocation of the licence, and both tests would need to be retaken.[20]

In Northern Ireland for one year after the passing of a driving test, the driver is defined as a "restricted driver" who must not exceed 45 mph (72 km/h) and must display an "R-plate" consisting of an amber sans-serif R on a white background.

United States

In the United States, all states and Washington D.C. have graduated driver's license programs for teenage drivers.[21] Although the specific requirements vary by state,[22] in a typical program a minor must first obtain a learner's permit and meet specific requirements to qualify for an intermediate driver's license, before ultimately becoming eligible for a full driver's license.[23]

Learner's permits

In order for a minor to receive a learner's permit, sometimes called an instructional permit,[24] states typically require that the minor have at least 6 practice hours before getting the permit and signed permission from a parent or guardian.[25] In the state of New Hampshire, a permit is not given but the young driver may begin to drive with a parent or guardian, or an adult 25 years of age, at the age of 15 and a half.[26]

Typically, a driver operating with a learner's permit must be accompanied by an adult licensed driver who is at least 21 years of age or older and in the passenger seat of the vehicle at all times.[27]

In some states, permit holders are allowed to drive to and from school or work with a permit, without a supervising driver. In Indiana, California, Iowa, Texas, Rhode Island, Maryland, Virginia, and Kentucky, a permit holder between 17 and 18 may legally drive unaccompanied only if heading to work or to school.[27]

After a legally defined period of driving supervised with a permit, usually between six and twelve months, and upon reaching the requisite age, the holder of a learner's permit can apply for a provisional license. Obtaining a provisional license allows certain restrictions to be lifted from the driver, such as the times that they are allowed to drive,[28] and the number of people allowed in the car.

Some States require the permit holder to document specific hours of driving under the permit before qualifying for an intermediate license, such as fifty hours of practice.[27]

Intermediate license

An intermediate or provisional license allows the driver to drive a vehicle without supervision by a licensed driver. Driving is typically permitted during a limited range of mostly daylight hours, as well as to and from school, work and religious activities.[22] Some states may require a road test before allowing a learner's permit holder to obtain an intermediate license.[29]

In order to qualify for a provisional license the applicant must typically be at least the age of 16 and must have previously held a learner's permit for at least six months. These requirements vary by state. For example, in Florida the prior period for holding a learner's permit is twelve months.[30]

In many states the period of driving on a learner's permit is shortened if the applicant is above the age of eighteen. For example, in Oklahoma if a driver is 18 or older a learner's permit must only be held for one month before the driver qualifies for an intermediate license.[31] Some states allow drivers over the age of twenty-one to bypass the entire graduated licensing process. For example, in Colorado, a driver over the age of twenty-one may apply for and pass the tests for a permit and a full driver's license on the same day and, if successful in passing the tests, may obtain a full driver's license as soon as the driver passes a scheduled driving test.[32]

Intermediate drivers are normally restricted in their transportation of passengers, especially minor passengers, without supervision.[22] In some states, such as California, Nebraska, Oregon, Maine, New York, Florida, Kansas, Illinois, Oklahoma and Arizona, permitted drivers may legally drive family members under the age of 21 without adult supervision if they possess a signed note from a legal guardian.


  1. ^ "Koninklijk besluit betreffende het rijbewijs, Afdeling 2. Voorlopig rijbewijs". wegcode.be. 23 March 1998. Retrieved 15 December 2018.
  2. ^ http://www.hendriksrijschool.be/index.php/zonder-begeleider-cat-b
  3. ^ https://www.service-public.fr/particuliers/vosdroits/F21012
  4. ^ https://www.service-public.fr/particuliers/vosdroits/F2390
  5. ^ https://www.permisapoints.fr/permis-a-points/permis-probatoire/
  6. ^ https://www.service-public.fr/particuliers/vosdroits/F2390
  7. ^ (NDLS, National Driver Licensing Service, 2017)
  8. ^ "How do I get my car licence".
  9. ^ "About your licence". NZ Transport Agency. 30 September 2011. Retrieved 14 October 2011.
  10. ^ "Øvelseskjøring (Practise driving)" (in Norwegian). Norwegian Public Roads Administration (Statens Vegvesen). Retrieved 24 March 2018.
  11. ^ "When can I apply for my Learners Licence? What requirements do I need to meet? - Page 3". Retrieved 13 October 2015.
  12. ^ "Restrictions and Requirements - Light Motor Vehicle - African License". African Licence. Retrieved 13 October 2015.
  13. ^ "Preparation - Light Motor Vehicle - African License". African Licence. Retrieved 13 October 2015.
  14. ^ "Services". Retrieved 13 October 2015.
  15. ^ "What the Licence Permits - Light Motor Vehicle - African License". African Licence. Retrieved 13 October 2015.
  16. ^ "Körkortslag (1998:488)". Retrieved 13 October 2015.
  17. ^ "Driving tests, motorcycle tests and learning to drive". Retrieved 13 October 2015.
  18. ^ "Theory test for cars and motorcycles". Retrieved 13 October 2015.
  19. ^ "Learner drivers on motorways from 4 June 2018". UK Government. Retrieved 28 September 2018.
  20. ^ "Penalty points (endorsements)". Retrieved 13 October 2015.
  21. ^ "Teenagers". IIHS-HLDI. Institute for Highway Safety, Highway Loss Data Institute. Retrieved 23 March 2019.
  22. ^ a b c Larson, Aaron (3 July 2017). "How do Graduated Driver's License Programs and Permits Work". ExpertLaw. Retrieved 5 December 2017.
  23. ^ Oleen, Brooke; Teigen, Ann (September 2011). "Teen Driving" (PDF). National Conference of State Legislatures. Retrieved 5 December 2017.
  24. ^ See, e.g., "Instructional Permit (CP)". Georgia Department of Driver Services. Retrieved 5 December 2017.
  25. ^ See, e.g. "Important Information About Learner's Permits" (PDF). Department of Motor Vehicles. State of New York. Retrieved 5 December 2017., "Learner's Permit". Utah Department of Public Safety. Retrieved 5 December 2017.
  26. ^ "Learning to Drive". Division of Motor Vehicles. New Hampshire Department of Safety. Retrieved 5 December 2017.
  27. ^ a b c "Graduated Driver's Licensing". AAA. Retrieved 5 December 2017.
  28. ^ "Teen Drivers Overview". National Conference of State Legislatures. April 2017. Retrieved 5 December 2017.
  29. ^ See, eg., "Graduated Driver Licensing Program". drive.ky.gov. State of Kentucky. Retrieved 5 December 2017., "Teenage & Adult Driver Responsibility Act (TADRA)". Georgia Department of Driver Services. State of Georgia. Retrieved 5 December 2017.
  30. ^ "Licensing Requirements for Teens, Graduated Driver License Laws and Driving Curfews". Florida Highway Safety and Motor Vehicles. State of Florida. Retrieved 5 December 2017.
  31. ^ "Graduated Driver License (GDL)". Oklahoma Department of Public Safety. Retrieved 5 December 2017.
  32. ^ "FAQ - Driver License". Colorado Department of Revenue. Retrieved 5 December 2017.
15 (number)

15 (fifteen) is a number, numeral, and glyph. It is the natural number following 14 and preceding 16.

365 (number)

365 (three hundred [and] sixty-five) is the natural number following 364 and preceding 366.

Alcohol abuse

Alcohol abuse encompasses a spectrum of unhealthy alcohol drinking behaviors, ranging from binge drinking to alcohol dependence, in extreme cases resulting in health problems for individuals and large scale social problems such as alcohol-related crimes.

Alcohol abuse was a psychiatric diagnosis in the DSM-IV, and has been merged with alcohol dependence into alcohol use disorder in the DSM-5.Globally, alcohol consumption is the seventh leading risk factor for both death and the burden of disease and injury. In short, except for tobacco, alcohol accounts for a higher burden of disease than any other drug. Alcohol use is a major cause of preventable liver disease worldwide, and alcoholic liver disease is the main alcohol-related chronic medical illness. Millions of men and women of all ages, from adolescents to the elderly, engage in unhealthy drinking in the United States. Alcohol use disorder (AUD) reportedly most often affects young men (aged 18–24 years) of lower socioeconomic status.

Australia Post Keypass identity card

The Australia Post Keypass identity card is a photo identity card issued by Australia Post and can be used by people who do not have an Australian drivers licence or identity photo card, or for those who would prefer not to carry around a passport to prove their identity for safety and/or wear/tear reasons. It can additionally be used in a situation in which multiple proofs of ID are required, such as when opening a bank account. There are two types, Under 18 and 18+.

Australia Post claims that the card can be used as proof of identity in all states. It is a legitimate form of ID and is technically acceptable as proof of ID when entering licensed (alcohol-serving) venues or buying from packaged liquor stores and tobacco vendors. However, many venues will not accept the Keypass as ID, making the Learner's Permit or Driver's License a safer option as proof of ID. Additionally, Australia Post's website states that; "Australia Post has no control over where Keypass will be accepted". This is likely due to the Keypass being notoriously easy to fake. One key advantage of Keypass, unlike most identity photo cards and drivers licences, is the card can be issued to people under the age of 18, and to visitors to Australia.

Digital Keypass 18+ is also available on a smart phone through Australia Post Digital iD.The cost of the Australia Post Keypass ID Card is as follows:

Adult: $39.95

Concession: $29.95 (eligible government concession cards must be cited)

NT Resident: $25.00

Driver's education

Driver's education, driver education, driving education, driver's ed, or driving tuition or driving lessons is a formal class or program that prepares a new driver to obtain a learner's permit or driver's license. The formal class program may also prepare existing license holders for an overseas license conversion or medical assessment driving test or refresher course. It may take place in a classroom, in a vehicle, online, or a combination of the above. Topics of instruction include traffic code or laws and vehicle operation. Typically, instruction will warn of dangerous conditions in driving such as road conditions, driver impairments, and hazardous weather. Instructional videos may also be shown, demonstrating proper driving strategies and the consequences for not observing the rules.

Education is intended to supplement the knowledge obtained from government-printed driving handbooks or manuals and prepares students for tests to obtain a driver's license or learner's permit. In-car instruction places a student in a vehicle with an instructor. A car fitted with dual controls, which has pedals or other controls on the passenger side, may be used.

Driver's licence in Canada

In Canada, driver's licences are issued by the government of the province or territory in which the driver is residing. Thus, specific regulations relating to driver's licences vary province to province, though overall they are quite similar. All provinces have provisions allowing non-residents to use licences issued by other provinces and territories, out-of-country licences, and International Driving Permits. Many provinces also allow non-residents to use regular licences issued by other nations and countries. Canadian driver's licences are also valid in many other countries due to various international agreements and treaties.

Driver's license

A driver's license is an official document, often plastic and the size of a credit card, permitting a specific individual to operate one or more types of motorized vehicles, such as a motorcycle, car, truck, or bus on a public road.

In most international agreements the wording driving permit is used, for instance in the Vienna Convention on Road Traffic.

The term driver's license is American English; the Canadian English equivalent is driver's licence, the Australian and New Zealand English equivalent is driver licence and in many Commonwealth countries and Ireland it is driving licence. In this article, the American terminology and spelling is used generally but in country specific sections, the local spelling variant is used.

The laws relating to the licensing of drivers vary between jurisdictions. In some jurisdictions, a permit is issued after the recipient has passed a driving test, while in others, a person acquires their permit before beginning to drive. Different categories of permit often exist for different types of motor vehicles, particularly large trucks and passenger vehicles. The difficulty of the driving test varies considerably between jurisdictions, as do factors such as age and the required level of competence and practice.

Driver's licenses in Trinidad and Tobago

In Trinidad and Tobago, you could obtain a learner's permit at your 17th birthday. Licenses to drive are commonly referred to in Trinidad and Tobago as Driver's Permits. Driver's Permits are issued by the Licensing Authority, which is governed by the Ministry of Works and Transport. In order to legally operate any motor vehicle in Trinidad and Tobago, only when it is on public-owned-roads, the operator of the motor vehicle must be in possession of a valid Driver's Permit on their person and is legally endorsed for that class of vehicle. Contravention to the aforementioned could warrant a fine of up to TT$1500 and imprisonment.

Driver's licenses in the United States

In the United States, driver's licenses are issued by each individual state, territory, and the District of Columbia rather than by the federal government because of the concept of federalism. Drivers are normally required to obtain a license from their state of residence and all states recognize each other's licenses for non-resident age requirements. A state may also suspend an individual's driving privilege within its borders for traffic violations. Many states share a common system of license classes, with some exceptions, e.g. commercial license classes are standardized by federal regulation at 49 C.F.R. 383.

Driver licences in Australia

A driver licence is required in Australia before a person is permitted to drive a motor vehicle of any description on a road in Australia. The responsibility for the regulation and enforcement of road use, including light vehicle driver licensing is the responsibility of the state and territory governments. The rules for the obtaining of licences vary between states and territories, but a driver licence issued in one Australian state or territory is generally recognised and valid in the other states and territories. In 1997, a national drivers licence scheme was agreed by the states to provide uniform arrangements for the post-novice licensing of drivers of motor vehicles, the renewal of licences, and their suspension and cancellation, and to facilitate the mutual recognition between Australian jurisdictions of driver licences when transferring between jurisdictions. In 2017, the federal government proposed creation of a national drivers licence database that would involve state or territory governments handing over the identities of drivers in a bid to toughen national security laws. The national ID database would be used to monitor public events, but could be transferred to a national drivers licence system with agreement from the states.

Driving licence in Pakistan

In Pakistan, the driving licence is the official document which authorises its holder to operate various types of motor vehicle on roads to which the public have access. Driving licences can be obtained by applying to any traffic police office/licensing authority in applicant's district.u

Graduated driver licensing

Graduated driver licensing systems (GDLS) are designed to provide new drivers of motor vehicles with driving experience and skills gradually over time in low-risk environments. There are typically three steps or stages through which new drivers pass. They begin by acquiring a learner's permit, progress to a restricted, probationary or provisional license, followed by receipt of a full driver's license. Graduated drivers' licensing generally restricts nighttime, expressway, and unsupervised driving during initial stages, but lifts these restrictions with time and further testing of the individual, eventually concluding with the individual attaining a full driver's license.

Joshua's Law

Joshua’s Law is a Georgia state law enacted in 2007 changing the driver's license requirements for teen drivers. A teen driver must meet the new requirements to obtain a Georgia driver’s license. The law was named after Joshua Brown, who died in an accident in 2003. Joshua’s parents joined with legislators in an effort to put stronger driver training laws into effect. The end result was The Teenage and Adult Driver Responsibility Act (TADRA), a law that requires teens get specific driving experience and instruction before obtaining licensing beyond the learner's permit. The law also implemented a graduated driver licensing system, imposing time-of-day and passenger restrictions on drivers aged 16 and 17.

Newly licensed driver plate

An L-plate is a square plate bearing a sans-serif letter L, for learner, which must be affixed to the front and back of a vehicle in many countries if its driver is a learner under instruction, or a motorcycle rider with provisional entitlement to ride restricted motorcycles.


Permit may refer to:

Permit (fish), a game fish of the western Atlantic Ocean belonging to the family Carangidae, Trachinotus falcatus

Various legal licenses:


Work permit, legal authorization which allows a person to take employment

Learner's permit, restricted license that is given to a person who is learning to drive

International Driving Permit, allows an individual to drive a private motor vehicle in another nation

Disabled parking permit, displayed upon a vehicle carrying a person whose mobility is significantly impaired

Protest permit, permission granted by a governmental agency for a demonstration

Construction permit, required in most jurisdictions for new construction, or adding onto pre-existing structures

Filming permit, required in most jurisdictions for filming motion pictures and television

Home Return Permit, Mainland (China) Travel Permit for Hong Kong and Macao Residents

One-way Permit, document issued by the PRC allowing residents of mainland China to leave the mainland for Hong Kong

Thresher/Permit class submarine, a class of nuclear-powered fast attack submarines in service with the United States Navy

USS Permit (SS-178), a Porpoise-class submarine of the United States Navy

USS Permit (SSN-594), the lead ship of her class of submarine of the United States Navy

Permit (film), a 1979 Pakistani Punjabi film


A pillion is a secondary pad, cushion, or seat behind the main seat or saddle on a horse, motorcycle, bicycle or moped. A passenger in this seat is said to "ride pillion". The word is derived from the Scottish Gaelic for "little rug", pillean, from the Latin pellis, "animal skin". One or more pelts often were used as a secondary seat on horseback; the usage has carried over to motorcycles.

Traffic violations reciprocity

Under traffic violations reciprocity agreements, non-resident drivers are treated like residents when they are stopped for a traffic offense that occurs in another jurisdiction. They also ensure that punishments such as penalty points on one's license and the ensuing increase in insurance premiums follow the driver home. The general principle of such interstate, interprovincial, and/or international compacts is to guarantee the rule "one license, one record."

United States commercial driver's license training

Commercial driver's license training (or CDL training) is a specialized instructional program or course designed to prepare a student to obtain a commercial driver's license (CDL), which is required for a career as a truck driver in the United States. During training, students are taught the necessary knowledge and skills to pass a series of tests to obtain their CDL. Such a program generally begins with classroom instruction geared towards passing the written exams for a CDL permit, a learner's permit that allows a student to practice driving skills on public roads with a CDL licensed driver or instructor. Students graduate from CDL training upon receiving their CDLs and proving that they can comfortably and safely drive and maneuver a truck. Most CDL training schools train drivers for a class A CDL, which allows the holder to drive a tractor trailer weighing over 26,000 pounds.

The CDL is issued by Department of Transportation (DoT). The minimum age for intra-state CDL is 18 years while for inter-state CDL is 21 years. There are different classes of CDL and endorsements along with it which are required to operate special types of vehicles.There are three basic types of truck driving schools: programs offered through community colleges, private truck driving schools and schools operated by trucking companies. Each type of program has different characteristics, so prospective students need to evaluate which type of school is right for them. The length of CDL training programs varies from school to school. Programs can range from a few weeks up to six months to complete, depending on whether the program is part-time or full-time.

Each type of school can have advantages and disadvantages; for example, community college programs are often less expensive than private schools, but the private schools may offer faster completion with more flexibility in enrollment schedules. Community colleges may also offer more advanced facilities since campuses are developed and supported by the state in most cases.

Private truck driving schools are in business to provide training, so they are often "results-oriented." Most private truck driving schools offer financial aid and job placement assistance. Some private schools work only with certain employers and provide training on behalf of those employers. This is known as "sponsored" or "contract" training. In this situation, some or all of the up-front costs of training are paid to the school by the employer, and the student reimburses the employer during a period of employment as a driver. This may be an option for students who wish to avoid up-front payment, but students should understand the legal and financial implications of this type of training. As with all financial commitments for CDL training schools, potential students should inquire about tuition and fees, loans, credit checks, and other terms and conditions that apply to attending any truck driving school.

Schools operated by trucking companies can allow students to learn to drive with lower up-front costs, but there are conditions and obligations that go along with this arrangement. These programs are usually quicker than both private schools and community colleges (2–4 weeks). Drivers usually agree to drive for the carrier for at least a year in exchange for the training, and there can be tuition reimbursement costs and penalties for drivers who fail to complete this legal obligation. One advantage is that usually employment with the carrier that operates the school is guaranteed (as long as the student obtains a CDL and meets all hiring requirements upon completion of the training).

Vermont Department of Motor Vehicles

The Vermont Department of Motor Vehicles (DMV) is the governmental agency responsible for registering and inspecting automobiles and other motor vehicles as well as licensing drivers in the U.S. state of Vermont.


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