League Park

League Park was a baseball park located in Cleveland, Ohio, United States. It is situated at the northeast corner of E. 66th Street and Lexington Avenue in the Hough neighborhood. It was built in 1891 as a wood structure and rebuilt using concrete and steel in 1910. The park was home to a number of professional sports teams, most notably the Cleveland Indians of Major League Baseball. League Park was first home to the Cleveland Spiders of the National League from 1891 to 1899 and of the Cleveland Lake Shores of the Western League, the minor league predecessor to the Indians, in 1900. During 1914-1915, League Park also hosted the Toledo Mud Hens of the minor league American Association, under the name Cleveland Bearcats and then Spiders. In the late 1940s, the park was also the home field of the Cleveland Buckeyes of the Negro American League.

In addition to baseball, League Park was also used for American football, serving as the home field for several successive teams in the Ohio League and early National Football League (NFL) during the 1920s and 1930s, as well as for college football. Most notably, the Cleveland Rams of the NFL played at League Park in 1937 and for much of the early 1940s. Later in the 1940s, the Cleveland Browns used League Park as a practice field.

The Western Reserve Red Cats college football team from Western Reserve University played a majority of homes games at League Park from 1929 to 1941, and all home games after joining the Mid-American Conference from 1947 to 1949.[2] Western Reserve played many of its big-time college football games at League Park, including against the Ohio State Buckeyes,[3] Pittsburgh Panthers,[4] West Virginia Mountaineers,[5] and Cincinnati Bearcats.[2] Western Reserve and Case Tech often showcased their annual Thanksgiving Day rivalry game against one another,[6] as well as playing other Big Four Conference games against John Carroll and Baldwin-Wallace.

Although Cleveland Stadium opened in 1932 and had a much larger seating capacity and better access by car, League Park continued to be used by the Indians through the 1946 season, mainly for weekday games. Weekend games, games expecting a larger crowd, and night games were held at Cleveland Stadium. Most of the League Park structure was demolished in 1951, although some remnants still remain, including the original ticket office built in 1909.

After extensive renovation, the site was rededicated on August 23, 2014, as the Baseball Heritage Museum and Fannie Lewis Community Park at League Park.[7]

League Park
Leagueaerial
League Park from the air
Former namesDunn Field (1921–1927)
LocationE 66th St. & Lexington Ave.
Cleveland Ohio, United States
Coordinates41°30′41″N 81°38′39″W / 41.51139°N 81.64417°WCoordinates: 41°30′41″N 81°38′39″W / 41.51139°N 81.64417°W
Capacity9,000 (1891)
21,414 (1910)
22,500 (final)
Field sizeLeft Field – 375 ft (114 m)
Left-Center – 415 ft (127 m)
Deep Center Field – 460 ft (140 m)
Center Field – 420 ft (128 m)
Right-Center – 340 ft (104 m)
Right Field – 290 ft (88 m)
SurfaceGrass
Construction
Broke ground1891
OpenedMay 1, 1891
RenovatedApril 21, 1910
ClosedSeptember 21, 1946
Demolished1951
ArchitectOsborn Engineering Company (1910)
Tenants
Cleveland Spiders (NL) (1891–1899)
Cleveland Lake Shores (WL) (1900)
Cleveland Indians (MLB) (1901–1932; 1934–1946)*

Cleveland Bearcats / Spiders (AA) 1914-1915
Cleveland Buckeyes (NAL) (1943–1948, 1950)
Cleveland Tigers (OL/NFL) (1916–1922)
Cleveland Indians/Bulldogs (NFL) (1924–1927)
Cleveland Rams (NFL) (1937, 1942, 1944–1945)
Western Reserve Red Cats (NCAA) (1929–1932, 1934–1941, 1947–1949)
*Split games between League Park and Cleveland Stadium from 1937–1946.

League Park
League Park is located in Cleveland
League Park
League Park is located in Ohio
League Park
League Park is located in the United States
League Park
LocationLexington Ave. and E. 66th St., Cleveland, Ohio
Coordinates41°30′42″N 81°38′39″W / 41.51167°N 81.64417°W
Area1 acre
Built1908
NRHP reference #79001808[1]
Added to NRHPAugust 8, 1979

History

League Park was built for the Cleveland Spiders, who were founded in 1887 and played first in the American Association before joining the National League in 1889. Team owner Frank Robison chose the site for the new park, at the corner of Lexington Avenue and Dunham Street, later renamed East 66th Street, in Cleveland's Hough neighborhood, because it was along the streetcar line he owned. The park opened May 1, 1891, with 9,000 wooden seats, in a game against the Cincinnati Reds. The first pitch was made by Cy Young, and the Spiders won 12–3.[8] During their tenure, the Spiders finished as high as 2nd-place in the NL in 1892, 1895, and 1896, and won the Temple Cup, an early version of the modern National League Championship Series, in 1895. During the 1899 season, however, the Spiders had most of their best players stripped from the roster and sent to St. Louis by their owners, who had purchased the St. Louis Browns that year. Cleveland finished 20–134, drawing only 6,088 fans for the entire season, and were contracted by the National League. They were replaced the very next year by the Cleveland Lake Shores, then a minor league team in the American League. The American League declared itself a major league after the 1900 season and the Cleveland franchise, initially called the Blues, was a charter member for the 1901 season. The park was rebuilt for the 1910 season as a concrete-and-steel stadium, one of two to open that year in the American League, the other being Comiskey Park. The new park seated over 18,000 people, more than double the seating capacity of its predecessor. It opened April 21, 1910, with a 5–0 loss to the Detroit Tigers in front of 18,832 fans in a game also started by pitcher Cy Young.[9]

During 1914-1915, the Toledo Mud Hens of the minor league American Association were temporarily moved to League Park, to discourage the Federal League from trying to place a franchise in Cleveland. During their two-year stay, they were initially known as the Bearcats, then the Spiders, reviving the old National League club's name.

Wamby19201010UATP
Game 5 of the 1920 World Series at League Park, with Bill Wambsganss tagging out Otto Miller for the final out of Wambsganss' historic unassisted triple play

The Indians hosted games four through seven of the 1920 World Series at League Park. The series, won by the Indians five games to two, was notable as the first championship in franchise history, as well as for Game 5, which featured the first grand slam in World Series history and the first, and so far only, unassisted triple play in postseason history.[10]

In 1921, team owner "Sunny Jim" Dunn, who had purchased the team in 1916, renamed the park Dunn Field.[11][12] When Dunn died in 1922, his wife inherited the ballpark and the team. When Dunn's widow, by then known as Mrs. George Pross, sold the franchise in 1927 for $1 million to a group headed by Alva Bradley the name reverted to the more prosaic "League Park" (there were a number of professional teams' parks generically called "League Park" at the time).

From July 1932 through the 1933 season, the Indians played at the new and far larger Cleveland Stadium. However, the players and fans complained about the huge outfield, which reduced the number of home runs. Moreover, as the Great Depression worsened, attendance at the stadium plummeted.[11] After the 1933 season, the Indians exercised their escape clause in the lease at the stadium and returned to League Park for the 1934 season.[13]

The Indians played all home games at League Park for the 1934 and 1935 seasons, and played one home game at Cleveland Stadium in 1936 as part of the Great Lakes Exposition. In 1937, the Indians began splitting their schedule between the two parks, playing Sunday and holiday games at the stadium during the summer and the remainder at League Park, adding selected important games to the stadium schedule in 1938. Lights were never installed at League Park, and thus no major league night games were played there. However, at least one professional night game was played on July 27, 1931, between the Homestead Grays and the House of David, who borrowed the portable lighting system used by the Kansas City Monarchs.[13]

By 1940, the Indians played most of their home schedule at Cleveland Stadium, abandoning League Park entirely after the 1946 season. The final Indians game at League Park was played on Saturday, September 21, a 5–3 loss in 11 innings to the Detroit Tigers in front of 2,772 fans. League Park became the last stadium used in Major League Baseball never to install permanent lights.[14]

The Indians continued to own League Park until March 1950 when they sold it to the city of Cleveland for $150,000. After the demise of the Cleveland Buckeyes of the Negro American League during the 1950 season, League Park was no longer used as a regular sports venue. Most of the structure was demolished in 1951 by the city to convert the facility for use by local amateur teams and recreation and to prevent any competition with Cleveland Stadium. The lower deck seating between first base and third base remained, as did the Indians clubhouse under the third base stands. The Cleveland Browns began using League Park as a practice field in 1952, including the former clubhouse, until 1965. All of the remaining seating areas were removed in 1961 except for the area above the former clubhouse, which was finally torn down in 2002.[15]

Structure

The New Base Ball Park
Postcard of League Park

When it originally opened in 1891, it had 9,000 wooden seats.[8] A single deck grandstand was behind homeplate, a covered pavilion was along the first base line, and bleachers were located at various other places in the park. The ballpark was shoehorned to fit into the Cleveland street grid, which contorted the dimensions into a rather odd rectangular shape by modern standards. The fence in left field was 385 feet (117 m), a tremendous 460 feet (140 m) away in center, and a short 290 feet (88 m) down the right field foul line.[16] However, batters had to hit the ball over a 40-foot (12 m) fence to get a home run (by comparison, the Green Monster at Fenway Park is 37 feet (11 m) high).[17]

It was essentially rebuilt prior to the 1910 season, with concrete and steel double-decker grandstands, expanding the seating capacity to 21,414. The design work was completed by Osborn Architects & Engineers, a local architecture firm that would go on to design several iconic ballparks over the next three years, including Comiskey Park, the Polo Grounds, Tiger Stadium, and Fenway Park. The front edge of the upper and lower decks were vertically aligned, bringing the up-front rows in the upper deck closer to the action, but those in back could not see much of foul territory.

The fence was rejiggered, bringing the left field fence in 10 feet closer (375 feet (114 m)) and center field fence in 40 feet (420 feet (130 m)); the right field fence remained at 290 feet (88 m).[16]

Batters still had to surmount a 40-foot (12 m) fence to hit a home run (by comparison, the Green Monster at Fenway Park is three feet shorter at 37 feet (11 m) high).[17] The fence in left field was only five feet tall, but batters had to hit the ball 375 feet (114 m) down the line to hit a home run, and it was fully 460 feet (140 m) to the scoreboard in the deepest part of center field. The diamond, situated in the northwest corner of the block, was slightly tilted counterclockwise, making right field not quite as easy a target as Baker Bowl's right field (which had a 60-foot (18 m) wall), for example.

Modern League Park

League Park Cleveland circa 1905 CROPPED
League Park Cleveland Ohio
League Park circa 1905 (top), and in 2009 (bottom). The bottom ticket house building has been renovated to house the Baseball Heritage Museum.

Today the site is a public park. A small section of the exterior brick facade (along the first-base side) still stands, as well as the old ticket office behind what was the right field corner. The last remnant of the grandstand, crumbling and presumably unsafe, was taken down in 2002 as part of a renovation process to the decaying playground.

On February 7, 2011, the Cleveland City Council approved a plan to restore the ticket house and remaining bleacher wall, as well as build a new diamond on the site of the old one (and with the same slightly counterclockwise tilt from the compass points).[18][19] On October 27, 2012, city leaders including Mayor Frank G. Jackson and Councilman TJ Dow took part in the groundbreaking of the League Park restoration. The project included a museum, a restoration of the ball field, and a community park featuring pavilions and walking trails.[20] The community park was dedicated in September 2013 as the Fannie M. Lewis Community Park at League Park.[21] Lewis was a city councilwoman who encouraged League Park's restoration.[21]

Restoration was completed in 2014, and League Park reopened August 23 of that year.[7] As part of the renovation, the Baseball Heritage Museum, housing artifacts from baseball history as well as many specifically from the history of League Park, was relocated from downtown Cleveland to the restored ticket house.[7][22]

Notable events

Some historic events that took place at League Park include the following:

  • May 1, 1891: The ballpark opened. Cy Young delivered the first pitch and the Spiders defeated the Cincinnati Reds 12–3.[23]
  • October 17,18,19, 1892: The ballpark hosted the first three games of the first "split season" in the history of the National League. The opposing Boston Beaneaters eventually won the series over the Spiders.
  • October 2,3,5, 1895: The ballpark hosted the first three games of that year's Temple Cup Series, a World Series precursor, the Spiders facing the Baltimore Orioles. Cleveland eventually clinched the series in Baltimore.
  • October 8, 1896: The ballpark hosted the final game of that year's Temple Cup, a sweep by Baltimore, as well as Cleveland's final post-season appearance for the National League.
  • November 26, 1896: The ballpark hosted its first college football game, seeing Case defeat Western Reserve 12-10.[24]
  • August 30, 1899: Cleveland plays its final National League home game at League Park[25] in a season in which the team would win only 20 games while losing a record 134.
  • 1900: The new American League, nominally a minor league, returns professional baseball to Cleveland after the National League contracted following the 1899 season.
League Park Cleveland ca. 1905
League Park, circa 1905

References

  1. ^ "National Register Information System". National Register of Historic Places. National Park Service. 2010-07-09.
  2. ^ a b http://www.case.edu/its/archives/Seasons/wfoot1947.htm
  3. ^ http://www.case.edu/its/archives/Seasons/wfoot1934.htm
  4. ^ http://www.case.edu/its/archives/Seasons/wfoot1948.htm
  5. ^ http://www.case.edu/its/archives/Seasons/wfoot1938.htm
  6. ^ http://blog.case.edu/archives/2010/11/15/case_vs_wru_thanksgiving_day_football_game
  7. ^ a b c Warsinskey, Tim (August 23, 2014). "League Park reopens to a historic appreciation, beautiful restoration and hopeful future". The Plain Dealer. Retrieved August 23, 2014.
  8. ^ a b Briggs, David (August 8, 2007). "League Park may glisten once again". MLB.com. Retrieved March 21, 2017.
  9. ^ Krsolovic, Ken; Fritz, Bryan (2013). League Park: historic home of Cleveland baseball, 1891–1946. McFarland & Company, Inc. pp. 8–12, 36–38. ISBN 978-0-7864-6826-3.
  10. ^ Lewis, Franklin (2006) [1949]. The Cleveland Indians. Kent, Ohio: Kent State University Press [G.P. Putnam & Sons]. pp. 153–156. ISBN 978-0-87338-885-6.
  11. ^ a b "Clem's Baseball ~ League Park (IV)". Andrewclem.com. 1909-11-21. Retrieved 2012-11-08.
  12. ^ Krsolovic & Fritz, p. 71
  13. ^ a b Krsolovic & Fritz, pp. 99–104
  14. ^ Krsolovic & Fritz, pp. 124–125
  15. ^ Krsolovic & Fritz, pp. 157–177
  16. ^ a b League Park ballparksofbaseball.com (accessed July 22, 2010)
  17. ^ a b Krsolovic & Fritz, pp. 33–34
  18. ^ Gillispie, Mark (2011-02-08). "Cleveland City Council approves spending to get historic League Park project started". Retrieved 2011-05-21.
  19. ^ Briggs, David (2007-08-08). "League Park may glisten once again". Retrieved 2008-10-02.
  20. ^ Scali, Maria. "Historic League Park to be Restored to Old Glory". WJW-TV. Retrieved 1 November 2012.
  21. ^ a b Scali, Maria (2013-09-07). "Park Created to Honor Baseball's History". WJW-TV. Retrieved 2013-09-08.
  22. ^ Martin, Angela. "Baseball Heritage Museum moves to fitting place — renovated League Park". MLB Pro Blog TribeVibe. Retrieved 13 May 2015.
  23. ^ "1891 Log For League Park III in Cleveland, OH". Retrosheet.org. Retrieved 2012-11-08.
  24. ^ http://www.case.edu/its/archives/Seasons/cfoot1896.htm
  25. ^ "Events of Wednesday, August 30, 1899". Retrosheet.org. Retrieved 2012-11-08.
  26. ^ "Events of Monday, April 29, 1901". Retrosheet.org. 1902-04-29. Retrieved 2012-11-08.
  27. ^ "Miss Alta Weiss of the Weiss All-Stars of Cleveland, Ohio". Retrieved 2009-09-26.
  28. ^ "Addie Joss Perfect Game Box Score by Baseball Almanac". Baseball-almanac.com. 1908-10-02. Retrieved 2012-11-08.
  29. ^ "Retrosheet Boxscore: Cleveland Indians 8, Brooklyn Robins 1". Retrosheet.org. 1920-10-10. Retrieved 2012-11-08.
  30. ^ "Retrosheet Boxscore: Cleveland Indians 3, Brooklyn Robins 0". Retrosheet.org. 1920-10-12. Retrieved 2012-11-08.
  31. ^ "Retrosheet Boxscore: Cleveland Indians 6, New York Yankees 5". Retrosheet.org. 1929-08-11. Retrieved 2012-11-08.
  32. ^ "CNN/SI – The New York Yankees Greatest Hits". Sportsillustrated.cnn.com. Retrieved 2013-03-06.
  33. ^ "Retrosheet Boxscore: Boston Red Sox 1, Cleveland Indians 0". Retrosheet.org. 1946-09-13. Retrieved 2013-03-06.
  34. ^ "FDA approved US store. Cialis Sale – FDA APPROVED Drug Store". Baseballlibrary.com. Archived from the original on 2012-12-19. Retrieved 2013-03-06.
  35. ^ "Retrosheet Boxscore: Detroit Tigers 5, Cleveland Indians 3". Retrosheet.org. 1946-09-21. Retrieved 2012-11-08.
  36. ^ http://publish.netitor.com/photos/schools/mac/sports/m-footbl/auto_pdf/05_084-160_History.pdf

External links

1920 World Series

In the 1920 World Series, the Cleveland Indians beat the Brooklyn Dodgers, then known interchangeably as the Robins in reference to their manager Wilbert Robinson, in seven games, five games to two. This series was a best-of-nine series, like the first World Series in 1903 and the World Series of 1919 and 1921. The only World Series triple play, the first World Series grand slam and the first World Series home run by a pitcher all occurred in Game 5 of this Series. The Indians won the series in memory of their former shortstop Ray Chapman, who had been killed earlier in the season when struck in the head by a pitched ball.

The triple play was unassisted and turned by Cleveland's Bill Wambsganss in Game 5. Wambsganss, playing second base, caught a line drive off the bat of Clarence Mitchell, stepped on second base to put out Pete Kilduff, and tagged Otto Miller coming from first base. It was the second of fifteen (as of 2016) unassisted triple plays in major-league baseball history, and it remains the only one in postseason play. Mitchell made history again in the eighth inning by hitting into a double play, accounting for five outs in two straight at-bats.

The fifth game also saw the first grand slam in World Series history (hit by Cleveland's Elmer Smith) and the first Series home run by a pitcher (Cleveland's Jim Bagby, Sr.). And in that same game, Brooklyn outhit Cleveland but lost 8–1.

Cleveland had won the American League pennant in a close race with the Chicago White Sox and the New York Yankees. The Sox's participation in the Black Sox Scandal the previous year had caught up to them late in the season, and their star players were suspended with three games left in the season, when they were in a virtual tie with the Indians. The Yankees, with their recently acquired star Babe Ruth, were almost ready to start their eventual World Series dynasty. For Cleveland, it would prove to be one of their few successes in a long history of largely either poor or not-quite-good enough clubs.

It is notable that all seven games of the 1920 World Series were won by the team who scored first. In fact, Game 4 was the only game in which the losing team scored a run before the winning team had scored all of its runs. The lead never changed hands in any game.

This would be the last World Series until 1980 to feature two franchises that had not previously won a championship.

1933 Major League Baseball All-Star Game

The 1933 Major League Baseball All-Star Game was the first edition of the All-Star Game known as the "Midsummer Classic". This was the first official playing of the midseason exhibition baseball game between Major League Baseball's (MLB's) National League (NL) and American League (AL) All-Star teams. The game was held on July 6, 1933, at Comiskey Park in Chicago, Illinois, the home of the AL's Chicago White Sox. The game resulted in the AL defeating the NL 4–2, in two hours and five minutes.

The first MLB All-Star game (unofficial all-star game called the Addie Joss Benefit Game) was held on July 24, 1911, in Cleveland at Cleveland League Park (League Park, 1891–1946), the American League All-Stars versus the Cleveland Naps (1903–1915). The AL All-Stars won 5-3.

1936 Major League Baseball All-Star Game

The 1936 Major League Baseball All-Star Game was the fourth playing of the mid-summer classic between the all-stars of the American League (AL) and National League (NL), the two leagues comprising Major League Baseball. The game was held on July 7, 1936, at National League Park in Boston, Massachusetts, the home of the Boston Bees of the National League. The game resulted in the National League defeating the American League 4–3. It was the National League's first win in All-Star Game history.

Addie Joss' perfect game

On October 2, 1908, Addie Joss pitched a perfect game, the fourth in Major League Baseball history, and only the second in American League history. He threw it at League Park, in Cleveland, Ohio.

American League Park

American League Park, known by historians as American League Park I, was a baseball park that formerly stood in Washington, D.C., at the corner of Florida Avenue and Trinidad Avenue NE on land previously belonging to the Washington Brick Company. It hosted the Washington Senators from the 1901 season through the 1903 season.

On March 20, 1901, the District Commissioners granted permission to the American League to establish a baseball park at the location following an application including plans and specifications for the grand stand and the other supporting structures. Snowden Ashford was the Building Inspector who handled the case. The land had been previously occupied by the Washington Brick Company in an area sparsely built at the time; the closest buildings were located more than 50 feet from the outlines of the grounds. Therefore it was considered that it would not cause more menace to the area then if a lumber yard was established there. No specific regulations for the establishment of baseball grounds were in place in the District of Columbia at the time. No opposition from nearby landowners was received, therefore permission was granted.The grandstands were made out of wood as most ballparks of the time. The left-field line ran North-South with the left-field measuring 290 feet.Boundary Field, in Northwest DC, had been the preferred site for the American League Senators, but its usage had been blocked by the National League, which still had rights to the site despite no longer having a franchise in Washington. Once peace was reached between the leagues, the Senators moved to that site for the 1904 season, which became known as American League Park II or National Park. The stands from American League Park I were transported to the new location along with the team. By 1907, there was no longer a baseball field on the site.

Baker Bowl

Baker Bowl is the best-known popular name of a baseball park that formerly stood in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States. Its formal name, painted on its outer wall, was National League Park. It was also initially known as Philadelphia Park or Philadelphia Base Ball Grounds / Park.

Baker Bowl was located on a small city block bounded by N. Broad St., W. Huntingdon St., N. 15th St. and W. Lehigh Avenue.

The ballpark was initially built in 1887. It was constructed by Phillies owners AJ Reach and John Rogers. The ballpark cost $80,000 and had a capacity of 12,500. At that time the media praised it as state-of-the-art. In the dead-ball era, the outfield was enclosed by a relatively low wall all around. Center field was fairly close, with the railroad tracks running behind it. Later, the tracks were lowered and the field was extended over top of them. Bleachers were built in left field, and over time various extensions were added to the originally low right field wall, resulting in the famous 60-foot (18 m) fence.

The ballpark's second incarnation opened in 1895. It was notable for having the first cantilevered upper deck in a sports stadium, and was the first ballpark to use steel and brick for the majority of its construction. It also took the rule book literally, as the sweeping curve behind the plate was about 60 feet (18 m), and instead of angling back toward the foul lines, the 60-foot (18 m) wide foul ground extended all the way to the wall in right, and well down the left field line also. The spacious foul ground, while not fan-friendly, would have resulted in more foul-fly outs than in most parks, and thus was probably the park's one saving grace in the minds of otherwise-frustrated pitchers.

Black Saturday (1903)

Black Saturday was a 1903 disaster which left 12 spectators dead and injured 232 when a section of balcony collapsed during a baseball game between the Boston Braves and Philadelphia Phillies. It was the worst disaster in the history of American sports spectating.

Boundary Field

Boundary Field, also known as American League Park II and National Park, is a former baseball ground in Washington, D.C. located on the site currently occupied by Howard University Hospital; bounded approximately by Georgia Avenue, 5th Street, W Street and Florida Avenue, NW. It was just outside what was then the city limit of Washington, whose northern boundary was Boundary Street which was renamed Florida Avenue in 1890.

Cleveland Spiders

The Cleveland Spiders were a Major League Baseball team which played between 1887 and 1899 in Cleveland, Ohio. The team played at National League Park from 1889 to 1890 and at League Park from 1891 to 1899, being disbanded along with three other teams after a travesty of a season in which the team had a horrific 20-134 won-lost record most closely approached by the 1962 New York Mets.

Herald Park

Herald Park (also known as Houston Base Ball Park, Fair Ground Park, and League Park) was a baseball park located in Houston, Texas and was the home of the Houston Buffaloes from 1888 until 1904. It also served as the spring training facility for the Louisville Colonels and the St. Louis Cardinals in the National League of Major League Baseball in 1895 and 1904 respectively.

The ballpark existed near the Houston fairgrounds at the intersection of Travis Street and McGowen Street on the eastern edge of Fourth Ward. Today, Houston's Reef restaurant sits on the location of Herald Park. In 2016, the Texas Historical Commission commemorated the ballpark by placing a historical marker on the location.

League Park (Akron)

League Park refers to two former American football and baseball stadiums located in Akron, Ohio. The original League Park was located at the corner of Carroll St. and Beaver St.; the newer stadium was on Lakeshore Blvd. between W. Long St. and W. Crosier St.

League Park (Cincinnati)

League Park was a Major League baseball park located in Cincinnati, Ohio, United States. It was the home of the Cincinnati Reds from 1884 through 1901. The ballpark was on an asymmetrical block bounded by Findlay Street (south), Western Avenue (northeast, angling), York Street (north) and McLean Avenue (west).

The "Findlay and Western" intersection was the home field of the Reds from 1884 through June 24, 1970, when the team moved to Riverfront Stadium. The location of the diamond and consequently the main grandstand seating area was shifted several times during the 86½ seasons the Reds played on the site. League Park was actually the first of three parks to stand on the site:

1884–1901: League Park

1902–1911: Palace of the Fans

1912–1970: Redland Field, renamed Crosley Field in 1934

League Park (San Antonio)

League Park was a stadium in San Antonio, Texas. It was primarily used for baseball and was the home of minor league San Antonio Bears.

List of Cincinnati Reds Opening Day starting pitchers

The Cincinnati Reds are a Major League Baseball franchise based in Cincinnati who play in the National League's Central Division. In their history, the franchise also played under the names Cincinnati Red Stockings and Cincinnati Redlegs. They played in the American Association from 1882 through 1889, and have played in the National League since 1890. The first game of the new baseball season for a team is played on Opening Day, and being named the Opening Day starter is an honor that is often given to the player who is expected to lead the pitching staff that season, though there are various strategic reasons why a team's best pitcher might not start on Opening Day. The Reds have used 76 Opening Day starting pitchers since they began play as a Major League team in 1882.

The Reds have played in several different home ball parks. They played two seasons in their first home ball park, Bank Street Grounds, and had one win and one loss in Opening Day games there. The team had a record of six wins and ten losses in Opening Day games at League Park, and a record of three wins and seven losses in Opening Day games at the Palace of the Fans. The Reds played in Crosley Field from 1912 through the middle of the 1970 season, and had a record of 27 wins and 31 losses in Opening Day games there. They had an Opening Day record of 19 wins, 11 losses and 1 tie from 1971 through 2002 at Riverfront Stadium, and they have a record of three wins and six losses in Opening Day games at their current home ball park, the Great American Ball Park. That gives the Reds an overall Opening Day record of 59 wins, 66 losses and one tie at home. They have a record of three wins and one loss in Opening Day games on the road.Mario Soto holds the Reds' record for most Opening Day starts, with six. Tony Mullane, Pete Donohue and Aaron Harang have each made five Opening Day starts for the Reds. José Rijo and Johnny Cueto have each made four Opening Day starts for Cincinnati, while Ewell Blackwell, Tom Browning, Paul Derringer, Art Fromme, Si Johnson, Gary Nolan, Jim O'Toole, Tom Seaver, Bucky Walters and Will White each made three such starts for the Reds. Harang was the Reds' Opening Day starting pitcher every season from 2006–2010. Among the Reds' Opening Day starting pitchers, Seaver and Eppa Rixey have been elected to the Baseball Hall of Fame.The Reds have won the World Series championship five times, in 1919, 1940, 1975, 1976 and 1990. Dutch Ruether was the Reds' Opening Day starting pitcher in 1919, Derringer in 1940, Don Gullett in 1975, Nolan in 1976 and Browning in 1990. The Reds won all five Opening Day games in seasons in which they won the World Series. In addition, prior to the existence of the modern World Series, the Reds won the American Association championship in 1882. White was their Opening Day starting pitcher that season, the franchise's first. Jack Billingham started one of the most famous Opening Day games in Reds history on April 4, 1974 against the Atlanta Braves. In that game, Billingham surrendered Hank Aaron's 714th career home run, which tied Babe Ruth's all time home run record.

List of Cleveland Indians Opening Day starting pitchers

The Cleveland Indians are a Major League Baseball (MLB) franchise based in Cleveland, Ohio. They play in the American League Central division. The first game of the new baseball season is played on Opening Day, and being named the starter that day is an honor, which is often given to the player who is expected to lead the pitching staff that season, though there are various strategic reasons why a team's best pitcher might not start on Opening Day. Since joining the league in 1901, the Indians have used 58 different Opening Day starting pitchers which includes the Opening Day starting pitchers from the Bluebirds and the Naps. They have a record of 58 wins and 54 losses in their Opening Day games.The Indians have played in three different home ball parks, League Park from 1901 through 1946, Cleveland Stadium from 1932 to 1993, and Progressive Field since 1994. From 1934 through 1946 some games were played at League Park and some at Cleveland Stadium. They had a record of 11 wins and 4 losses in Opening Day games at League Park, 9 wins and 13 losses at Cleveland Stadium and 2 wins and 4 losses at Progressive Field, for a total home record in Opening Day games of 22 wins and 21 losses. Their record in Opening Day away games is 35 wins and 35 losses.Bob Feller has the most Opening Day starts for the Indians, with seven. Stan Coveleski had six Opening Day starts for the Indians, Bob Lemon and CC Sabathia each had five Opening Day starts, and Addie Joss, Willie Mitchell, Gaylord Perry and Charles Nagy each had four. Several Baseball Hall of Famers have made Opening Day starts for the Indians, including Feller, Coveleski, Lemon, Joss, Gaylord Perry, Dennis Eckersley and Early Wynn. Brothers Jim Perry and Gaylord Perry each made Opening Day starts for the Indians. Jim Perry started on Opening Day in 1961 and Gaylord Perry made Opening Day starts in 1972, 1973, 1974 and 1975.The Indians have played in the World Series six times. They won in 1920 and 1948, and lost in 1954, 1995, 1997, and 2016. Coveleski was the Opening Day starting pitcher in 1920, Feller in 1948, Wynn in 1954, Dennis Martínez in 1995, Nagy in 1997, and Corey Kluber. The Indians are five and one in Opening Day games in those seasons, with the only loss coming in 2016. The Indians and the Toronto Blue Jays currently hold the record for the longest Opening Day game in Major League history. They set that record on Opening Day 2012, when the game lasted 16 innings. This broke the previous record of 15 innings between the Indians and the Detroit Tigers in 1960.

National League Park

National League Park is the name of two former baseball grounds located in Cleveland, Ohio, USA. The first ground was home to the Cleveland Blues of the National League from 1879 to 1884.

The Kennard Street Baseball Grounds (Kennard Street Park) was bounded by Sibley Street (present Carnegie Avenue) on the north, Cedar Avenue on the south, Kennard Street (present East 46th Street) on the west, and the eastern edge ended at the boundary of the back yards of the houses facing Willson Avenue (present East 55th Street). A contemporary plat map indicates the diamond was closest to the Kennard-Cedar intersection.

The second National League Park was the home of the Cleveland Spiders of the American Association from 1887 to 1888 and of the National League from 1889 to 1890. This ground was located a few blocks northwest of the Kennard site. After the 1890 season the Spiders moved to League Park.

Palace of the Fans

Palace of the Fans was a Major League baseball park located in Cincinnati, Ohio. It was the home of the Cincinnati Reds from 1902 through 1911. The ballpark was on an asymmetrical block bounded by Findlay Street (south), Western Avenue (northeast, angling), York Street (north) and McLean Avenue (west).

The "Findlay and Western" intersection was the home field of the Reds from 1884 through June 24, 1970, when the team moved to Riverfront Stadium. The location of the diamond and consequently the main grandstand seating area was shifted several times during the 86½ seasons that the Reds played there. The Palace of the Fans was actually the second of three parks that stood on the site:

1884–1901: League Park

1902–1911: Palace of the Fans

1912–1970: Redland Field, renamed Crosley Field in 1934

Rugby League Park

Orangetheory Stadium is a football stadium in Christchurch, New Zealand. Formerly called AMI Stadium, and before that, the Addington Showgrounds.

Tech Field (San Antonio)

Tech Field was a baseball stadium, located in San Antonio, Texas, from 1921 until 1946. It served as the home of the San Antonio Missions of the Texas League. It also served as the spring training site of the Pittsburgh Pirates in 1936 and the St. Louis Browns from 1937–1941. The field belonged to the city high school today known as Fox Tech.

The Missions team moved to Tech Field after a June 18, 1932, fire destroyed the club's former home at League Park. The Missions then were affiliated with the St. Louis Browns, which had made some moves in the late 1930s toward buying the property. The Browns front office passed when offered the opportunity again, months before the city school district decided to sell it to the San Antonio Transit Company, forerunner of VIA Metropolitan Transit, for $160,000. Alamo Stadium, then opened in 1940 and become the chief venue for high school football. Tech Field was deem non-essential to the school district. The Missions were allowed to play there for a final season in 1946, before the field was demolished.

Events and tenants
Preceded by
National League Park
Home of the Cleveland Spiders
1891–1899
Succeeded by
last ballpark
Preceded by
first ballpark
Home of the Cleveland Indians
1901–1946
Succeeded by
Cleveland Municipal Stadium
Preceded by
first stadium
Cleveland Municipal Stadium
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1937
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