Law enforcement in the Netherlands is provided by the National Police Corps (Dutch: Korps Nationale Politie), divided in ten regional units and a central unit, and the Royal Marechaussee (Dutch: Koninklijke Marechaussee), a gendarmerie. Law enforcement in the Netherlands operates primarily through governmental police agencies. The law-enforcement purposes of these agencies are the investigation of suspected criminal activity, referral of the results of investigations to the courts, and the temporary detention of suspected criminals pending judicial action. Law enforcement agencies, to varying degrees at different levels of government and in different agencies, are also commonly charged with the responsibilities of deterring criminal activity and preventing the successful commission of crimes in progress. The police commissioner (eerste hoofdcommissaris) in The Netherlands is Erik Akerboom since March 1, 2016.
Besides police officers, the Netherlands has about 23.500 peace officers. These officers have a Special Enforcement Officer (SEO) status (Buitengewoon Opsporingsambtenaar) or BOA / Handhaving in Dutch and therefore have police powers (detaining suspects, ask for identification, make arrest, issue fines within their power of offences and use force). They can be found within the transport police, game wardens and local enforcement agencies. The majority of BOA officers have the authority to carry and use handcuffs which can only be issued to officers who have the power to use force. A few councils also issue their officers, with permission from the Ministry of Safety and Justice, police batons, pepper spray and occasionally firearms.
Their task depends on their area of operation. A game warden enforces nature laws, while a local enforcement officer enforces local ordinances, municipal code infractions. In 2018 unions are concerned with the increase of viollence against these officers and are opting to equip all these officers with the less lethal weapons, batons and pepperspray, or make the part of the national police force.
From the end of 1945 until 1993, the Dutch police was composed of the municipal police (Dutch: gemeentepolitie) and the national police (Dutch: rijkspolitie). In 1994, the police was reorganised into 25 Regional Constabularies (Dutch: regiokorpsen) and a National Constabulary (Dutch: Korps landelijke politiediensten, KLPD). In 2013 the police in the Netherlands was reorganised again into its current structure. In the event of serious emergencies, the police cooperates with the fire brigade, ambulance service, other government agencies and military forces in the security region corresponding to the police region.
Every regionale eenheid (regional unit) is led by a unitchef (unit chief), a Hoofdcommissaris (Chief Commissioner) who conducts the day-to-day police force management. Decisions about the principal law enforcement policies are made by a regional board, the so-called Driehoek (triangle) whose chairman is the eenheidsbeheerder (unit manager). The eenheidsbeheerder is usually the mayor of the largest municipality in the region. The other board members of the Driehoek are the unit chief and the local chief prosecutor.
A region consists of several districts, each having a district chief. Each district consists of a number of local units, called basiseenheden (basic units) or teams.
The "police strength", the number of constables and other police employees in a region is determined by the number of inhabitants and the amount of crime in the region. So the smallest force counts about 300 police officers, while the largest one counts more than 5000 police employees. There are about 55,000 police employees serving in the Netherlands.
Selected police officers may also be deployed in a riot police Mobile Unit. Mobile units are called in to deal with serious public order offenses. Each police region has one or more units on stand-by for a total of 45 mobile units nationwide, each of which has about 50 members (including middle-ranking and senior officers). Nine units have also been trained to respond to incidents on maritime vessels. The Mobile Unit also incorporates plain clothes units known as 'aanhoudingseenheden'. These groups target specific suspects of public order offenses.
The landelijke eenheid (National Unit, LE) is led by a unitchief, a Chief Commissioner who conducts the day-to-day police force management. Decisions about the principal law enforcement policies for the national unit are made by a national board, the triangle whose chairman is the minister of Justice and Security. The other board members of the Driehoek are the unit chief and the nationale chief prosecutor. The LE provides eleven operational services, including:
The LE is responsible for policing on the roads, waterways, railways and in the air. It also combats domestic and cross-border serious/organised crime and terrorism. For that last purpose the LE has operational command of all anti-terror police units. The national unit supports the regional police units with specialised means such as police horse and dog teams; provides witness protection. A last task is the protection of members of the Dutch Royal Family and other dignitaries (e.g., diplomats and politicians) as assigned by the authorised minister.
The Koninklijke Marechaussee (KMar) (Royal Gendarmerie) is one of the four services of the Armed forces of the Netherlands. It is a gendarmerie — that is, a military organisation which conducts the duties of a normal police force as well as being the police force to the armed forces. The Marechaussee is a fully military force under the responsibility of the Ministry of Defence. However it does not answer to the Commander of the Armed forces, but to cilvilian secretary-general of ministry of defence (to secure independence and impartiality when enforcing military law).
The RNLM performs the following duties:
The first four units are territorial, other two have national rather than regional responsibilities. The Marechaussee also provides general policing at Schiphol airport and its surrounding area -known as 'Schiphol-Rijk', in addition to border control duty at the airport itself.
The Marechaussee also carries ceremonial duties at royal palaces, such as when new diplomats present their Letters of Credence to the King, and to escort important guests.
Military tasks are to guard military (including NATO) bases, to provide police service to military personnel, to assist military transports and civil and military law enforcement. A last duty is to reinforce and support the civil police when extra manpower or a higher escalation in the use of force is needed. To this end the KMar has its own Riot units; its own teams to make arrests and the BSB (see above). The KMar has some armoured car units to perform such duties.
KMar subunits usually accompany units of the Armed forces of the Netherlands on deployment and they are especially well represented in the Police Training mission in the Afghan Kunduz province where they lead the training of the ANP.
Within the Dutch police the following ranks are in use: 
|Rank||First Chief Commissioner
|Police Patrol Officer
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Police trainees are armed with a handgun when they pass their handgun training, if not the trainee performs his/hers duties with only pepperspray, handcuffs, and baton.
The ranks within the Royal Marechaussee are:
General Officers, National Level:
Senior officers, District Level:
Officers, Brigade Level:
Basically the equipment of every Dutch police officer consists of the following:
Personnel from the rank of Constable (Agent) and also some trainees (Aspirant) carry a firearm.
The personnel serving with the Royal Marechaussee are still equipped with the Glock 17 pistol and/or the Hecker & Koch MP5.
The Dutch National Police uses a selection of motorvehicles for it's tasks. The Dutch National Police held contracts with the Volkswagen Group concerning the acquisition of its vehicles. Hence 2018 these contracts are released and the DNP is buying Mercedes-Benz and Audi as replacements for its current fleet. The vehicles the DNP uses are divided in marked and unmarked vehicles. The marked units usually are white with blue and red striping on the side and carrying a light bar on the roof. The cars are fitted with better suspension, megaphone and multiple communication devices on board. The back is fitted with a container for various hand tools. Distinct are the riot control units (ME) and the SWAT (AT) units of the DNP.
Main all-purpose patrol vehicle:
Traffic/support vehicle National Unit (LE)
Riot police transport (ME)
For various other tasks the DNP uses:
Since 2012, the new Dutch Police Law (Politiewet 2012) passed. The article which describes the police, has been changed from article 2, to article 3.
Article 3 of the Dutch Police law describes what the missions of the police are: "The task of the police is to, in subordination to the authorities and complying with applicable law, take care of the actual upholding of the legal order and to supply aid to those who need it." In practice this comes down to four main missions.
Within the police, several departments are occupied with parts of these main tasks.
The communications centre is sometimes called the heart of the police force. All calls to the emergency telephone number 112 and the national police number 0900-8844 come in here around the clock.
The people of the communications centre have to judge the calls in such a way that something is done, fast and properly. If a call is serious, an employee in the communications centre will have to directly choose which police officers are to be dispatched to the address. The communications centre employees know exactly where all the members of the force on the street are.
The calls coming into the communications centre are dispatched according to a number of criteria, resulting in so called priorities. Four priorities are defined.
The other two priorities are dispatched to the neighbourhood officer.
For a number of years, the communications centres have used the Gemeenschappelijk Meldkamer Systeem (Common Communications Centre System, GMS). This system has a lot of functions. In the first place it functions as a plotting screen which displays every unit logged in. It also has a database function for procedures and phone numbers necessary for correctly executing police work and it links to the C2000 system and the CityGIS (GPS) system.
C2000 is the digital, secure communications system and, with CityGIS, police cars can be tracked on a map using GPS, which can be reported to the communications centre using a VDO navigation system.
In the Netherlands basic police work consists of the following tasks:
The Dutch government is keen to put more and more police "on the street". This means that the use of ICT will have to be improved so that constables do not lose a lot of time noting all their observations on paper for later use. The uniformed policemen on the street are those of the patrol service.
Sometimes police patrols drive directly from the communications centre to the location where someone requested assistance. This can be a simple case of someone locking their keys inside their car, a complaint about litter or an incoveniently parked car. There are also more serious calls that need direct attention, like an accident with injuries, a stabbing, a burglary, vandalism; all events where the police has to act and reassure.
Surveillance is not only done from the patrol car, but also from a motorbike or a horse. Especially in crowded malls surveillance is often done on foot or (motor)bike. The men and women on the street have to permanently "keep their eyes open" to spot suspicious behaviour, such as someone walking around looking inside parked cars, cars without working lights or drunken cyclists.
Car owners are told that their lights are broken and why this is dangerous. A constable on foot may tell shop owners to put locks on their shelves outside to prevent shoplifting. If you report on a stolen bike, you'll be told what kind of bike locks are most effective.
The police in a municipality are available 24 hours every day for basic law enforcement. More and more often the police will visit schools to teach pupils about drug prevention, vandalism or sex on the internet. The police in a municipality make sure that what is forbidden isn't done, and that which is mandatory is actually done. They also make sure that anyone who asks for assistance gets it, supported by personnel from the district and the region. Since the early 90s several police regions have been working with neighbourhood teams called neighbourhood supervisors.
The police have powers "ordinary" people do not have; e.g., an officer can stop or arrest people, or look in a shopping bag for lifted items, or (on authorization of the assistant prosecutor) search a home for arms. The police also have the power to use force. This power is often called the "monopoly on force". The police is one of the few organisations in the Netherlands that are allowed to use force, the use of which is bound by many rules and preconditions.
The power to stop someone is often confused with the power to arrest someone. The power to stop someone is the power of the police to make someone stand still, so that the police can ask for his name and address.
The power to stop someone is the power that enables the arrest of someone. However, this power is not only granted to the police. The Code of Criminal Procedure, article 53, sub 1, reads:
In case of discovery in the act everyone is authorized to stop the suspect.
The term "in the act" meaning "when it just happened".
Stopping someone means holding the suspect while waiting for the arrival of the police. When someone is stopped, he is always brought to a police station for questioning.
The investigative powers of the police are for example described in the Police Law, the Arms and Munitions Law, the Opium Law, the Road Traffic Law 1994, the Entry Law and the Code of Criminal Procedure.
These powers are bound by very strict rules. Some of these powers may be applied by an officer himself, like the examples before. Other police powers, like wiretapping, observation or searching premises, can only be used after permission is granted by the examining judge.
When providing aid the police cooperates with other services. When dealing with an accident for example, the police cooperates with ambulance services, doctors and the fire brigade. The police also cooperate with the Koninklijke Marechaussee.
For providing support to victims the police cooperates with the Bureaus Slachtofferhulp (comparable to Victim Support). The employees of Slachtofferhulp are specially trained to provide support to victims of accidents and crime. They make sure that victims are coached, but they also help with filling in forms for insurance or a lawyer.
The police cooperates closely with support organisations that can continue providing support when the abilities of the police to do so come to an end. A few examples:
The Aruba Police Force (Dutch: Korps Politie Aruba or KPA, Papiamento: Cuerpo Policial Aruba) is the law enforcement agency of the island of Aruba. The force operates under the authority of the Minister of Justice, Immigration and Integrity.Criminal justice system of the Netherlands
The criminal justice system of the Netherlands is the system of practices and institutions of the Netherlands directed at upholding social control, deterring and mitigating crime, and sanctioning those who violate laws with criminal penalties and rehabilitation efforts. The Netherlands' criminal code is based on the Napoleonic Code, imposed during the time of the French Empire. The Dutch largely kept the Napoleonic Code after their independence, but tempered it with a significantly more rehabilitative penological focus.
Law enforcement in the Netherlands is provided by the national police force. The police make use of over 50,000 individuals, employed in a number of regional and specialist departments. The States General crafts rules to manage the police, while the Minister of Justice and Security is responsible for the central administration of the police. The national police commissioner is vested with the day-to-day management of the police force.
The judiciary comprises eleven district courts, four courts of appeal, two administrative courts (Centrale Raad van Beroep and the College van beroep voor het bedrijfsleven) and a Supreme Court that has 41 judges. All judicial appointments are made by the Government. Judges are nominally appointed for life, but in practice retire at age 70. The Council of State is a constitutionally established advisory body to the government, which consists of members of the royal family and Crown-appointed members generally having political, commercial, diplomatic, or military experience. The Supreme Court of the Netherlands is the highest court of the Netherlands, Curacao, Sint Maarten and Aruba. The Court sits in The Hague, Netherlands and presides over civil, criminal and tax-related cases.Cross Channel Intelligence Community
The Cross Channel Intelligence Community (CCIC), is a regional alliance between law enforcement agencies operating in the English Channel Coast/North Sea geographic area.The CCIC consists of representatives from the United Kingdom, France, Belgium and the Netherlands, and operates on a regional basis to deal with lower level criminality. It runs in tandem to the work of Europol, the European Union’s Criminal Intelligence Agency, which has an international rather than regional focus.Dienst Luchtvaartpolitie
The Dienst Luchtvaartpolitie (Police Aviation Service) is the aviation branch of the Dutch Korps landelijke politiediensten (KLPD; National Police Services Agency). They operate a fleet of helicopters for various law enforcement purposes and surveillance duties. They are also responsible for enforcing air law, for example by conducting alcohol checks on pilots.Dutch Caribbean Police Force
The Dutch Caribbean Police Force (Dutch: Korps Politie Caribisch Nederland or KPCN) is the law enforcement agency of the Caribbean Netherlands.Law enforcement in Suriname
There are three major law enforcement/security entities in Suriname.Life imprisonment in the Netherlands
Since the abolition of the death penalty in the Netherlands in 1870, life imprisonment has almost always meant imprisonment until death; unlike in other countries in Europe, there is no possibility of parole for anyone sentenced to life imprisonment. Though the prisoner can appeal for pardon, it must be granted by royal decree; since the 1970s, only two such pardons have been successful, both prisoners being terminally ill. Since 1945, 41 criminals (excluding war criminals) have been sentenced to life imprisonment. There has been a noticeable increase of life imprisonment sentences being given in the last decade, and more than triple the number of life imprisonment sentences in the last few years than the previous decades.
Due to the strict nature of the sentence, most "common" murders result in a sentence of around 12 to 30 years. The judicial panel (always composed of three members) is not able to award sentences of longer than 15 years' imprisonment for manslaughter alone (so not combined with other facts constituting an offence), so if malice aforethought has not been proven, a criminal will never receive a sentence of longer than 15 years. The only life sentence for a single murder without aggravating circumstances was given in 2005 to Mohammed Bouyeri for the murder of Dutch film director Theo van Gogh, due to its strong political nature. In all other cases, there has been circumstances of recurrence (murder committed after sentencing for another murder), multitude (several murders) or severe gravity to the crime (i.e. torture murder).Marechaussee Museum
The Marechaussee Museum (Dutch - Marechausseemuseum) or Royal Marechaussee Museum (Museum der Koninklijke Marechaussee) is a museum on the history of the Royal Marechaussee of the Netherlands from its foundation by William I of the Netherlands on 26th October 1814 until the present day. It is based in the former Koninklijk Weeshuis in Buren, originally opened as an orphanage on 26 May 1612 by Maria van Nassau and remaining in that role until 1953.
It is the oldest police museum in the Netherlands and on 7 December 2005 was added to the 'Museumregister Nederland'. It and four other major Dutch military museums are overseen by the Koninklijke Stichting Defensiemusea.Outline of the Netherlands
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to the Netherlands.
The Netherlands ( (listen); Dutch: Nederland, pronounced [ˈneːdərlɑnt] (listen)) comprises the mainland located in Northwest Europe and several islands located in the Caribbean that, together with Aruba, Curaçao and Sint Maarten in the Caribbean Sea, constitute the sovereign Kingdom of the Netherlands. The Netherlands is a parliamentary democratic constitutional monarchy. Its European mainland is bordered by the North Sea to the north and west, Belgium to the south, and Germany to the east.
The European Netherlands constitutes the vast majority (by land area and population) of both the country and the Kingdom of the Netherlands, and as such 'the Netherlands' in common parlance often implicitly refers to this entity. Similarly, the articles linked to below predominately consider the European Netherlands.Outline of the Netherlands Antilles
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to the Netherlands Antilles:
The Netherlands Antilles (Dutch: Nederlandse Antillen , Papiamento: Antia Hulandes) was an autonomous Caribbean country within the Kingdom of the Netherlands, consisting of two groups of islands in the Lesser Antilles: Aruba, Curaçao and Bonaire, in Leeward Antilles just off the Venezuelan coast; and Sint Eustatius, Saba and Sint Maarten, in the Leeward Islands southeast of the Virgin Islands. Aruba seceded in 1986 as a separate country within the Kingdom of the Netherlands, and the rest of the Netherlands Antilles was dissolved on 10 October 2010, resulting in two new constituent countries, Curaçao and Sint Maarten, with the other islands joining the Netherlands as special municipalities.Pieter Baan Centre
The Pieter Baan Centre (Pieter Baan Centrum) is a forensic psychiatric observation clinic in Utrecht, Netherlands, operated by the Ministry of Security and Justice, where suspects of crimes in the Netherlands are observed to ascertain whether they can be held wholly responsible for their suspected crimes. When suspects are found guilty, but performed their crimes while suffering from some sort of psychiatric or psychological disorder, they may be applicable for involuntary commitment (in Dutch terbeschikkingstelling or TBS), which means To be held at disposal. This is a special measure for crimes which are committed under psychologically abnormal circumstances. The purpose is to treat the perpetrator rather than to punish them and to work towards their reintegration into society.
The TBS measure is usually enacted after about one third to half of the prison sentence has been served, thought this practice is now (as of medio 2010) under review.
The duration of TBS terms are decided upon by the treatment staff in concordance with the Ministry of Justice and can last decades. For this reason perpetrators not always cooperate with the observations of the Pieter Baan Centre.
Since 2007 the clinic is part of the Netherlands Institute for Forensic Psychiatry and Psychology (NIFP).Police firearm use by country
The use of firearms by police forces varies widely across the world, in part due to differences in gun use policy, civilian firearm laws, and recording of police activity. Police may require that officers use warning shots before aiming on-target, officers may need to make verbal warnings before using their firearms, and officers may be prohibited from carrying weapons while performing tasks such as highway patrol where gun use is not expected.Schout
In Dutch-speaking areas, a schout was a local official appointed to carry out administrative, law enforcement and prosecutorial tasks. The office was abolished with the introduction of administrative reforms during the Napoleonic period.
Law enforcement in the Netherlands
Part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands
|States with limited|
Law enforcement in the Caribbean