Leaf warbler

Leaf warblers are small insectivorous passerine birds belonging to the genus Phylloscopus. The genus was introduced by the German zoologist Friedrich Boie in 1826.[1][2] The name Phylloscopus is from Ancient Greek phullon, "leaf", and skopos, "seeker" (from skopeo, "to watch").[3]

Leaf warblers were formerly included in the Old World warbler family but are now considered to belong to the family Phylloscopidae, introduced in 2006.[4] The family originally included the genus Seicercus, but all species have been moved to Phylloscopus in the most recent classification. Leaf warblers are active, constantly moving, often flicking their wings as they glean the foliage for insects along the branches of trees and bushes. They forage at various levels within forests, from the top canopy to the understorey. Most of the species are markedly territorial both in their summer and winter quarters. Most are greenish or brownish above and off-white or yellowish below. Compared to some other "warblers", their songs are very simple. Species breeding in temperate regions are usually strongly migratory.

Leaf warbler
Phylloscopus, Tarn, Midi-Pyrénées, France
Western Bonelli's warbler
(Phylloscopus bonelli)
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Aves
Order: Passeriformes
Family: Phylloscopidae
Alström, Ericson, Olsson, & Sundberg, 2006
Genus: Phylloscopus
F. Boie, 1826
Species

More than 50

Description

The species are of various sizes, often green-plumaged above and yellow below, or more subdued with greyish-green to greyish-brown colours, varying little or not at all with the seasons. The tails are not very long and contain 12 feathers (unlike the similar Abroscopus species, which have 10 tail feathers). Many species are more easily identified by their distinctive songs than their dull plumage.[5]

Distribution and habitat

Its members occur in Eurasia, ranging into Wallacea and Africa with one species, the Arctic warbler, breeding as far east as Alaska). Many of the species breed at temperate and high latitudes in Eurasia and migrate substantial distances to winter in southeastern Asia, India, or Africa. One example is Tickell's leaf warbler, which breeds in scrub at high elevation in the Himalayas and on the Tibetan Plateau and then moves down-slope and south to winter in the Himalayan foothills of India and Burma.[6] Most live in forest and scrub and many are canopy or sub-canopy dwellers.

Behavior and ecology

The family Phylloscopidae comprises many small tree-loving warbler species and feed by gleaning insects from leaves or catching food on the wing.[6]

Taxonomy

The genus includes eleven species that were formerly placed in the genus Seicercus, but a 2018 molecular phylogeny study indicated that the genus Seicercus is a synonym of Phylloscopus, leaving the family Phylloscopidae with a single genus, Phylloscopus.[7]

The genus contains 77 species:[8]

References

  1. ^ Mayr, Ernst; Cottrell, G. William, eds. (1986). Check-list of Birds of the World. Volume 11. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Museum of Comparative Zoology. p. 221.
  2. ^ Boie, Friedrich (1826). "Generalübersicht der ornithologischen Ordnungen Familien und Gattugen". Isis von Oken (in German). 19. col. 972.
  3. ^ Jobling, James A. (2010). The Helm Dictionary of Scientific Bird Names. London: Christopher Helm. p. 305. ISBN 978-1-4081-2501-4.
  4. ^ Alström, P.; Ericson, P.G.P.; Olsson, U.; Sundberg, P. (2006). "Phylogeny and classification of the avian superfamily Sylvioidea". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 38 (2): 381–397. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2005.05.015.
  5. ^ Baker, Kevin (2010-06-30). Warblers of Europe, Asia and North Africa. A&C Black. p. 17. ISBN 9781408131701.
  6. ^ a b "Lead-Warblers Phylloscopidae". creagrus.home.montereybay.com. 25 May 2006. Retrieved 2017-09-29.
  7. ^ Alström, P.; et al. (2018). "Complete species-level phylogeny of the leaf warbler (Aves: Phylloscopidae) radiation". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 126: 141–152. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2018.03.031.
  8. ^ Gill, Frank; Donsker, David, eds. (2018). "Bushtits, leaf warblers, reed warblers". World Bird List Version 8.2. International Ornithologists' Union. Retrieved 8 August 2018.
  9. ^ Ng, Nathaniel. S. R.; Prawiradilaga, Dewi. M.; Ng, Elize. Y. X.; Suparno; Ashari, Hidayat; Trainor, Colin; Verbelen, Philippe; Rheindt, Frank. E. (2018-10-23). "A striking new species of leaf warbler from the Lesser Sundas as uncovered through morphology and genomics". Scientific Reports. 8 (1). doi:10.1038/s41598-018-34101-7. ISSN 2045-2322.

Further reading

External links

Arctic warbler

The Arctic warbler (Phylloscopus borealis) is a widespread leaf warbler in birch or mixed birch forest near water throughout its breeding range in Fennoscandia and northern Asia. It has established a foothold in North America, breeding in Alaska. This warbler is strongly migratory; the entire population winters in southeast Asia. It therefore has one of the longest migrations of any Old World insectivorous bird.

It traditionally included populations that breed in Kamchatka, the Kuril Islands and Japan, but genetic and vocal evidence strongly suggested these should be treated as separate species, and are all now considered distinct with the Kamchatka leaf warbler in Kamchatka, Hokkaido and the Kuril Islands, and the Japanese leaf warbler in Japan (except Hokkaido).The nest is on the ground in a low shrub. Like most Old World warblers, this small passerine is insectivorous.

This is a typical leaf warbler in appearance, greyish-green above and off-white below. Its single wing bar distinguishes it from most similar species except the greenish warbler, Phylloscopus trochiloides. It is larger than that species and has a heavier, dagger-like bill, with a dark tip to the lower mandible. Its song is a fast trill.

This species occurs as an autumn vagrant in western Europe and is annual on Great Britain. There were 225 confirmed arctic warbler sightings in Britain between 1958 and 2001.The genus name Phylloscopus is from Ancient Greek phullon, "leaf", and skopos, "seeker" (from skopeo, "to watch"). The specific borealis is from Latin and means "northern".

Blyth's leaf warbler

The Blyth's leaf warbler (Phylloscopus reguloides) is a species of leaf warbler (family Phylloscopidae). It was formerly included in the "Old World warbler" assemblage.

It is found mainly in Southeast Asia, southern China and along the Himalayas till northern Pakistan. Its natural habitat is subtropical or tropical moist montane forests.

This bird was named after the English zoologist Edward Blyth.

Brooks's leaf warbler

Brooks's leaf warbler (Phylloscopus subviridis) is a species of Old World warbler in the family Phylloscopidae.

Buff-barred warbler

The buff-barred warbler (Phylloscopus pulcher) is a species of leaf warbler (family Phylloscopidae). It was formerly included in the "Old World warbler" assemblage.

It is found in Bhutan, China, India, Laos, Myanmar, Nepal, Thailand, and Vietnam. Its natural habitats are boreal forests and temperate forests.

Eastern crowned warbler

The eastern crowned warbler (Phylloscopus coronatus) is a species of Old World warbler in the family Phylloscopidae. It inhabits boreal and temperate forests and is widespread in Asia, from Russia to Vietnam.

The genus name Phylloscopus is from Ancient Greek phullon, "leaf", and skopos, "seeker" (from skopeo, "to watch"). The specific coronatus is from Latin and means "crowned".On rare occasions, vagrants have been reported from mainland Europe, the UK, and Scandinavia.

Green warbler

The green warbler (Phylloscopus nitidus), also known as green willow warbler or green leaf warbler, is a leaf warbler found in the Caucasus Mountains in southcentral Europe.

Like all leaf warblers, it was formerly placed in the "Old World warbler" assemblage, but now belongs to the new leaf-warbler family Phylloscopidae. The genus name Phylloscopus is from Ancient Greek phullon, "leaf", and skopos, "seeker" (from skopeo, "to watch"). The specific nitidus is from Latin and means "shining".It is most closely related to the greenish warbler but is brighter in colour, and the underside is much more yellow. It has one strong and one faint wing bar, especially in young birds.

Greenish warbler

The greenish warbler (Phylloscopus trochiloides) is a widespread leaf warbler with a breeding range in northeastern Europe and temperate to subtropical continental Asia. This warbler is strongly migratory and winters in India. It is not uncommon as a spring or early autumn vagrant in Western Europe and is annually seen in Great Britain. In Central Europe large numbers of vagrant birds are encountered in some years; some of these may stay to breed, as a handful of pairs does each year in Germany.Like all leaf warblers, it was formerly placed in the "Old World warbler" assemblage, but now belongs to the new leaf-warbler family Phylloscopidae. The genus name Phylloscopus is from Ancient Greek phullon, "leaf", and skopos, "seeker" (from skopeo, "to watch"). The specific trochiloides is from Ancient Greek trokhalos, "bowed", and -oides "resembling", from the similarity to the willow warbler, P. trochilus. The English name of this species provides a perfect argument in favour of the capitalisation of species names (i.e. treating them as proper nouns), a convention which is generally applied in scientific literature. The decapitalised "greenish warbler" is equally descriptive of many bird species across multiple families, whereas a capitalised "Greenish Warbler" shows unambiguously that Phylloscopus trochiloides is under discussion.

Hume's leaf warbler

Hume's leaf warbler or Hume's warbler (Phylloscopus humei) is a small leaf warbler which breeds in the mountains of inner Asia. This warbler is migratory and winters mainly in India.

The English name and the specific humei bird commemorate Allan Octavian Hume, a British civil

servant and ornithologist based in India.The genus name Phylloscopus is from Ancient Greek phullon, "leaf", and skopos, "seeker" (from skopeo, "to watch"). Like most similar songbirds, it was formerly included in the "Old World warbler" assemblage.

Ijima's leaf warbler

Ijima's leaf warbler (Phylloscopus ijimae) (also known as Izu leaf warbler, Ijima's willow warbler or Ijima's warbler) is a species of Old World warbler in the family Phylloscopidae.

It is found in Japan, the Philippines, and Taiwan.

Its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical dry forests, subtropical or tropical moist lowland forests, and subtropical or tropical moist shrubland.

It is threatened by habitat loss, but is locally abundant in steep and densely wooded areas whose topography makes habitat destruction for development difficult.

Ijima's leaf warbler is in practice hard to tell apart from the eastern crowned warbler, by physical appearance alone. It has the same dainty and perfectly proportioned features of the typical Phylloscopus warbler. However, the song - a series of quiet but fairly far-carrying squeaking sounds - is very different from the plaintive, Old World bunting like song of the eastern crowned.

Large-billed leaf warbler

The large-billed leaf warbler (Phylloscopus magnirostris) is a species of leaf warbler (family Phylloscopidae). It was formerly included in the "Old World warbler" assemblage.

Breeding in central China and the Himalayas, it winters in the Western Ghats and associated hill ranges. It is found in dense vegetation and is more often heard than seen. The two note dir-tee call with the second note much higher is distinctive. They call often and at regular intervals.

Lemon-rumped warbler

The lemon-rumped warbler or pale-rumped warbler (Phylloscopus chloronotus) is a species of Old World warbler in the family Phylloscopidae. It is found from the western Himalayas to central China.

Mountain leaf warbler

The mountain leaf warbler (Phylloscopus trivirgatus) is a songbird species from the leaf warbler family (Phylloscopidae). It was formerly included in the "Old World warbler" assemblage.

It is found in Indonesia and Malaysia. Its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical moist lowland forest and subtropical or tropical moist montane forest.

Pale-legged leaf warbler

The pale-legged leaf warbler (Phylloscopus tenellipes) is a species of Old World warbler in the family Phylloscopidae.

It is found in Manchuria; it winters in Southeast Asia.

Its natural habitat is temperate forests.

Pallas's leaf warbler

The Pallas's leaf warbler or Pallas's warbler (Phylloscopus proregulus) is a bird that breeds in mountain forests from southern Siberia east to northern Mongolia and northeast China. It is named for German zoologist Peter Simon Pallas, who first formally described it. This leaf warbler is strongly migratory, wintering mainly in south China and adjacent areas of southeast Asia, although in recent decades increasing numbers have been found in Europe in autumn.

Pallas's leaf warbler is one of the smallest Eurasian warblers, with a relatively large head and short tail. It has greenish upperparts and white underparts, a lemon-yellow rump, and yellow double wingbars, supercilia and central crown stripe. It is similar in appearance to several other Asian warblers, including some that were formerly considered to be its subspecies, although its distinctive vocalisations aid identification.

The female builds a cup nest in a tree or bush, and incubates the four to six eggs, which hatch after 12–13 days. The chicks are fed mainly by the female and fledge when they are 12–14 days old; both parents then bring food for about a week. Pallas's leaf warbler is insectivorous, feeding on the adults, larvae and pupa of small insects and spiders. Birds forage in bushes and trees, picking items from leaves or catching prey in short flights or while hovering. The Pallas's leaf warbler has a large range, and its numbers are believed to be stable. It therefore is evaluated as of "least concern" by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN).

Plain leaf warbler

The plain leaf warbler (Phylloscopus neglectus) is a species of Old World warbler in the family Phylloscopidae.

It is found in Afghanistan, Bahrain, India, Iran, Oman, Pakistan, Russia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, United Arab Emirates, and Uzbekistan.

Its natural habitat is temperate forests.

Sulphur-bellied warbler

The sulphur-bellied warbler (Phylloscopus griseolus) is a species of leaf-warbler found in the Palearctic region. They were earlier also known by the name of olivaceous leaf-warbler.

Like other leaf-warblers it gleans insects from small branches and leaves. They are found on rocky hill and scrub forest habitats.

The species is found in small groups and has a tendency to forage low in the vegetation sometimes even hopping on the ground. They have a single note cheep call.

Tickell's leaf warbler

Tickell's leaf warbler (Phylloscopus affinis) is a leaf warbler found in Asia in the countries of Bangladesh, Bhutan, China, India, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan and Thailand. The species has a yellowish underside and super-cilium. Like other leaf warblers it feeds mostly on insects by gleaning and short sallies. An active bird, it prefers the canopy and low shrubbery and can be difficult to track as it moves actively from branch to branch, acrobatically exploring the underside of leaves and twigs. The clear yellowish undersides and lack of a wing bar can be used to tell it apart from similar species. It has slim dark legs with largely pale lower mandible and grayish wing panel.

The name commemorates the British ornithologist Samuel Tickell who collected in India and Myanmar.

Tytler's leaf warbler

The Tytler's leaf warbler (Phylloscopus tytleri) is a songbird species. Like all leaf warblers, it was formerly placed in the "Old World warbler" assemblage, but now belongs to the new leaf-warbler family Phylloscopidae.

It is found in Afghanistan, Pakistan, Nepal, and the India. It passes through the Western Himalayas to winter in southern India, particularly in the Western Ghats and the Nilgiris.Its natural habitat is subtropical or tropical moist montane forests. It is threatened by habitat loss. It breeds in the Northwestern Himalayan region and is suspected to breed in the Garhwal and Kumaon Himalayas.The name commemorates the British naturalist Robert Christopher Tytler.

Western crowned warbler

The western crowned warbler (Phylloscopus occipitalis) is a leaf warbler which breeds in Central Asia. It winters in the forests of the Western Ghats.

The nest is built in a hole, and the typical clutch is four eggs.

The species has a distinctive crown stripe and two wing-bars. It often moves in small flocks or in mixed hunting parties.

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.