Leader of the House of Commons

The Leader of the House of Commons is generally a member of the Cabinet of the United Kingdom who is responsible for arranging government business in the House of Commons. However, the current incumbent, Andrea Leadsom, is not a member of the cabinet but does attend cabinet meetings.[1] This office does not attract a ministerial salary,[2] and as such it is usually held jointly with another ministerial position (often a sinecure). Historically, the position was usually held by the Prime Minister if he or she sat in the House of Commons; in more recent years, the post has been held jointly with that of Lord President of the Council, Lord Privy Seal, or First Secretary of State.

The Leader is assisted in the Office of the Leader of the House of Commons by the Deputy Leader of the House of Commons. At times the nominal leadership was held by the Prime Minister but the day-to-day work was done by a Deputy. At other times a Deputy was appointed merely to enhance an individual politician's standing within the government. However, since 2010 the Deputy Leader of the House of Commons has been a ministerial role at the level of Parliamentary Under-Secretary of State.[3] Since 8 January 2018 the post of Deputy Leader of the House of Commons has been vacant following a ministerial reshuffle.[4]

The House of Commons devotes approximately three-quarters of its time to Government business, such as bills introduced by the government and ministerial statements. The Leader of the House, with the parties' chief whips ("the usual channels"), is responsible for organising Government business and providing time for non-government (backbench) business to be put before the House. The Leader of the House additionally announces the next week's debate schedule in the Business Statement every Thursday.

When there is either no Deputy Prime Minister or First Secretary of State, the Leader of the House may stand in for an absent Prime Minister at Prime Minister's Questions.

The Osmotherly Rules, which set out guidance on how civil servants should respond to parliamentary select committees, are jointly administered by the Office of the Leader of the House of Commons and the Cabinet Office.[5]

Leader of the House of Commons
House of Commons of the United Kingdom
Official portrait of Andrea Leadsom
Incumbent
Andrea Leadsom

since 11 June 2017
House of Commons of the United Kingdom
StyleThe Right Honourable
Formation4 April 1721
First holderRobert Walpole
Websitewww.gov.uk

List of Leaders of the House of Commons (1721–present)

Portrait Name
Constituency
Term of office Other ministerial offices held as leader Party Ministry Ref.
Robert Walpole, 1st Earl of Orford by Arthur Pond Robert Walpole
MP for King's Lynn
4 April
1721
6 February
1742
Whig Walpole–Townshend
Walpole
1stLordSandys Samuel Sandys
MP for Worcester
12 February
1742
27 August
1743
Whig Carteret
Henry Pelham, Parliamentary Art Collection crop Henry Pelham
MP for Sussex
27 August
1743
6 March
1754
Whig
Broad Bottom
(I & II)
Thomas Robinson, 1st Baron Grantham Thomas Robinson
MP for Christchurch
23 March
1754
October
1755
Whig Newcastle I
Henry Fox, 1st Baron Holland by John Giles Eccardt Henry Fox
MP for Windsor
14 November
1755
13 November
1756
Whig
William Pitt the Elder by William Hoare crop William Pitt 'the Elder'
MP for Okehampton
4 December
1756
6 April
1757
Whig Pitt–Devonshire
Vacant April
1757
June
1757
1757 Caretaker
William Pitt the Elder by William Hoare crop William Pitt 'the Elder'
MP for Bath
27 June
1757
6 October
1761
Whig Pitt–Newcastle
George Grenville (1712–1770) by William Hoare (1707-1792) Cropped George Grenville
MP for Buckingham
October
1761
May
1762
Whig
(Grenvillite)
Henry Fox, 1st Baron Holland by John Giles Eccardt Henry Fox
MP for Dunwich
May
1762
April
1763
Whig Bute
(ToryWhig)
George Grenville (1712–1770) by William Hoare (1707-1792) Cropped George Grenville
MP for Buckingham
16 April
1763
13 July
1765
Whig
(Grenvillite)
Grenville
Henryseymour Henry Seymour Conway
MP for Thetford
July
1765
20 October
1768
Whig
(Rockinghamite)
Rockingham I
Chatham
(WhigTory)
Nathaniel Dance Lord North Frederick North
Lord North

MP for Banbury
October
1768
22 March
1782
Tory Grafton
(WhigTory)
North
Charles James Fox00 Charles James Fox
MP for Westminster
27 March
1782
July
1782
Whig Rockingham II
Viscount Sydney by Gilbert Stuart Thomas Townshend
MP for Whitchurch
10 July
1782
6 March
1783
Whig Shelburne
(WhigTory)
Charles James Fox00 Charles James Fox
MP for Westminster
2 April
1783
19 December
1783
Whig Fox–North
Nathaniel Dance Lord North Frederick North
Lord North

MP for Banbury
Tory
William Pitt the Younger 2 cropped William Pitt 'the Younger'
MP for Appleby until 1784
MP for Cambridge University from 1784
19 December
1783
14 March
1801
Tory
(Pittite)
Pitt I
Henry Addington by Beechey Henry Addington
MP for Devizes
17 March
1801
10 May
1804
Tory
(Pittite)
Addington
William Pitt the Younger 2 cropped William Pitt 'the Younger'
MP for Cambridge University
10 May
1804
23 January
1806†
Tory
(Pittite)
Pitt II
Charles James Fox00 Charles James Fox
MP for Westminster
February
1806
13 September
1806†
Whig All the Talents
Charles Grey, 2nd Earl Grey by Sir Thomas Lawrence Charles Grey
Viscount Howick

MP for Northumberland
September
1806
31 March
1807
Whig
Spencerperceval Spencer Perceval
MP for Northampton
April
1807
11 May
1812
Tory Portland II
Perceval
Lord Castlereagh Marquess of Londonderry Robert Stewart
The Marquess of Londonderry

MP for Down until 1821
MP for Orford from 1821
Marquess of Londonderry from 1821
June
1812
12 August
1822†
Tory Liverpool
George Canning by Richard Evans - detail George Canning
MP for Liverpool until 1823
MP for Harwich 1823–1826
MP for Newport 1826–1827
MP for Seaford from 1827
16 September
1822
8 August
1827†
Tory
(Canningite)
Canning
(CanningiteWhig)
William Huskisson by Richard Rothwell William Huskisson
MP for Liverpool
3 September
1827
21 January
1828
Tory
(Canningite)
Goderich
(CanningiteWhig)
Robert Peel by RR Scanlan detail Sir Robert Peel
MP for Oxford University until 1829
MP for Westbury froml 1829
26 January
1828
16 November
1830
Tory Wellington–Peel
JC Spencer, Viscount Althorp by HP Bone cropped John Spencer
Viscount Althorp

MP for Northamptonshire until 1832
MP for South Northamptonshire froml 1832
22 November
1830
14 November
1834
Whig Grey
Melbourne I
Robert Peel by RR Scanlan detail Sir Robert Peel
MP for Tamworth
10 December
1834
8 April
1835
Conservative Peel I
Lord john russell Lord John Russell
MP for Stroud
18 April
1835
30 August
1841
Whig Melbourne II
Robert Peel by RR Scanlan detail Sir Robert Peel
MP for Tamworth
30 August
1841
29 June
1846
Conservative Peel II
Lord john russell Lord John Russell
MP for City of London
30 June
1846
21 February
1852
Whig Russell I
Disraeli Benjamin Disraeli
MP for Buckinghamshire
27 February
1852
17 December
1852
Conservative Who? Who?
Lord john russell Lord John Russell
MP for City of London
28 December
1852
30 January
1855
Whig Aberdeen
(PeeliteWhig)
Palmerston Henry John Temple
The Viscount Palmerston

MP for Tiverton
6 February
1855
19 February
1858
Whig Palmerston I
Disraeli Benjamin Disraeli
MP for Buckinghamshire
26 February
1858
11 June
1859
Conservative Derby–Disraeli II
Palmerston Henry John Temple
The Viscount Palmerston

MP for Tiverton
12 June
1859
18 October
1865†
Liberal Palmerston II
Gladstone William Ewart Gladstone
MP for South Lancashire
October
1865
26 June
1866
Liberal Russell II
Disraeli Benjamin Disraeli
MP for Buckinghamshire
6 July
1866
1 December
1868
Conservative Derby–Disraeli III
Gladstone William Ewart Gladstone
MP for Greenwich
3 December
1868
17 February
1874
Liberal Gladstone I
Disraeli Benjamin Disraeli
MP for Buckinghamshire
20 February
1874
21 August
1876
Conservative Disraeli II
Stafford Northcote, 1st Earl of Iddesleigh Stafford Northcote
MP for Devonshire North
21 August
1876
21 April
1880
Conservative
Gladstone William Ewart Gladstone
MP for Midlothian
23 April
1880
9 June
1885
Liberal Gladstone II
St Aldwyn Michael Edward Hicks-Beach (1st Earl) Michael Hicks-Beach
MP for Bristol West
24 June
1885
28 January
1886
Conservative Salisbury I
Gladstone William Ewart Gladstone
MP for Midlothian
1 February
1886
2 July
1886
Liberal Gladstone III
Randolph churchill Lord Randolph Churchill
MP for Paddington South
3 August
1886
14 January
1887
Conservative Salisbury II
William Henry Smith (1825–1891) W. H. Smith
MP for Strand
17 January
1887
October
1891
Conservative
Arthur-James-Balfour-1st-Earl-of-Balfour Arthur Balfour
MP for Manchester East
October
1891
11 August
1892
Conservative
Gladstone William Ewart Gladstone
MP for Midlothian
15 August
1892
2 March
1894
Liberal Gladstone IV
Sir William Harcourt Sir William Harcourt
MP for Derby
2 March
1894
21 June
1895
Liberal Rosebery
Arthur-James-Balfour-1st-Earl-of-Balfour Arthur Balfour
MP for Manchester East
29 June
1895
4 December
1905
Conservative Salisbury
(III & IV)

(Con.Lib.U.)
[6]
Balfour
(Con.Lib.U.)
Sir-Henry-Campbell-Bannerman Sir Henry Campbell-Bannerman
MP for Stirling Burghs
5 December
1905
5 April
1908
Liberal Campbell-Bannerman [6]
H H Asquith 1908 H. H. Asquith
MP for East Fife
5 April
1908
5 December
1916
Liberal Asquith
(I–III)
[6]
Asquith Coalition
(Lib.Con.Lab.)
Andrew Bonar Law 02 Bonar Law
MP for Bootle until 1918
MP for Glasgow Central from 1918
10 December
1916
23 March
1921
Conservative Lloyd George
(I & II)

(Lib.Con.Lab.)
[6]
Austen Chamberlain nobel Austen Chamberlain
MP for Birmingham West
23 March
1921
19 October
1922
Conservative [6]
Andrew Bonar Law 02 Bonar Law
MP for Glasgow Central
23 October
1922
20 May
1923
Conservative Law [6]
Stanley Baldwin ggbain.35233 Stanley Baldwin
MP for Bewdley
22 May
1923
22 January
1924
Conservative Baldwin I [6]
Ramsay MacDonald ggbain.29588 Ramsay MacDonald
MP for Aberavon
22 January
1924
3 November
1924
Labour MacDonald I [6]
Stanley Baldwin ggbain.35233 Stanley Baldwin
MP for Bewdley
4 November
1924
4 June
1929
Conservative Baldwin II [6]
Ramsay MacDonald ggbain.29588 Ramsay MacDonald
MP for Seaham
5 June
1929
7 June
1935
Labour MacDonald II [6]
National Labour National I
(N.Lab.Con.Lib.N.
Lib.
National II
(N.Lab.Con.Lib.N.
Lib. until 1932
)
Stanley Baldwin ggbain.35233 Stanley Baldwin
MP for Bewdley
7 June
1935
28 May
1937
Conservative National III
(Con.N.Lab.Lib.N.)
[6]
Neville-Chamberlain Neville Chamberlain
MP for Birmingham Edgbaston
28 May
1937
10 May
1940
Conservative National IV
(Con.N.Lab.Lib.N.)
[6]
Chamberlain War
(Con.N.Lab.Lib.N.)
Churchill portrait NYP 45063 Winston Churchill
MP for Epping
10 May
1940
19 February
1942
Conservative Churchill War
(All parties)
Stafford cripps Sir Stafford Cripps
MP for Bristol East
19 February
1942
22 November
1942
Independent [6]
Anthony Eden Anthony Eden
MP for Warwick and Leamington
22 November
1942
26 July
1945
Conservative [6]
Churchill Caretaker
(Con.N.Lib.)
Herbert Morrison 1947 Herbert Morrison
MP for Lewisham East until 1950
MP for Lewisham South from 1950
27 July
1945
9 March
1951
Labour Attlee
(I & II)
[6]
James Chuter Ede
MP for South Shields
9 March
1951
26 October
1951
Labour [6]
Crookshank1932 Harry Crookshank
MP for Gainsborough
28 October
1951
20 December
1955
Conservative Churchill III [6]
Eden
Rab Butler R. A. Butler
MP for Saffron Walden
20 December
1955
9 October
1961
Conservative [6]
Macmillan
(I & II)
Iain Macleod crop Iain Macleod
MP for Enfield West
9 October
1961
20 October
1963
Conservative [6]
Selwyn Lloyd cropped Selwyn Lloyd
MP for Wirral
20 October
1963
16 October
1964
Conservative Douglas-Home [6]
Herbert Bowden
MP for Leicester South West
16 October
1964
11 August
1966
Labour Wilson
(I & II)
[6]
Richard Crossman
MP for Coventry East
11 August
1966
18 October
1968
Labour [6]
Fred Peart
MP for Workington
18 October
1968
19 June
1970
Labour [6]
Willie Whitelaw
MP for Penrith and The Border
20 June
1970
7 April
1972
Conservative Heath [6]
Robert Carr2 Robert Carr
MP for Mitcham
7 April
1972
5 November
1972
Conservative [6]
Jim Prior
MP for Lowestoft
5 November
1972
4 March
1974
Conservative [6]
No image Edward Short
MP for Newcastle upon Tyne Central
5 March
1974
8 April
1976
Labour Wilson
(III & IV)
[6]
Michael Foot (1981) Michael Foot
MP for Ebbw Vale
8 April
1976
4 May
1979
Labour Callaghan [6]
Lord St John of Fawsley Norman St John-Stevas
MP for Chelmsford
5 May
1979
5 January
1981
Conservative Thatcher I [6]
Zconcam61 Francis Pym
MP for Cambridgeshire
5 January
1981
5 April
1982
Conservative [6]
John Biffen
MP for Oswestry until 1983
MP for Shropshire North from 1983
5 April
1982
13 June
1987
Conservative [6]
Thatcher II
No image John Wakeham
MP for South Colchester and Maldon
13 June
1987
24 July
1989
Conservative Thatcher III [6]
Geoffrey Howe Sir Geoffrey Howe
MP for East Surrey
24 July
1989
2 November
1990
Conservative [6]
Official portrait of Lord MacGregor of Pulham Market crop 2 John MacGregor
MP for South Norfolk
2 November
1990
10 April
1992
Conservative [6]
Major I
Tony Newton
MP for Braintree
10 April
1992
1 May
1997
Conservative Major II [7]
Official portrait of Baroness Taylor of Bolton crop 2 Ann Taylor
MP for Dewsbury
2 May
1997
27 July
1998
Labour Blair
(I–III)
[8]
Official portrait of Margaret Beckett crop 2 Margaret Beckett
MP for Derby South
27 July
1998
8 June
2001
Labour [9]
Robin Cook-close crop Robin Cook
MP for Livingston
8 June
2001
17 March
2003
Labour [10]
ReidTaormina crop John Reid
MP for Hamilton North and Bellshill
4 April
2003
13 June
2003
Labour [11]
Official portrait of Lord Hain crop 2 Peter Hain
MP for Neath
11 June
2003
6 May
2005
Labour [12]
Geoff Hoon Headshot Geoff Hoon
MP for Ashfield
6 May
2005
5 May
2006
Labour [13]
Jack Straw 2 Jack Straw
MP for Blackburn
5 May
2006
27 June
2007
Labour [14]
Official portrait of Ms Harriet Harman crop 2 Harriet Harman
MP for Camberwell and Peckham
28 June
2007
11 May
2010
Labour Brown [15]
Official portrait of Lord Young of Cookham crop 2 Sir George Young
MP for North West Hampshire
12 May
2010
3 September
2012
Conservative Cameron–Clegg
(Con.L.D.)
[16]
Official portrait of Lord Lansley crop 2 Andrew Lansley
MP for South Cambridgeshire
4 September
2012
14 July
2014
Conservative [17]
William Hague (cropped) William Hague
MP for Richmond (Yorks)
14 July
2014
8 May
2015
Conservative [18]
Official portrait of Chris Grayling crop 2 Chris Grayling
MP for Epsom and Ewell
9 May
2015
14 July
2016
Conservative Cameron II [19]
Official portrait of Mr David Lidington crop 2 David Lidington
MP for Aylesbury
14 July
2016
11 June
2017
Conservative May I [20]
Official portrait of Andrea Leadsom crop 2 Andrea Leadsom
MP for South Northamptonshire
11 June
2017
Incumbent Conservative May II [21]

See also

References

  1. ^ Cabinet Ministers
  2. ^ Ministerial and other Salaries Act 1975
  3. ^ The first incumbent of the Deputy role was a Liberal Democrat MP, The Rt Hon. David Heath CBE, serving in the Coalition Government. "Parliamentary Secretary of State (Deputy Leader of the House of Commons)". www.gov.uk. Retrieved 2016-09-16.
  4. ^ https://www.gov.uk/government/ministers/parliamentary-secretary-deputy-leader-of-the-house-of-commons
  5. ^ Gay, Oonagh (4 August 2005). "The Osmotherly Rules (Standard Note: SN/PC/2671)" (PDF). Parliament and Constitution Centre, House of Commons Library. Archived from the original (PDF) on 30 May 2009. Retrieved 22 May 2009.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah David Butler and Gareth Butler, British Political Facts 1900–1994 (7th edn, Macmillan 1994) 65.
  7. ^ "Lord Newton of Braintree". UK Parliament. Retrieved 10 December 2017.
  8. ^ "Baroness Taylor of Bolton". UK Parliament. Retrieved 10 December 2017.
  9. ^ "Rt Hon Margaret Beckett MP". UK Parliament. Retrieved 10 December 2017.
  10. ^ "Rt Hon Robin Cook". UK Parliament. Retrieved 10 December 2017.
  11. ^ "Lord Reid of Cardowan". UK Parliament. Retrieved 10 December 2017.
  12. ^ "Lord Hain". UK Parliament. Retrieved 10 December 2017.
  13. ^ "Mr Geoffrey Hoon". UK Parliament. Retrieved 10 December 2017.
  14. ^ "Rt Hon Jack Straw". UK Parliament. Retrieved 10 December 2017.
  15. ^ "Rt Hon Harriet Harman QC MP". UK Parliament. Retrieved 10 December 2017.
  16. ^ "Lord Young of Cookham". UK Parliament. Retrieved 10 December 2017.
  17. ^ "Lord Lansley". UK Parliament. Retrieved 10 December 2017.
  18. ^ "Lord Hague of Richmond". UK Parliament. Retrieved 10 December 2017.
  19. ^ "Rt Hon Chris Grayling MP". UK Parliament. Retrieved 10 December 2017.
  20. ^ "Rt Hon David Lidington MP". UK Parliament. Retrieved 10 December 2017.
  21. ^ "Rt Hon Andrea Leadsom MP". UK Parliament. Retrieved 10 December 2017.

External links

2005 Dissolution Honours

The 2005 Dissolution Honours List was issued after the General Election of the same year on the advice of the Prime Minister, Tony Blair.The lists consists of 27 retiring MPs – 16 Labour, six Conservative and five Liberal Democrat.

Andrew Lansley

Andrew David Lansley, Baron Lansley, (born 11 December 1956) is a British Conservative politician who previously served as Secretary of State for Health and Leader of the House of Commons. He was Member of Parliament (MP) for South Cambridgeshire from 1997 to 2015.

Lansley was born in Hornchurch, Essex and studied Politics at the University of Exeter. He worked in the civil service before entering politics. He ran the 1992 general election while at the Conservative Research Department and later was Vice-Chairman of the Conservative Party at the 2001 general election.

Lansley was the Shadow Secretary of State for Health from 2004 until 2010, the Secretary of State for Health from 2010 until 2012, and Leader of the House of Commons from 2012 until 2014. As Health Secretary, Lansley was responsible for the government's controversial Health and Social Care Act 2012. He announced his intention to stand down as an MP in 2015, and was awarded a life peerage in 2015 Dissolution Honours.

Ann Taylor, Baroness Taylor of Bolton

Winifred Ann Taylor, Baroness Taylor of Bolton, PC (born 2 July 1947) is a British Labour Party politician, who was Minister for International Defence and Security, based at both the Ministry of Defence and the Foreign and Commonwealth Office, from October 2008 until 11 May 2010.

She was also the first woman to serve as Leader of the House of Commons of the United Kingdom and the first woman to serve as Lord President of the Privy Council (both in the First Blair Ministry).

Barbara Keeley

Barbara Mary Keeley (born 26 March 1952) is a British Labour Party politician who is the Member of Parliament (MP) for Worsley and Eccles South. She was Deputy Leader of the House of Commons from 2009 to 2010.

Chris Bryant

Christopher John Bryant (born 11 January 1962) is a British Labour Party politician who has been the Member of Parliament (MP) for Rhondda since the 2001 general election and most recently the Shadow Leader of the House of Commons until resigning on 26 June 2016. He was previously the Shadow Minister for the Arts, Minister of State for Europe, Deputy Leader of the House of Commons and Shadow Secretary of State for Culture, Media and Sport. He was re-elected in June 2017.

Bryant previously worked as a Church of England vicar, as well as having roles at the BBC and Common Purpose.

Chris Grayling

Christopher Stephen Grayling (born 1 April 1962) is a British Conservative Party politician and author serving as the Secretary of State for Transport since July 2016, and as a member of the House of Commons since 2001. He previously worked in the television industry.

Grayling was born in London and studied History at Cambridge University. He published a number of books as well as working for the BBC and Channel 4 before going into politics. A member of the Social Democratic Party until 1988, he then joined the Conservatives. First elected to Parliament in the 2001 general election for Epsom and Ewell, he was appointed to the Shadow Cabinet of David Cameron in 2005 as Shadow Secretary of State for Transport.

From 2007 he became the Shadow Secretary of State for Work and Pensions, and in 2009 he was appointed Shadow Home Secretary. Following the 2010 general election and the formation of the Coalition Government, Grayling was made the Minister of State for Employment.

In September 2012, he was appointed to the UK Cabinet as the Lord Chancellor and Secretary of State for Justice from 2012 to 2015. He was the first non-lawyer to have served as Lord Chancellor for at least 440 years. He was the Leader of the House of Commons and the Lord President of the Council between 2015 and 2016.

David Lidington

David Roy Lidington (born 30 June 1956) is a British Conservative Party politician who has been the Member of Parliament (MP) for Aylesbury since 1992. On 8 January 2018, he assumed the roles of Minister for the Cabinet Office and Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster. He has been frequently described as Theresa May's de facto deputy Prime Minister.From 2010 to 2016, he was Minister of State for Europe, Leader of the House of Commons, Lord Chancellor and Secretary of State for Justice.

Deputy Leader of the Labour Party (UK)

The Deputy Leader of the Labour Party is a senior politician in the British Labour Party. The post is currently held by Tom Watson, who was elected as deputy on 12 September 2015.

Early day motion

An early day motion (EDM), in the Westminster system, is a motion, expressed as a single sentence, tabled by Members of Parliament that formally calls for debate "on an early day". In practice, they are rarely debated in the House and their main purpose is to draw attention to particular subjects of interest. Government ministers, Whips, Parliamentary Private Secretaries, the Speaker of the House of Commons and Deputy Speakers do not normally sign EDMs. EDMs remain open for signature for the duration of the parliamentary session.

EDMs can be tabled on matters ranging from trivial or humorous topics to those of great importance. The censure motion by which the Labour Government of James Callaghan was ejected had its origin in an early day motion (no. 351 of 1978–79), put down on 22 March 1979, by Margaret Thatcher.

MPs may ensure the text of an EDM is printed in Hansard by mentioning it by number in questions to the Leader of the House of Commons after the Business Statement (normally on a Thursday when the house is in session).

EDMs tabled on serious topics have included one demanding the release of Nelson Mandela when he was incarcerated in apartheid South Africa, and one calling for a consultation on the fingerprinting of children in schools without parental permission. Shortly after the 2005 general election, 412 of the 646 MPs signed EDM 178 calling for a Climate Change Bill; only three other early day motions had ever been signed by more than 400 MPs.

Francis Pym

Francis Leslie Pym, Baron Pym, MC, PC (13 February 1922 – 7 March 2008) was a British politician. A member of the Conservative Party, he served in various positions in the Cabinet in the 1970s and 1980s, including Foreign Secretary, Defence Secretary, Northern Ireland Secretary and Leader of the House of Commons. He was Member of Parliament (MP) representing the constituencies of Cambridgeshire (1961–83) and South East Cambridgeshire (1983–87), and was made a life peer in 1987.

List of Prime Ministers of the United Kingdom

The Prime Minister of the United Kingdom is the head of the Government of the United Kingdom, and chairs Cabinet meetings. There is no specific date for when the office of Prime Minister first appeared, as the role was not created but rather evolved over a period of time through a merger of duties. The term had been used in the House of Commons as early as 1805, and it was certainly in parliamentary use by the 1880s. In 1905 the post of Prime Minister was officially given recognition in the order of precedence. Modern historians generally consider Sir Robert Walpole, who led the government of Great Britain for over twenty years from 1721, as the first Prime Minister. Walpole is also the longest-serving British prime minister by this definition. However, Sir Henry Campbell-Bannerman was the first and Margaret Thatcher the longest-serving Prime Minister officially referred to as such in the order of precedence. The first to officially use the title was Benjamin Disraeli, who signed the Treaty of Berlin as "Prime Minister of her Britannic Majesty" in 1878.Strictly, the first Prime Minister of the United Kingdom (of Great Britain and Ireland) was William Pitt the Younger. The first Prime Minister of the current United Kingdom, i.e. the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, was Bonar Law, although the country was not renamed officially until 1927, when Stanley Baldwin was the serving Prime Minister.Due to the gradual evolution of the post of Prime Minister, the title is applied to early prime ministers only retrospectively; this has sometimes given rise to academic dispute. Lord Bath and Lord Waldegrave are sometimes listed as prime ministers. Bath was invited to form a ministry by George II when Henry Pelham resigned in 1746, as was Waldegrave in 1757 after the dismissal of William Pitt the Elder, who dominated the affairs of government during the Seven Years' War. Neither was able to command sufficient parliamentary support to form a government; Bath stepped down after two days, and Waldegrave after three. Modern academic consensus does not consider either man to have held office as Prime Minister, and they are therefore not listed.

Lord President of the Council

The Lord President of the Council is the fourth of the Great Officers of State of the United Kingdom, ranking below the Lord High Treasurer but above the Lord Privy Seal. The Lord President usually attends and is responsible for presiding over meetings of the Privy Council, presenting business for the monarch's approval. In the modern era, the holder is by convention always a member of one of the Houses of Parliament, and the office is normally a Cabinet post.

Lord Privy Seal

The Lord Privy Seal (or, more formally, the Lord Keeper of the Privy Seal) is the fifth of the Great Officers of State in the United Kingdom, ranking beneath the Lord President of the Council and above the Lord Great Chamberlain. Originally, its holder was responsible for the monarch's personal (privy) seal (as opposed to the Great Seal of the Realm, which is in the care of the Lord Chancellor) until the use of such a seal became obsolete. The office is currently one of the traditional sinecure offices of state. Today, the holder of the office is invariably given a seat in the Cabinet of the United Kingdom.

Though one of the oldest offices in government anywhere, it has no particular function today because the use of a privy seal has been obsolete for centuries; thus the office has generally been used as a kind of minister without portfolio. Since the premiership of Clement Attlee, the position of Lord Privy Seal has frequently been combined with that of Leader of the House of Lords or Leader of the House of Commons. The office of Lord Privy Seal, unlike those of Leader of the Lords or Commons, is eligible for a ministerial salary under the Ministerial and other Salaries Act 1975. The office does not confer membership of the House of Lords, leading to Ernest Bevin's remark on holding this office that he was "neither a Lord, nor a Privy, nor a Seal".During the reign of Edward I, prior to 1307, the Privy Seal was kept by the Controller of the Wardrobe. The Lord Privy Seal was the president of the Court of Requests during its existence.

Minister and Leader of the House of Commons

The Minister and Leader of the House of Commons was a Cabinet post in the Parliament of Northern Ireland which governed Northern Ireland from 1921 to 1972. The position was established in 1966. It was vacant for two short periods, in 1968 and 1969, and from March 1971 was combined with the post of Minister of State in the Ministry of Development.

There were at least two prior Leaders of the House of Commons, who held the position alongside other ministerial posts:

1964: Ivan Neill

1965: Brian Faulkner

Robin Cook

Robert Finlayson Cook (28 February 1946 – 6 August 2005) was a British Labour Party politician, who served as the Member of Parliament (MP) for Livingston from 1983 until his death, and served in the Cabinet as Foreign Secretary from 1997 until 2001, when he was replaced by Jack Straw.

He studied at the University of Edinburgh before being elected as the Member of Parliament for Edinburgh Central in 1974. In Parliament he was known for his debating ability and rapidly rose through the political ranks and ultimately into the Cabinet. As Foreign Secretary, he oversaw British interventions in Kosovo and Sierra Leone.

He resigned from his positions as Lord President of the Council and Leader of the House of Commons on 17 March 2003 in protest against the invasion of Iraq. At the time of his death, he was President of the Foreign Policy Centre and a Vice-President of the America All Party Parliamentary Group and the Global Security and Non-Proliferation All Party Parliamentary Group.

Shadow Leader of the House of Commons

The Shadow Leader of the House of Commons is a member of the Official Opposition Shadow Cabinet responsible for working with the Leader of the House in arranging Commons business and holding the Government to account in its overall management of the House. The Shadow Leader also responds to the Leader's Business Statement each Thursday, though the Leader of the Opposition exercised this role until the late 1980s. The office is roughly equivalent to the Leader of the Opposition in the House of Lords.

Valerie Vaz

Valerie Carol Marian Vaz (born 7 December 1954) is a British politician and solicitor. A member of the Labour Party, she has served as the Member of Parliament (MP) for Walsall South since the 2010 general election. She currently serves in the shadow cabinet as the Shadow Leader of the House of Commons.

William Hague

William Jefferson Hague, Baron Hague of Richmond, (born 26 March 1961) is a British Conservative politician and life peer. He represented Richmond, Yorkshire, as its Member of Parliament (MP) from 1989 to 2015 and was the Leader of the Opposition from 1997 to 2001. He was Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs from 2010 to 2014 and was the Leader of the House of Commons from 2014 to 2015.Hague was educated at Wath Comprehensive School, the University of Oxford and INSEAD, subsequently being returned to the House of Commons at a by-election in 1989. Hague quickly rose through the ranks of the government of John Major and was appointed to Cabinet in 1995 as Secretary of State for Wales. Following the Conservatives' defeat at the 1997 general election by the Labour Party, he was elected Leader of the Conservative Party at the age of 36.

He resigned as Conservative Leader after the 2001 general election following his party's second defeat, at which the Conservatives made a net gain of just one seat. He returned to the backbenches, pursuing a career as an author, writing biographies of William Pitt the Younger and William Wilberforce. He also held several directorships, and worked as a consultant and public speaker.

After David Cameron was elected Leader of the Conservative Party in 2005, Hague was reappointed to the Shadow Cabinet as Shadow Foreign Secretary. He also assumed the role of "Senior Member of the Shadow Cabinet", effectively serving as Cameron's deputy. After the formation of the Coalition Government in 2010, Hague was appointed First Secretary of State and Foreign Secretary. Cameron described him as his "de facto political deputy". On 14 July 2014, Hague stood down as Foreign Secretary and became Leader of the House of Commons. He did not stand for re-election at the 2015 general election.

Hague was awarded a life peerage in the 2015 Dissolution Honours List on 9 October 2015.

William Henry Smith (1825–1891)

William Henry Smith, FRS (24 June 1825 – 6 October 1891) was an English bookseller and newsagent of the family firm W H Smith, who expanded the firm and introduced the practice of selling books and newspapers at railway stations. He was elected a Member of Parliament in 1868 and rose to the position of First Lord of the Admiralty less than ten years thereafter. Because of his lack of naval experience, he was perceived as a model for the character Sir Joseph Porter in H.M.S. Pinafore. In the mid-1880s, he was twice Secretary of State for War, and later First Lord of the Treasury and Leader of the House of Commons, among other posts.

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