Law for Protection of the Nation

The Law for Protection of the Nation (Bulgarian: Закон за защита на нацията — ЗЗН) was a Bulgarian law, effective from 23 January 1941 to 27 November 1944, which directed measures against Jews and others. The law was passed along the example of the Nuremberg Laws in Nazi Germany.

The Law ordered measures for:

  • changes in the names of Jews.
  • rules about their place of residence.
  • confiscation of their possessions.
  • their exclusion from the public service.
  • prohibition of economic and professional activity.

Citizens of Jewish origin were also banned from certain public areas, restricted economically, and marriages between Jews and Bulgarians were prohibited. Jews were forced to pay a one-time tax of 20 percent of their net worth.[1][2][3][4] The legislation also established quotas that limited the number of Jews in Bulgarian universities.[4][5]

Jewish leaders protested against the law, and the Bulgarian Orthodox Church, some professional organizations, and twenty-one writers also opposed it.[4][6]

The Law also suppressed all Freemasonry lodges and all other secret organizations.

The Law was passed under direct influence from Nazi Germany, but did not lead to the deportation of the Bulgarian Jews to Nazi extermination camps, except for the Jewish people from former Greek and Yugoslavian territories occupied by Bulgaria.[7]

The law for protection of the nation (Bulgaria)
Decree of His Majesty Tsar Boris III of Bulgaria for approval of the law for protection of the nation.

References

  1. ^ Marushiakova, Elena; Vesselin Popov (2006). "Bulgarian Romanies: The Second World War". The Gypsies during the Second World War. Univ of Hertfordshire Press. ISBN 0-900458-85-2.
  2. ^ Fischel, Jack (1998). The Holocaust. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 69. ISBN 0-313-29879-3.
  3. ^ Wyman, David S.; Charles H. Rosenzveig (1996). The world reacts to the Holocaust. JHU Press. p. 265. ISBN 0-8018-4969-1.
  4. ^ a b c Benbassa, Esther; Aron Rodrigue (2000). Sephardi Jewry: a history of the Judeo-Spanish community, 14th-20th centuries. University of California Press. p. 174. ISBN 0-520-21822-1.
  5. ^ Levin, Itamar; Natasha Dornberg; Judith Yalon-Fortus (2001). His majesty's enemies: Great Britain's war against Holocaust victims and survivors. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 37. ISBN 0-275-96816-2.
  6. ^ Levy, Richard S (2005). Antisemitism: A Historical Encyclopedia of Prejudice and Persecution. ABC-CLIO. p. 90. ISBN 1-85109-439-3.
  7. ^ Dikovski, Antoinette (2000-07-19). "България само администрираше "новите земи"" (in Bulgarian). Демокрация. Archived from the original on 17 July 2011. Retrieved 2015-03-07.
Afrophobia

Afrophobia is a perceived fear of the cultures and peoples of Africa, as well as the African diaspora.

Allophilia

Allophilia is having a positive attitude towards outgroup members. The outgroup members can be anyone who possesses characteristics that are different from one's own, such as people of different races, religions, cultures, etc. It is a framework for understanding effective intergroup leadership and is conceptualized as a measurable state of mind with tangible consequences.

Anti-Malay sentiment

Anti-Malay sentiment refers to hostility or hatred that is directed toward Malays or the state of Malaysia.

Anti-Thai sentiment

Anti-Thai sentiment involves hostility or hatred that is directed towards Thai people, or the state of Thailand.

Aporophobia

Aporophobia (from the Spanish aporofobia, and this from the Ancient Greek άπορος (á-poros), without resources, indigent, poor, and φόβος (phobos), fear) is fear of poverty and of poor people. It is the disgust and hostility towards poor people, without resources or helpless.The concept of aporophobia was coined in the 1990s by the philosopher Adela Cortina, professor of Ethics and Political Philosophy at the University of Valencia, to differentiate this attitude from xenophobia, which only refers to the rejection of foreigners, and racism, which is discrimination by ethnic groups. The difference between aporophobia and xenophobia or racism is that socially there is no discrimination or marginalization of immigrants or members of other ethnic groups when these people have assets, economic resources and/or social and media relevance.

The aporophobia consists, therefore, in a feeling of fear and in an attitude of rejection of the poor, the lack of means, the helpless. Such feeling and such attitude are acquired.

Disabilities (Catholics)

Disabilities were legal restrictions and limitations placed on the Roman Catholics of England since the issuance of the Act of Supremacy in 1534. These disabilities were first sanctioned by the Penal Laws, enacted under the reigns of Henry VIII and Elizabeth I. They were followed by the Clarendon Code (1661–65) and the Test Act (1673).

In spite of the promulgation of the Toleration Act (1689), that removed many civil disabilities, the Catholics still had to face limitations in respect of property rights, succession rights and education. Catholics also still had no right to assemble and pray. The oath of abjuration required, swearing against the legitimacy of the Jacobite succession, was also counted as a disability, and remained in place until 1829.

Eliminationism

Eliminationism is the belief that one's political opponents are, in the words of Oklahoma City University School of Law professor Phyllis E. Bernard, "a cancer on the body politic that must be excised—either by separation from the public at large, through censorship or by outright extermination—in order to protect the purity of the nation".

Emancipation

Emancipation is any effort to procure economic and social rights, political rights or equality, often for a specifically disenfranchised group, or more generally, in discussion of such matters. Emancipation stems from ēx manus capere ('detach from the hand'). Among others, Karl Marx discussed political emancipation in his 1844 essay "On the Jewish Question", although often in addition to (or in contrast with) the term human emancipation. Marx's views of political emancipation in this work were summarized by one writer as entailing "equal status of individual citizens in relation to the state, equality before the law, regardless of religion, property, or other 'private' characteristics of individual people.""Political emancipation" as a phrase is less common in modern usage, especially outside academic, foreign or activist contexts. However, similar concepts may be referred to by other terms. For instance, in the United States the Civil Rights Movement culminated in the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965, and the Fair Housing Act of 1968 can be seen as further realization of events such as the Emancipation Proclamation and abolition of slavery a century earlier. In the current and former British West Indies islands the holiday Emancipation Day is celebrated to mark the end of the Atlantic slave trade.

Ethnic penalty

Ethnic penalty in sociology is defined as the economic and non-economic disadvantages that ethnic minorities experience in the labour market compared to other ethnic groups. As an area of study among behavioral economists, psychologists, and sociologists, it ranges beyond discrimination to take non-cognitive factors into consideration for explaining unwarranted differences between individuals of similar abilities but differing ethnicities.

Ethnocide

Ethnocide refers to extermination of national culture as a genocide component.Reviewing the legal and academic history of usage of the terms genocide and ethnocide, Bartolomé Clavero differentiates between them in that "Genocide kills people while ethnocide kills social cultures through the killing of individual souls". In addition, "since cultural genocide can only be the cultural dimension of genocide", the idea of ethnocide is more than just "cultural genocide", but also part of broader genocidal process.Because concepts such as cultural genocide and ethnocide have been used in different contexts, the anthropology of genocide examines their inclusion and exclusion in law and policies.

Gerontophobia

Gerontophobia is the fear of growing old, or a hatred or fear of the elderly due to memento mori. The term comes from the Greek γέρων – gerōn, "old man" and φόβος – phobos, "fear".

Lesbophobia

Lesbophobia (sometimes lesbiphobia) comprises various forms of negativity towards lesbians as individuals, as couples, or as a social group. Based on the categories of sex, sexual orientation, lesbian identity, and gender expression, this negativity encompasses prejudice, discrimination, and abuse, in addition to attitudes and feelings ranging from disdain to hostility. As such, lesbophobia is sexism against women that intersects with homophobia and vice versa.

Lusophobia

Anti-Portuguese sentiment (or Lusophobia) is a hostility toward Portugal, the Portuguese people or the Portuguese language and culture.

Persecution of autistic people

Autistic people have been subjected to discrimination and persecution.

Racial integration

Racial integration, or simply integration, includes desegregation (the process of ending systematic racial segregation). In addition to desegregation, integration includes goals such as leveling barriers to association, creating equal opportunity regardless of race, and the development of a culture that draws on diverse traditions, rather than merely bringing a racial minority into the majority culture. Desegregation is largely a legal matter, integration largely a social one.

Racial quota

Racial quotas in employment and education are numerical requirements for hiring, promoting, admitting and/or graduating members of a particular racial group. Racial quotas are often established as means of diminishing racial discrimination, addressing under-representation and evident racism against those racial groups or, the opposite, against the disadvantaged majority group (see numerus clausus or bhumiputra systems).

It has been argued that such quotas are a form of racial discrimination.

These quotas may be determined by governmental authority and backed by governmental sanctions. When the total number of jobs or enrollment slots is fixed, this proportion may get translated to a specific number.

Sexual orientation discrimination

Sexual orientation discrimination (also often referred to as sexualism) is discrimination based on sexual orientation and/or sexual behaviour.

Snob

Snob is a pejorative term for a person that believes there is a correlation between social status and human worth. Snob also refers to a person that feels superiority over those from lower social classes, education levels, or other social areas. The word snobbery came into use for the first time in England during the 1820s.

A snob is also a tool (an anvil) used by cobblers in the manufacture of footwear.

Vegaphobia

Vegaphobia is an aversion to vegetarian and vegan people. It is in the 21st century that it began to frame the phenomenon in the sociological sphere and makes its appearance "vegaphobia". In 2007, a survey called "Vegaphobia: disproportionate talk about veganism in British national newspapers" took place in the United Kingdom, which examined 397 articles containing the terms "vegan", "vegans" and "veganism". That's what the researchers found was that 74.3% of the items are classified as "negatives"; 20.2% "neutral" and only 5.5% "positive". Negative items were in order of frequency: ridiculing veganism; characterize veganism as asceticism; affirming that veganism is difficult or impossible to sustain; describe veganism as a fashion; portray vegans as sentimentalists; defining vegans as hostile.Laura Wright claims that media organisations and wider discourse routinely mischaracterise vegan diets and highlights situations where media outlets report the death of children from a 'vegan diet' rather than the neglect that was the actual cause.. However, Christophe Traïni writes that some vegan activists may present themselves 'as members of an oppressed minority rebelling against ‘vegephobia’'At the 2013 International Animal Rights Conference, actress and producer Jola Cora, discussed the topic in a presentation called "Vegaphobia, what is it?"

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.