Lawrence Bragg

Sir William Lawrence Bragg, CH, OBE, MC, FRS[1] (31 March 1890 – 1 July 1971) was an Australian-born British physicist and X-ray crystallographer, discoverer (1912) of Bragg's law of X-ray diffraction, which is basic for the determination of crystal structure. He was joint winner (with his father, William Henry Bragg) of the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1915: "For their services in the analysis of crystal structure by means of X-ray",[3] an important step in the development of X-ray crystallography.

Bragg was knighted in 1941.[3] As of 2018, he is the youngest ever Nobel laureate in physics, having received the award at the age of 25 years.[4] Bragg was the director of the Cavendish Laboratory, Cambridge, when the discovery of the structure of DNA was reported by James D. Watson and Francis Crick in February 1953.

Sir Lawrence Bragg

Wl-bragg
Lawrence Bragg in 1915
Born
William Lawrence Bragg

31 March 1890
Adelaide, South Australia
Died1 July 1971 (aged 81)
Waldringfield, Ipswich, Suffolk, England
NationalityBritish
EducationSt Peter's College, Adelaide
Alma mater
Known forX-ray diffraction
Bragg's law
Awards
Scientific career
FieldsPhysics
Institutions
Academic advisors
Doctoral students
Notes
He was the son of W.H. Bragg. Note that the PhD did not exist at Cambridge until 1919, and so J. J. Thomson and W.H. Bragg were his equivalent mentors.
William Lawrence Bragg.jpeg
Portrait of William Lawrence Bragg taken when he was around 40 years old.

Biography

Early years

Bragg was born in Adelaide, South Australia. He showed an early interest in science and mathematics. His father, William Henry Bragg, was Elder Professor of Mathematics and Physics at the University of Adelaide. Shortly after starting school, William Lawrence Bragg fell from his tricycle and broke his arm. His father, who had read about Röntgen's experiments in Europe and was performing his own experiments, used the newly discovered X-rays and his experimental equipment to examine the broken arm. This is the first recorded surgical use of X-rays in Australia.[5]

After beginning his studies at St Peter's College, Adelaide in 1905, Bragg went to the University of Adelaide at age 16 to study mathematics, chemistry and physics, graduating in 1908. In the same year his father accepted the Cavendish chair of physics at the University of Leeds, and brought the family to England. Bragg entered Trinity College, Cambridge in the autumn of 1909 and received a major scholarship in mathematics, despite taking the exam while in bed with pneumonia. After initially excelling in mathematics, he transferred to the physics course in the later years of his studies, and graduated with first class honours in 1911. In 1914 Bragg was elected to a Fellowship at Trinity College – a Fellowship at a Cambridge college involves the submission and defence of a thesis.[6][7]

Among Bragg's other interests was shell collecting; his personal collection amounted to specimens from some 500 species; all personally collected from South Australia. He discovered a new species of cuttlefishSepia braggi, named for him by Joseph Verco.[8]

Career

X-rays and the Bragg equation

The composition of X-rays was unknown, his father argued that X-rays are streams of particles, others argued that they are waves. Max von Laue directed an X-ray beam at a crystal in front of a photographic plate; alongside of the spot where the beam struck there were additional spots from deflected rays — hence X-rays are waves.[9] In 1912, as a first-year research student at Cambridge, W L Bragg, while strolling by the river, had the insight that crystals made from parallel sheets of atoms would not diffract X-ray beams that struck their surface at most angles because X-rays deflected by collisions with atoms would be out of phase, cancelling one another out. However, when the X-ray beam stuck at an angle at which the distances it passed between atomic sheets in the crystal equaled the X-ray's wavelength then those deflected would be in phase and produce a spot on a nearby film. From this insight he wrote the simple Bragg equation that relates the wavelength of the X-ray and the distance between atomic sheets in a simple crystal to the angles at which an impinging X-ray beam would be reflected.

Father built an apparatus in which a crystal could be rotated to precise angles while measuring the energy of reflections. This enabled father and son to measure the distances between the atomic sheets in a number of simple crystals. They calculated the spacing of the atoms from the weight of the crystal and Avogadro's constant which enabled them to measure the wavelengths of the X-rays produced by different metallic targets in the X-ray tubes. W H Bragg reported their results at meetings and in a paper, giving credit to "his son" (unnamed) for the equation, but not as a co-author, which gave his son "some heartaches", which he never overcame.[10]

Work on sound ranging

Bragg was commissioned early in the First World War in the Royal Horse Artillery as a second lieutenant of the Leicestershire battery.[11] In 1915 he was seconded to the Royal Engineers to develop a method to localize enemy artillery from the boom of their firing.[12][13] On 2 September 1915 his brother was killed during the Gallipoli Campaign.[14] Shortly afterwards, he and his father were awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics. He was 25 years old and remains the youngest science laureate. The problem with sound ranging was that the heavy guns boomed at too low a frequency to be detected by a microphone. After months of frustrating failure he and his group devised a hot wire air wave detector that solved the problem. In this work he was aided by Charles Galton Darwin, William Sansome Tucker, Harold Roper Robinson and Henry Harold Hemming. British sound ranging was very effective; there was a unit in every British Army and their system was adopted by the Americans when they entered the war. For his work during the war he was awarded the Military Cross[15] and appointed Officer of the Order of the British Empire.[16] He was also Mentioned in Despatches on 16 June 1916, 4 January 1917 and 7 July 1919.[17][18][19]

Hot wire sound ranging was used in the Second World War, during which he served as a civilian adviser.[20]

Between the wars, from 1919 to 1937, he worked at the Victoria University of Manchester as Langworthy Professor of Physics. He became the director of the National Physical Laboratory in Teddington in 1937.[21]

After World War II, Bragg returned to Cambridge, splitting the Cavendish Laboratory into research groups. He believed that "the ideal research unit is one of six to twelve scientists and a few assistants".

Manchester University (1919-1937)

When demobilized he returned to crystallography at Cambridge. They had agreed that father would study organic crystals, son would investigate inorganic compounds.[3][1] In 1919 when Ernest Rutherford, a long-time family friend, moved to Cambridge, Lawrence Bragg replaced him as Langworthy Professor of Physics at the Victoria University of Manchester. He recruited an excellent faculty, including former sound rangers, but he believed that his knowledge of physics was weak and he had no classroom experience. The students, many veterans, were critical and rowdy. He was deeply shaken but with family support he pulled himself together and prevailed. He and RW James measured the absolute energy of reflected X-rays, which validated a formula derived by CG Darwin before the war.[22] Now they could determine the number of electrons in the reflecting targets, and they were able to decipher the structures of more complicated crystals like silicates. It was still difficult: requiring repeated guessing and retrying. In the late 1920s they eased the analysis by using Fourier transforms on the data.

In 1930 he became deeply disturbed while weighing a job offer from Imperial College, London. His family rallied around and he recovered his balance while they spent 1931 in Munich, where he did research.

National Physical Laboratory (1937-1938)

He became director of the National Physical Laboratory in Teddington in 1937,[21] bringing some co-workers along. However, administration and committees took much of his time away from the workbench.

University of Cambridge (1938-1954)

Rutherford died and the search committee named Lawrence Bragg as next in the line of the Cavendish Professors who direct the Cavendish Laboratory. The Laboratory had an eminent history in atomic physics and some members were wary of a crystallographer, which Bragg surmounted by even-handed administration. He worked on improving the interpretation of diffraction patterns. In the small crystallography group was a refugee research student without a mentor: Max Perutz. He showed Bragg X-ray diffraction data from hemoglobin, which suggested that the structure of giant biological molecules might be deciphered. Bragg appointed Perutz as his research assistant and within a few months obtained additional support with a grant from the Rockefeller Foundation. The work was suspended during the Second World War when Perutz was interned as an enemy alien and then worked in military research.

During the war the Cavendish offered a shortened graduate course which emphasized the electronics needed for radar. Bragg worked on the structure of metals and consulted on sonar and sound ranging, they still used the Tucker microphone. He became Sir Lawrence in 1941. His father died in 1942, during which Bragg served for six months as Scientific Liaison Officer to Canada. He organized periodic conferences on X-ray analysis, which was widely used in military research.

After the war he led in the formation of the International Union of Crystallography and was elected its first president. He reorganized the Cavendish into units to reflect his conviction that "the ideal research unit is one of six to twelve scientists and a few assistants, helped by one or more first-class instrument mechanics and a workshop in which the general run of apparatus can be constructed." [23] Senior members of staff now had offices, telephones and secretarial support. The scope of the department was enlarged with a new unit on radio astronomy. His own work focused on the structure of metals, using both X-rays and the electron microscope. In 1947 he persuaded the Medical Research Council to support what he described as the "gallant attempt" [24] to determine protein structure as the Laboratory of Molecular Biology (MRC), initially consisting of Perutz, John Kendrew and two assistants. Bragg worked with them, by 1960 they had resolved the structure of myoglobin to the atomic level.[25] After this he was less involved; their analysis of hemoglobin was easier after they incorporated two mercury atoms as markers in each molecule. The first monumental triumph of the MRC was decoding the structure of DNA by James Watson and Francis Crick. Bragg announced the discovery at a Solvay conference on proteins in Belgium on 8 April 1953, it went unreported by the press. He then gave a talk at Guy's Hospital Medical School in London on Thursday 14 May 1953, which resulted in an article by Ritchie Calder in the News Chronicle of London on Friday 15 May 1953, entitled "Why You Are You. Nearer Secret of Life." Bragg nominated Crick, Watson and Maurice Wilkins for the 1962 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine; Wilkins' share recognized the contribution of X-ray crystallographers at King's College London.[26] Among them was Rosalind Franklin, whose "photograph 51" showed that DNA was a double helix, not the triple helix that Linus Pauling had proposed. Franklin died before the prize (which only goes to living people) was awarded.

The Royal Institution (1954-1971)

In 1953 the Braggs moved into the elegant flat for the Resident Professor in the Royal Institution in London, the position his father had occupied when he died. In 1931 and 1934 Lawrence had delivered the Royal Institution Christmas Lecture and since 1938 he had been Professor of Natural Philosophy in the Institution, delivering an annual lecture. His father's successors had weakened the Institution, so Lawrence had to rebuild. He bolstered finances by enlisting corporate sponsors, the traditional Friday Evening Discourses were followed by a dinner party for the speaker and carefully selected possible patrons, more than one hundred and twenty of them each year. "Two of these Discourses in 1965 gave him particular pleasure. On 7 May, Lady Bragg, who had been a member of the Royal Commission on Marriage and Divorce (1951-55) and was Chairman of the National Marriage Guidance Council, lectured on 'Changing patterns in marriage and divorce'; and on 15 November, Bragg listened with evident pride to the Discourse on 'Oscillations and noise in jet engines' given by his engineer-son Stephen, who was then Chief Scientist at Rolls Royce Ltd and later became Vice-Chancellor of Brunel University."[27] He also introduced a new programme of highly regarded Schools' Lectures, enlivened by the elaborate demonstrations that were a hallmark of the Institution. He gave three of these lectures on 'electricity' [28]

He continued research in the Institution by recruiting a small group to work the Davy-Faraday Laboratory in the basement and in the adjoining house, supported by grants he obtained. A visitor to the laboratory succeeded in inserting heavy metals into the enzyme lysozyme; the structure of its crystal was solved in 1965 at the Royal Institution by D C Phillips and his coworkers, with the computations on the 9,040 reflections performed on the digital computer at the University of London, which greatly facilitated the work.[29] Two of the illustrations of the positioning of amino acids in the chain were drawn by Bragg. Unlike myoglobin, in which nearly 80 per cent of the amino-acid residues are in the alpha-helix conformation, in lysozyme the alpha-helix content is only about 40 per cent of the amino-acid residues found in four main stretches. Other stretches are of the 310 helix, a conformation that they had proposed earlier.[30] In this conformation, every third peptide is hydrogen-bonded back to the first peptide, thus forming a ring containing ten atoms. They had the complete structure of an enzyme in time for Bragg's seventy-fifth birthday. He became Professor Emeritus in 1966.

X-ray analysis of protein structure flourished in subsequent years, determining the structures of scores of proteins in laboratories around the world. Twenty eight Nobel Prizes have been awarded for work using X-ray analysis. The disadvantage of the method is that it must be done on crystals, which precludes seeing changes in shape when enzymes bind substrates and the like. This problem was solved by the development of another line Bragg had initiated, using modified electron microscopes to image single frozen molecules: cryo-electron microscopy.[31]

In his long association with the Royal Institution he was:

Professor of Natural Philosophy, 1938–1953
Fullerian Professor of Chemistry, 1954–1966
Superintendent of the House, 1954–1966
Director of the Davy-Faraday Research Laboratory, 1954–1966
Director of the Royal Institution, 1965–1966
Emeritus Professor, 1966–1971

Personal life

He married Alice Hopkinson (1899–1989), a cousin of a friend who had been killed in the war, in 1921. They had four children, Stephen Lawrence (1923–2014), David William (1926–2005), Margaret Alice, born 1931, (who married Mark Heath) and Patience Mary, born 1935. Alice was on the staff at Withington Girls' School until Bragg was appointed director of the NPL in 1937.[21] She was active in a number of public bodies and was elected Mayor of Cambridge.

Bragg's hobbies included drawing — family letters were illustrated with lively sketches — painting, literature and a lifelong interest in gardening.[32] When he moved to London, he missed having a garden and so worked as a part-time gardener, unrecognized by his employer, until a guest at the house expressed surprise at seeing him there.[33] He died at a hospital near his home at Waldringfield, Ipswich, Suffolk. He was buried in Trinity College, Cambridge; his son David is buried in the Parish of the Ascension Burial Ground in Cambridge, where Bragg's friend, who had he survived would have been his brother-in-law, Rudolph Cecil Hopkinson is also buried.

Honours and awards

Bragg was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society (FRS) in 1921[1]—"a qualification that makes other ones irrelevant".[34] He was knighted by King George VI in the 1941 New Year Honours,[35] and received both the Copley Medal and the Royal Medal of the Royal Society. Although Graeme Hunter, in his book on Bragg Light is a Messenger, argued that he was more a crystallographer than a physicist, Bragg's lifelong activity showed otherwise—he was more of a physicist than anything else. Thus, from 1939 to 1943, he served as President of the Institute of Physics, London.[6] In the 1967 New Year Honours he was appointed Companion of Honour by Queen Elizabeth II.[36]

Since 1992, the Australian Institute of Physics has awarded the Bragg Gold Medal for Excellence in Physics[37] to commemorate Lawrence Bragg (in front on the medal) and his father, William Bragg, for the best PhD thesis by a student at an Australian university.

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c d Phillips, D. (1979). "William Lawrence Bragg. 31 March 1890-1 July 1971". Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of the Royal Society. 25: 74–143. doi:10.1098/rsbm.1979.0003. JSTOR 769842.
  2. ^ "Alexander Stokes". The Telegraph. 28 February 2003. Retrieved 16 January 2016.
  3. ^ a b c "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1915". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 26 April 2018.
  4. ^ "Facts on the Nobel Prize in Physics". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 16 January 2016.
  5. ^ Caroe, G. M. (1978). William Henry Bragg 1862-1942. Cambridge University Press. p. 75.
  6. ^ a b "Cambridge Physicists - William Lawrence Bragg". Cambridge Physics. Cavendish Laboratory. Retrieved 26 April 2018.
  7. ^ See Fred Hoyle's remarks regarding Hutchinson in 1965 Galaxies, Nuclei and Quasars p. 38 London:Heinemann and also R J N Phillips 1987 "Some Words from a Former Student" in Tribute to Paul Dirac, Bristol:Adam Hilger, p. 31.
  8. ^ Jenkin, John William and Lawrence Bragg; Father and Son. Oxford University Press 2008 ISBN 978 0 19 923520 9
  9. ^ Laue, Max von. "Concerning the Detection of X-ray Interferences". Nobel Prizes. Retrieved 3 January 2018.
  10. ^ Van der Kloot, William (2014). Great Scientists wage the Great War. Stroud: Fonthill. p. 129.
  11. ^ "No. 28879". The London Gazette. 25 August 1914. p. 6702.
  12. ^ William Van der Kloot, Lawrence Bragg's role in the development of sound-ranging in World War I, Notes and Records of the Royal Society, 22 September 2005, vol. 59, no. 3, pp. 273–284.
  13. ^ Van der Kloot 2014, pp. 129–161.
  14. ^ "Casualty Details: Bragg, Robert Charles". Commonwealth War Graves Commission. Retrieved 3 September 2010.
  15. ^ "No. 30450". The London Gazette (Supplement). 1 January 1918. p. 32. MC
  16. ^ "No. 30576". The London Gazette (Supplement). 15 March 1918. p. 3289. OBE
  17. ^ "No. 29623". The London Gazette (Supplement). 13 June 1916. p. 5930. mid
  18. ^ "No. 29890". The London Gazette (Supplement). 2 January 1917. p. 207. mid
  19. ^ "No. 31437". The London Gazette (Supplement). 4 July 1919. p. 8523. mid
  20. ^ Van der Kloot 2014, pp. 207–208.
  21. ^ a b c Newsletter 1936-1937. Withington Girls' School. 1937.
  22. ^ Bragg, W. Lawrence (1965). "Reginald William James. 1891-1964". Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of the Royal Society. 11: 114–125. doi:10.1098/rsbm.1965.0007. JSTOR 769264.
  23. ^ Phillips 1979, p. 117.
  24. ^ Phillips 1979, p.118
  25. ^ Bragg, Sir Lawrence; J. C. Kendrew; M. F. Perutz (1950). "Polypeptide chain configurations in crystalline proteins". Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A. 203 (1074): 321–357. doi:10.1098/rspa.1950.0142.
  26. ^ "Maurice Wilkins - Facts". Nobel Prize. Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 26 April 2018.
  27. ^ Phillips 1979 ,p.126.
  28. ^ http://www.rigb.org/our-history/people/b/william-lawrence-bragg
  29. ^ Blake, C.C.F; D. F. Koenig; G. A. Mair; A. C. T North; D. C. Phillips; V. R. Sarma (1965). "Structure of egg-white lysozome". Nature. 206 (4986): 757–761. doi:10.1038/206757a0.
  30. ^ Bragg et al. 1950.
  31. ^ https://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/chemistry/laureates/2017/
  32. ^ Thomson, Patience (2013). "A tribute to W. L. Bragg by his younger daughter" (PDF). Acta Crystallographica Section A. A69: 5–7. Retrieved 24 December 2012.
  33. ^ Crick, Francis (1989). What Mad Pursuit. Weidenfeld & Nicolson. p. 53. ISBN 978-0140119732.
  34. ^ G K Hunter 2004 Light is a Messenger Oxford:OUP
  35. ^ "No. 35029". The London Gazette (Supplement). 31 December 1940. p. 1. Knight bachelor
  36. ^ "No. 44210". The London Gazette (Supplement). 30 December 1966. p. 26. CH
  37. ^ Bragg Gold Medal for Excellence in Physics Archived 14 July 2014 at the Wayback Machine

Further reading

  • Hunter, Graeme. Light Is A Messenger, the Life and Science of William Lawrence Bragg, ISBN 0-19-852921-X; Oxford University Press, 2004.
  • John Finch; A Nobel Fellow On Every Floor, Medical Research Council 2008, 381 pp, ISBN 978-1-84046-940-0; (This book is about the MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Cambridge.)
  • Ridley, Matt; Francis Crick: Discoverer of the Genetic Code (Eminent Lives), first published in July 2006 in the United States, and then in the UK in September 2006, by HarperCollins Publishers; 192 pp, ISBN 0-06-082333-X (This short book is in the publisher's "Eminent Lives" series).
  • John Jenkin: "William and Lawrence Bragg, Father and Son: The Most Extraordinary Collaboration in Science", Oxford University Press, 2008.

External links

Bragg's law

In physics, Bragg's law, or Wulff–Bragg's condition, a special case of Laue diffraction, gives the angles for coherent and incoherent scattering from a crystal lattice. When X-rays are incident on an atom, they make the electronic cloud move, as does any electromagnetic wave. The movement of these charges re-radiates waves with the same frequency, blurred slightly due to a variety of effects; this phenomenon is known as Rayleigh scattering (or elastic scattering). The scattered waves can themselves be scattered but this secondary scattering is assumed to be negligible.

A similar process occurs upon scattering neutron waves from the nuclei or by a coherent spin interaction with an unpaired electron. These re-emitted wave fields interfere with each other either constructively or destructively (overlapping waves either add up together to produce stronger peaks or are subtracted from each other to some degree), producing a diffraction pattern on a detector or film. The resulting wave interference pattern is the basis of diffraction analysis. This analysis is called Bragg diffraction.

Braggite

Braggite is a sulfide mineral of platinum, palladium and nickel with chemical formula: (Pt, Pd, Ni)S. It is a dense (specific gravity of 10), steel grey, opaque mineral which crystallizes in the tetragonal crystal system. It is the central member in the platinum group end-members cooperite and vysotskite.

It was first described in 1932 for an occurrence in the Bushveld Igneous Complex of South Africa. Its name came from William Henry Bragg (1862–1942) and his son, William Lawrence Bragg (1890–1971). It was the first mineral that was discovered with the assistance of X rays.It occurs as magmatic segregations in layered igneous intrusions such as Bushveld, the Stillwater igneous complex, the Lac des Îles igneous complex, the Isle of Rum intrusive, the Great Dyke and many others. It is one of the most common platinum group minerals.

Cavendish Laboratory

The Cavendish Laboratory is the Department of Physics at the University of Cambridge, and is part of the School of Physical Sciences. The laboratory was opened in 1874 on the New Museums Site as a laboratory for experimental physics and is named after the British chemist and physicist Henry Cavendish. The laboratory has had a huge influence on research in the disciplines of physics and biology.

The laboratory moved to its present site in West Cambridge in 1974.

As of 2011, 29 Cavendish researchers have won Nobel Prizes. Notable discoveries to have occurred at the Cavendish Laboratory include the discovery of the electron, neutron, and structure of DNA.

Cavendish Professor of Physics

The Cavendish Professorship is one of the senior faculty positions in physics at the University of Cambridge. It was founded on 9 February 1871 alongside the famous Cavendish Laboratory, which was completed three years later. William Cavendish, 7th Duke of Devonshire endowed both the professorship and laboratory in honor of his relative, chemist and physicist Henry Cavendish.

Director of the Royal Institution

Below are directors of the Royal Institution of Great Britain, with date of appointment.

Director of the Laboratory1801 Humphry Davy

1825 Michael Faraday

1867 John Tyndall

1887 James DewarDirector of the Davy-Faraday Research Laboratory1896 James Dewar

1896 Lord Rayleigh

1923 William Bragg

1942 Henry Hallett Dale

1946 Eric Rideal

1950 Edward Andrade

1954 Lawrence Bragg

1998 Richard Catlow

2008 Quentin PankhurstDirector1965 William Lawrence Bragg

1966 George, Baron Porter of Luddenham

1986 David Philips (acting)

1986 John Meurig Thomas

1991 Peter Day

1998 Susan Adele, Baroness Greenfield of Ot Moor

2017 Sarah Harper

2018 Shaun Fitzgerald

Evan James Williams

Evan James Williams FRS (8 June 1903 – 29 September 1945) was a Welsh experimental physicist who worked in a number of fields with some of the most notable physicists of his day, including Patrick Blackett, Lawrence Bragg, Ernest Rutherford and Niels Bohr.

Williams earned a degree at Swansea University, doctorates at Manchester and Cambridge universities and a professorship at Aberystwyth University. He was highly regarded by his colleagues, and made a Fellow of the Royal Society in 1939.

He died of cancer at the age of 42.

John Crank

John Crank (6 February 1916 – 3 October 2006) was a mathematical physicist, best known for his work on the numerical solution of partial differential equations.

Crank was born in Hindley in Lancashire, England. His father was a carpenter's pattern-maker. Crank studied at Manchester University from 1934 to 1938, where he was awarded a BSc and MSc as a student of Lawrence Bragg and Douglas Hartree. In 1953, Manchester University awarded him a DSc.

He worked on ballistics during the Second World War, and was then a mathematical physicist at Courtaulds Fundamental Research Laboratory from 1945 to 1957. In 1957, he was appointed as the first Head of Department of Mathematics at Brunel College in Acton. He served two terms of office as vice-principal of Brunel before his retirement in 1981, when he was granted the title of professor emeritus.

Crank's main work was on the numerical solution of partial differential equations and, in particular, the solution of heat-conduction problems. He is best known for his work with Phyllis Nicolson on the heat equation, which resulted in the Crank–Nicolson method.

He was a keen gardener and established the John Crank Garden as a retirement gift to Brunel University. He was married to his wife, Joan, for 63 years, who died in 2005. They were survived by their two children.

Jubilee 150 Walkway

The Jubilee 150 Walkway, also variously known as the Jubilee 150 Commemorative Walk, the Jubilee 150 Walk, and the Jubilee Walk, is a series of (initially) 150 bronze plaques set into the pavement of North Terrace, Adelaide in from to the Prince Henry Gardens. It was officially opened on 21 December 1986. It was commissioned as part of the celebrations commemorating the 150th anniversary of the founding of the Province of South Australia (by the British). The plaques contain the names and deeds of (initially) 170 people who made major contributions to the founding and development of South Australia. Since 1986, the Adelaide City Council has added four plaques.The plaques are arranged in alphabetic order, and stretch from King William Road to Pulteney Street along the north side of North Terrace. The walkway starts at the South African War Memorial, and passes in front of Government House, the National War Memorial, the State Library, the Museum, the Art Gallery and the University of Adelaide. This portion of North Terrace also contains more than a dozen statues, busts and other memorial plaques, plus numerous public seating benches, some drinking fountains and some water features in front of the Museum and Art Gallery.

In 2011 the Adelaide City Council reorganised the area in front of Government House (between King William Rd and the National War Memorial). The plaques and the major statues were not moved, but the avenue of gas lamps was removed, the various busts were moved from King Willian Road to an area between the statues of Venere Di Canova and Matthew Flinders, and a bust of Sir Lawrence Bragg was added to the group.

Langworthy Professor

The Langworthy Professor is the holder of an endowed chair in the School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester, England.

It was founded by a bequest of £10,000 for the purpose of endowing a professorship of experimental physics by E. R. Langworthy in 1874. It began at Owens College and from 1903/04 to 2004 was a chair at the Victoria University of Manchester, now The University of Manchester.

Previous holders include the Nobel prize winners Ernest Rutherford (1907–19), Lawrence Bragg (1919–37), Patrick Blackett (1937–1953), Andre Geim (2007–2013) and Konstantin Novoselov (2013–). Others were Andrew Lyne (?-2007), Brian Flowers, Arthur Schuster (1888–1907), Samuel Devons. The current holder is Konstantin Novoselov (2013–).

List of Fellows of the Royal Society elected in 1921

This page lists Fellows of the Royal Society elected in 1921.

Lotte Meitner-Graf

Lotte Meitner-Graf (1899-1973) was a noted Austrian black and white portrait photographer.

Meitner-Graf moved to England with her family in 1937, opening her own studio at 23 Old Bond Street in London in 1953. Frisch, in his Times obituary, noted that there "can be few educated people who have not seen one of Lotte Meitner-Graf’s photographic portraits, either on a book jacket (for instance, Bertrand Russell’s autobiography, or Antony Hopkins’s Music all around me) or on a record sleeve or concert programme."She photographed Albert Schweitzer, musicians Marion Anderson, Klemperer and Menuhin; actors John Gielgud and Danny Kaye; and scientists Lord Blackett, William Lawrence Bragg, Dorothy Hodgkin, and Max Perutz.

Matteucci Medal

The Matteucci Medal is an Italian award for physicists, named after Carlo Matteucci. It was established to award physicists for their fundamental contributions. Under an Italian Royal Decree dated July 10, 1870, the Italian Society of Sciences was authorized to receive a donation from Carlo Matteucci for the establishment of the Prize.

Matteucci MedalistsSource: Italian Society of Sciences

Peter Hirsch

Sir Peter Bernhard Hirsch HonFRMS FRS (born 16 January 1925) is a figure in British materials science who has made fundamental contributions to the application of transmission electron microscopy to metals. Hirsch attended the Sloane School, Chelsea and St Catharine's College, Cambridge. In 1946 he joined the Crystallography Department of the Cavendish to work for a PhD on work hardening in metals under W.H. Taylor and Lawrence Bragg. He subsequently carried out work, which is still cited, on the structure of coal.

In the mid-1950s he pioneered the application of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to metals and developed in detail the theory needed to interpret such images. He was a Fellow of Christ's College, Cambridge from 1960 to 1966 and was elected an Honorary Fellow of Christ's in 1978. In 1965, with Howie, Whelan, Pashley and Nicholson, he published the text Electron microscopy of thin crystals. The following year he moved to Oxford to take up the Isaac Wolfson Chair in Metallurgy, succeeding William Hume-Rothery. He held this post until his retirement in 1992, building up the Department of Metallurgy (now the Department of Materials) into a world-renowned centre. Among many other honours, he was awarded the 1983 Wolf Foundation Prize in physics. He was elected to the Royal Society in 1963 and knighted in 1975. He is a fellow of St Edmund Hall, Oxford.

Ronald Wilfred Gurney

Ronald Wilfred (or Wilfrid) Gurney (1898, Cheltenham, England – 14 April 1953, New York, New York) was a British theoretical physicist and research pupil of William Lawrence Bragg at the Victoria University of Manchester during the 1920s and 1930s, Bristol University during the 1930s and later in the USA, where he died.

Sepia braggi

Sepia braggi, the slender cuttlefish, is a species of cuttlefish native to the Australian waters. It is found in coastal waters on the Continental Shelf at depths between 30 and 86 m.Females of the species are larger than males. They grow to a mantle length of 80 mm and 49 mm, respectively.The type specimen was collected in South Australia BY (WILLIAM) LAWRENCE BRAGG [John Jenkin, WILLIAM AND LAWRENCE BRAGG, FATHER AND SON, OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS, 2008, 2011, p.245] and was described by Sir Joseph Cooke Verco in 1907.Sepia braggi is one of three species of cuttlefish known to inhabit Spencer Gulf in South Australia. Specimens are occasionally caught there by prawn trawlers. Trawl bycatch specimen sizes range from 27 to 57 mm and have been collected during trawls in mid and southern gulf waters.

Stephen Bragg

Stephen Lawrence Bragg (1923–2014) was a British engineer who was Vice Chancellor of Brunel University from 1971-81. He was the son of Lawrence Bragg and grandson of William Henry Bragg.

Walter L. Bragg

Walter Lawrence Bragg (February 25, 1838 – August 21, 1891) was an American Democratic politician and government official. He was one of the original commissioners of the Interstate Commerce Commission serving from the Commission's creation in 1887 until his death in 1891.

William Coates (technician)

William Albert Coates better known as Bill Coates MBE (7 November 1919-7 October 1993) was a science communicator, lecturer and technician who worked at the Royal Institution in London from 1948 to 1986 and was a popular figure on television shows. As a lecture assistant he designed experiments for, and appeared alongside Lawrence Bragg numerous times as part of the televised Royal Institution Christmas Lectures. He was awarded the Bragg Medal in 1975.

William Henry Bragg

Sir William Henry Bragg (2 July 1862 – 12 March 1942) was a British physicist, chemist, mathematician, and active sportsman who uniquely shared a Nobel Prize with his son Lawrence Bragg – the 1915 Nobel Prize in Physics: "for their services in the analysis of crystal structure by means of X-rays". The mineral Braggite is named after him and his son. He was knighted in 1920.

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